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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-07-20
    Description: The influence of different dietary levels of plant protein (30, 50 and 70%) on growth indices of White Leg Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) fed with an original 38 percent protein was assessed and compared with that of the commercial shrimp diet. The average weight gain at the end of the culture period in treatment 1 (30% plant protein and 70% animal protein), was 5.89 plus or minus 0.06 grams, for treatment 2 (50% plant protein and 50% animal protein), was 6.22 plus or minus 0.25 grams, for treatment 3 (70% plant protein and 30% animal protein), was 6.19 plus or minus 0.24 grams and for the control treatment (20% plant protein and 80% animal protein), was 6.42 plus or minus 0.40 grams. Our study of the influence of experimental and control diets on growth indices including growth rate (GR), food conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), specific growth rate (SGR), and average daily gain (ADG), demonstrated that the indices were better in the control compared to the treatments. No significant difference was found among the treatments and between the treatments and the control for the indices (P〉0.05). The percent of net protein utilization (NPU) in treatment 1 was significantly more than other treatments (P〈0.05). We also found that the application of diets containing 50% plant protein (with 20% soybean meal) and 70% plant protein (with 41.72% soybean meal) can decrease diet costs. Cost of one kilogram of pellet in treatments 1, 2, 3 were 83.3%, 68.3% and 53.3% lower than the control diet respectively. Decrease of cost in treatment 2 and 3, in comparison to control in terms of lowering shrimp production cost is very important.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-09-12
    Description: This study has been carried out in waters of Bushehr province in the Persian Gulf covering Nayband bay to Bahregansar between 26° 45 N to 30° 00 N and 49° 45 E to 52° 45 E, 15 main and 5 sub- stations, by R/V Ferdows 1 in winter 2004, summer 2004 and winter 2005. The physico - chemical parameters, nutrients (silicate, phosphate, nitrate and nitrite), phyto, zooplanktons, sediments and macrobenthoses were collected from water layers and sea bottom, and then analysed. The parameters were compared and evaluated with the results of the previous work, conducted in the same area. Termocline, halocline, oxycline and picnocline layers were formed in summer. These clins disappeared due to water column mixing in winter. The values of temperature, conductivity and pH in summer were higher than those of in winter, while the salinity and density values of surface and subsurface layers in winter were higher than those of in summer. The temperature and conductivity have been decreased from surface to depth, from coastal rigions to offshore and from southern waters to northwern waters, while salinity, density and turbidity have been increased. The dissolved oxygen is decreased by increasing the values of temperature, salinity and depth and it is observed that D.O. has increased in correlation with chlorophyl a in mean and subsurface layers. The pH was rather decreased from surface to depth while turbidity was increased. Orthosilicate (Si_SiO44), nitrate (N_NO3), and nitrite (N_NO2 ) concentration have increased from surface to depth while orthophostate (P_PO43) decreased. Among the phytoplanktons, Dinophycea had most abundance in winter 2004 and Diatoms had most abundance, variety and distribution in summer 2004 and winter 2005. Among the zooplanktons, Copeopda had most abundance, variety and distribution. The intensity of phytoplanktons in summer was more than those in winter; it decreased from surface to depth and from coastal rigions to offshore, at first increased and then gradually decreases. Intensity of zooplanktons in summer was more than those in winter and decreased from surface layers to depth and from coastal waters to offshore. The abundance of benthoses in summer was more than that in winter while their biomass in winter was more than that in summer. The abundance decreased from southern to northwern waters, but the rate of decrease in biomass was more than that of abundance. The mainly texture of sediments was loamy or muddy and the grain size in southeastern and northwestern areas were coarser than those in middle area. Compared with the previous study, the trend of physico chemical, silicate, nitrate and nitrite were the same but in spite of the past, the values of pH in summer were more than those in winter and also phosphate concentration had been decreased frome surface layer to depth. The overall trends of phyto and zooplanktons densities are almost similar to previous observation, but cyanophyceae significantly decreased, in comparison with spring and summer abundance. It is also observed that the zooplanktons average density has been in reverse order compared to previous observations. Average concentration of phosphate in the entire region was seven times more than that of the former study and its maximum value has rised more than 26 times in the petroleum and gas industries areas. On the other hand, the abundance and diversity of phyto and zooplanktons and also the ratio of biomass to abundance of benthoses were decreased.
    Keywords: Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-08-23
    Description: In order to investigate some ecological condition of the waters of Bushehr province in the Persian gulf between 50~'-01 E to 52~'-47 E and 26~'-39 N to 29~'-03 N, 18 major and 16 minor stations have been studied from Nayband bay to Kharg Island, using R.V. Ferdows 1. There have been a preliminary survey in winter 2001, 4 seasonal surveys in 2001-2 and a complementary one in summer 2002. During this period the seasonal environmental conditions, physico-chemical parameters, zoo and phytoplankton concentrations in water layers, macrobenthoses and sediments were studied. Sea bed swelling in the Motaf region has resulted in division of the area in two parts and in a such away that the climatic and chemico-physical conditions in the southeast area are different from the northwest area. In the southeast area the termocline, halocline, picnocline and oxycline are generated in spring, increased in summer, moved down to the deeper layers in fall and disappeared in the winter. In the Northwest area the clines are only formed in spring and summer but disappear in fall and winter due to almost perfect water column mixing resulted from climatological conditions. During survey period the water temperature ranged from 18 34.1~'C, salinity 37.9 41.3 ppt, conductivity 51.3 70.4 ms/cm, sigma〈sub〉T〈/sub〉 23.1 30.2 g/cm〈super〉3〈/super〉, dissolved oxygen 0.2 8 ppm, and chlorophyll a 0.1 3.6 mg/m〈super〉3〈/super〉. It is observed that salinity, conductivity and sigma〈sub〉T〈/sub〉 have increased from surface to depeer layer, while oxygen and chlorophyll a had a pick in mean layers but temperature have decreased from surface to the depth. Temperature and conductivity decreased from southeast to the northwest and from costal to offshore. Salinity and sigma〈sub〉T〈/sub〉 increased from southeast to the northwest. Dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll-a did not show any trend. The concentration of nutrients including ortho silicate (Si-SiO〈sub〉4〈/sub〉〈super〉- 4〈/super〉), ortho phosphosphate (P PO〈sub〉4〈/sub〉〈super〉-4〈/super〉), nitrate (N NO〈sub〉3〈/sub〉〈super〉-〈/super〉 ) and nitrite (N NO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉〈super〉-〈/super〉 ) varied between 0.4 13.3, 0.05 1.6, 0.1 12.3 and 0.1 1.4 ~kmol/l, respectively. The overall nutrient concentrations increased from surface to depth. 61 genuses of 5 phytoplankton groups and 8 branches, 12 classes of zooplankton were identified. The identified phytoplanktons included 42 Diatom, 16 Dinophyceae, 3 Cyanophyceae, one Chrysophyceae and one Euglenaphyceae geneses. The highest intensity of phytoplanktons was recorded in summer, while in the case of zooplankton, was recorded in spring. Diatoms had the highest variety in all seasons and the maximum abundance in fall and winter. Cyanophyceaes were predominant group in the spring and summer. On the contrary to zooplanktons, the intensity of phytoplanktons decreased from coastal to the offshore waters. The highest intensity of all planktons (zoo and phyto) was in 10-20 m layer. The intensity of phyto plankton increased from southeast towards northwest. The zooplankton concentration didn t follow any particular trend. The identified macrobenthoses were 69 families including 34 polychaets, 22 gastropods, 10 of bivalvs, 1 crustacean, 1 scaphopoda, 1 foraminifera, 5 classes and 6 orders of crustacea, 1 order of echinodermata, 1 fish larva and 6 branches of other benthoses. Intensity and biomass of all groups were determined. The polychaets and malacostraca had the most abundance in contrast to the other groups. Macrobenthosis intensity decreased from coast to the offshore in southeast of Motaf region, while the middle stations of northwest of Motaf had a better intensity. The mean abundance and biomass of total area decreased from coast to the offshore, and the slope of decrease in biomass was more than abundance. Seasonal minimum and maximum abundance ranged from 1457 to 1903 per square meter in spring and winter, and the biomass ranged between 7.8-10.8 g/m〈super〉2〈/super〉 in summer and spring, respectively. In spite of high abundance of macrobenthose in the transect no: 13, the estimated biomass was lower than other transects. This might be due to prolonged exposition to more pollutant. The grain size of sediments was classified as gravel, sand, silt and clay. The organic matter of sediments ranged from 1.12 3.3% with annual average of 1.6%. The grain size of sediments in southeastern point was coarser than other areas. The middle stations of northwestern area had fine grain and more organic matter in contrast to the offshore and coastal stations.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-08-26
    Description: The influence of different percent’s of plant protein (30, 50 and 70) in the diet of white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) with 38 percent protein, in comparison with a commercial shrimp diet (Fenneropenaeus indicus) with 39 percent protein (contain20 percent plant protein) was studied. Initial weight of shrimp was 10±1 gram. The average increase of shrimp weight in the end of culture period in experimental treatment 1 (contain 30 percent plant protein and 70 percent animal protein), 5.89±0.06 gram, experimental treatment 2 (contain 50 percent plant protein and 50 percent animal protein), 6.22±0.25 gram, experimental treatment 3 (contain 70 percent plant protein and 30 percent animal protein) 6/19±0/24 gram and in the control treatment (contain 20 percent plant protein and 80 percent animal protein) 6/42±0/40 were measured. Generally in the study of influence of experimental diets and control diet on the growth rate(GR), food conversion rate (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), specific growth rate (SGR), average daily gain (ADG), demonstrate that, mentioned parameters in the control treatment is better than experimental treatments. But no significant difference measured between them (p〉0/05). Also results showed that, application of diets contain 50 percent of plant protein (with 22 percent soybean meal), and 70 percent of plant protein (with 72 percent soybean meal), can decrease costs of diet preparation and therefore shrimp production.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-09-05
    Description: In order to domesticate Litopenaeus vannamei as a solution to single species shrimp aquaculture of Penaeus indicus and to reduce risk of shrimp culture in emergency cases, this study was carried out. Initially the postlarvae reared from imported L. vannamei were cultured. After culture season the adult shrimps were transported to greenhouse ponds for wintering. It is then relocated to hatchery saloon. After eye stalk ablation and maturation the female brood stocks were introduced to matured male for copulation at ponds. During the study period, male and female shrimp’s attained full maturation at end – April by temperature over 25ºC, the copulation process was started significantly. Finally of the 12 instances of copulation, one instance resulted nauplii production. The best maturation was observed at 28 ֯C ±1 and salinity30 to 33PPT and pH of 8 to 8.3 Fresh sea worms and squid showed the highest effect on fecundity in brood stocks. Besides, the spring season was obtained to be the best period for brood stock production in Bushehr province.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-09-05
    Description: Increasing of biodiversity and reduction of production costs and alo increasing of shrimp production are the main elements of production security and continuation of aquaculture of shrimp in the country. The hypothesis of this study is made on the basis of aquaculture of pacific white legged prawn, litopenaeus vannamei, and that is economically better than Indian white prawn in Bushehr area. This study was carried out with the objectives of determination of bionormatives of pacific white legget prawn and yield estimation per square meter and has been compared with Indian white prawn. During 1384-85. In this study, the field operations were carried out after primary preparation and water enrichment with the juvenile prawn (pL 15) with 20 prawn per squar meter in the 3 ponds. During the study the phisico-chemical parameters such as water temperature, ocsysion, pH,two times per day , in the morning and evening and salinity , transpiration and depth water , only one time in a day were measured .The health of prawns and also sampling for the calculation of body weight were carried out in every 10 days . Feeding in the first month was randomly and after that was being continued based on the mean of the body weight. The results of this study have showed that the growth of this species is very fast so that during 90 days with the capacity of 20 prawns per squar , meter, it can be reached to 19.59 gr body weight with the growth rate of 0.217 gr . The mean of total production was 2737.5 kg per hectar with FCR=1. During this study the salinity from 33 ppt to 54 ppt, water temperature from 24.3°c to 35.2°c, occsysion from 2.4 to 11.89 mg/l , pH from 7.83 to 9.01 , transparency from 35 cm to 90 cm and water depth from 100cm to 145 cm were measured and recorded . In the second year, the comparison of growth rate of white legged prawn and Indian white prawn was carried out in the four ponds. The results of this study showed that during 110 days. White legged prawns was reached to average of body weight 14.66 gr and Indian white shrimp, reached to 10.75 gr. The economical assessment showed that white legged prawn has an economical advantage around 2.59 times during 110 days with the capacity of 35 prawns per hectar.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-09-05
    Description: To introduce the native commercial shrimp species to aquaculture industry, the Iranian Fisheries Research Organization conducted a project to investigate the possibility of reproduction and cultivation of the banana shrimp (Penaeus merguensis). The present work has been carried out from 21st March 2001 in two phase, reproduction and cultivation, in Iran Shrimp Research Center. The main objectives of this study was to find the possibility of reproduction and cultivation of banana shrimp with emphasis on its cost and benefit and to find if this species could be introduced to aquaculture industry in Iran. In this work, 42 brood stocks of banana shrimp caught in Jask waters and were transported to Bushehr. The shrimps were reproduced in aquaculture research station, and then cultivated in 0.4 ha ponds in Heleh region. Most of the broodstocks perished, due to long distance of Jask from Bushehr province, or had problem in hatching. Finally 8 of broodstock shrimps spawned. In 3 cases, the reared naplii larva suffered high mortality, but the other 5 spawner’s bread successfully. The post larvae were introduced to the shrimp ponds. The primary stocking was 360,000 larvae, introduced to each of two 4 m 3 tanks. The survival in both tanks for mysis stage was 83% but for PL stages, the survival was 5% for Tank 1 due to disease outbreak (until PL 24), and 62% for Tank 2. On 10 th June 2001 the PL 24 were stocked into the ponds but unfortunately due to adaptation problem, all of the shrimps perished. It seems that banana shrimp couldn’t to be adapted to the pond condition in Heleh region. On the basis of the results, the reproduction of the banana shrimps is achievable, but broodstocks needs to be transferred to reproduction areas as soon as possible to reduce stress on the shrimps. Our finding shows that the optimum conditions of salinity and temperature for growth of the reared banana shrimp in Heleh region is 33ppt and 30 °C, respectively.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-10-07
    Description: For the successful breeding of western white shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei) brooders (females and males), we used cuttle fish (Sepia pharaonis) and sand worm (Perinereis nuntica) of Persian Gulf as principle feeds, 3 times a day, and from cow livier and edible bivalve meat (Solen brevis) of Persian Gulf, as secondary feeds, 1 time a day. Nutritional value of Sepia pharaonis, Perinereis nuntica and Solen brevis, with determination of the amount of fatty acids such as arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), stearic acid (18:00), oleic acid (18:1n-9), palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid, essential amino acids inclusive arginine, lysine, leucine, isoleusine, threonine, valine, histidine, phenylalanine, methionine, tryptophane and crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, ash and moisture were done in laboratory. The results showed that, the amount of essential amino acides and nonessential amino acides (in the more causes) in Sepia pharaonis were more than Solen brevis and in Solen brevis more than Perinereis nuntica. Only nonessential amino acides, glysine and alanine in Solen brevis were more than Sepia pharaonis. Also in chemical analysis of wet feeds determined that, crude protein percent in cattle fish was 2.9 times and 2.2 times more than Solen brevis and Perinereis nuntica, respectively. The crude fat in cattle fish was 2.1 times and 1.6 times more than Solen brevis and Perinereis nuntica respectively. Tottaly, the amount of essential fatty acides in Sepia pharaonis and Perinereis nuntica were more than Solen brevis, and in Sepia pharaonis and Perinereis nuntica were almost, equal. Total lipids of Sepia pharaonis, Perinereis nuntica and Solen brevis determined 7.92, 5.90 and 3.63 percent respectively. Totally the percent of fatty acids in cattle fish and Perinereis nuntica is almost equal and was more than Solen brevis meat. We can noted that, the Sepia pharaonis and Perinereis nuntica are suitable as principle feed and Solen brevis and cow livier, as secondary feed for L.vannamei broodstock maturation.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-10-13
    Description: At present, the aquaculture industry to provide proper instructions in the field of health management, including production of Specific Pathogen Free shrimp (SPF), require sensitive and reliable methods for the detection and identification of pathogenic microorganisms. Molecular methods which used in the detection of microorganisms have a high discriminatory power in the taxonomy and in relation to libraries in the world. On the other hand, the accurate identification of microorganisms, providing the genetic data bank of shrimp pathogens and maintenance of these strains is the step to promote further research on the mechanisms of pathogenesis of pathogens, diagnosis, treatment, prevention of disease, identify indigenous production kits, diagnosis re emerging and emerging diseases and their origin. Therefore, in this project, by using ribotyping technique, native isolated pathogenic bacteria and fungi were identified and recorded in the gene bank database center. During sampling of shrimp and water of Specific Pathogen Free shrimp center, 40 bacterial strains were isolated, which 8 of them had the most frequency and identification based on 16S rDNA sequencing was performed. Bacteria identified are: Vibrio nigripulchritudo strain IS013(GenBank:KP843725), Vibrio brasiliensis strain IS014 (GenBank:KR186076), Vibrio rotiferianus strain IS015 (GenBank:KR186077), Vibrio azureus strain IS012 (GenBank:KJ018724.1), Vibrio owensii strain IS016 (GenBank:KR186078), Agarivorans gilvus strain IS017 (GenBank:KR186079), Vibrio brasiliensis IS018 (GenBank:KR186080) and Vibrio alginolyticus strain IS019 (GenBank:1817854), which were recorded in The World Bank genes. In this study fungal isolates were not detected.
    Keywords: Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-10-10
    Description: Risks assessment of laboratories of National Fish Processing Research Center was done in 2014 and 2015 to determine the risk factors, potential risks and provide action plans to prevent the occurrence of any risks and increasing awareness of staff to safety issues. All laboratories: Chemistry, Microbiology, sensitive assessment and physical were visited and all factors were evaluated. The method for evaluation was with Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) methods. The assessment process was designed and implemented in two phases, the first phase was the current situation of safety indexes, risks identification and distance to laboratory safety parameters included: working environment, physical factors, test methods and the human factors were done, then risk assessment and risk management of identified risks were followed by check list forms. The second phase was based on the findings, control measures and safety guidelines were done and provided. the highest risk score related to Microbiology laboratory with RPN 540 and then chemistry 360, because of the nature of sensory laboratory was not evaluated and There was no experiments in the physics laboratory and was ignored. After control measures, the risk number of laboratories decreased as follows: Microbiology to 18, chemistry to 12.
    Keywords: Information Management ; Management
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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