Sediments samples were collected using Veen Grab Sampler (0.1 square meter) at 8 transects namely Astara, Anzali, Sefidroud, Tonekabon, Noshahr, Babolsar, Amirabad, Torkman in the southern of Caspian Sea. Five stations were selected at 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 meter depths in each transect. Sediments were sampled triplicate at each station. Samples also were collected during four seasons (spring (May), summer (July), fall (November) and winter (January)) in 2009. Results of this study showed that species composition of Macrobenthos consisted of 32 species which belonged to 7 families of Polychaeta, Crustacea and Bivalvia at studied area. In addition, Oligochaeta identified in “Class”, Chironomidae considered in Insecta categories “Family” and Streblospio spp. (Polychaeta) was recognized in “Genus”. Gammaridae and Pseudocumidae of Crustacea with 12 and 10 species had the highest species diversity compared to other groups, respectively. Polychaeta was consisted 75.5 percent of total abundance of macrobenthos which the major abundance (equal 62.4% of total abundance) were belong to Streblospio spp. from Spionidae family, while its biomass was equals 5.11% of total macrobenthos. In contrast, Cerastoderma lamarcki species from Bivalvia Class with only 1.7% of total abundance of macrobenthos allocated 69 percent of total biomass. In the southern of Caspian Sea, average total abundance was significantly less at 4 western transects (Astara, Anzali, Sefidroud, Tonekabon) compared to 4 eastern transects (Noshahr, Babolsar, Amirabad, Torkman) (p〈0.05). The highest average abundance of macrobenthos (10655±1246SE ind/m^2) was observed at transect of Torkman, and lowest value (4032 ± 686SE ind/m^2) was recorded at transect of Sefidroud (p〈 0.05). Generally, minimum species diversity were obtained at 20 m depth in all transects and the maximum value was observed at 5 m depth in most of transects (p〈0.05). In contrary, maximum average abundance of Macrobenthoses was at 20 m depth in transects of Anzali, Sefidroud, Tonekabon, Nowshahr and Amirabad compared to other depths. Macrobenthoses abundance average in 5 m depth (except Astara and Torkman) was less than other depths in 6 transect (p 〈 0.05). Total average abundance and biomass of macrobenthos was 5976±583SE ind/m^2 and 43.675 ± 11.402SE gr/ m^2, respectively. Maximum and minimum of abundance of macrobenthos were observed in summer (7714±778 ind/m^2) and winter (4071 ± 340 ind/m^2), respectively. Maximum and minimum of biomass of macrobenthos were obtained in fall (50.271±13.258SE gr/ m^2) and in summer (35.123 ± 8.903SE gr/ m^2), respectively (p〈 0.05). Percent of total organic matter (TOM) were low in 5 and 10 m depths and increased toward offshore depths. TOM percent was 2.06±0.11SE at 10 m depth and increased to 4.62 ±0.17SE in 100 m depth. Percent of silt and clay (grains size less than 63 micron) had positive significantly correlation with percent of TOM (p〈0.01).While they had negative significantly correlation with percent of sand (grains size between 63 and 1000 micron) (p〈0.01). Percent of silt and clay like organic matter, had ascending trend toward to depth increased and varied from 44.4 ± 4.06SE percent in 5 m depth to 96.5 ± 0.59SE percent in 100 m depth. In contrast, percent of sand decreased toward depth and varied from 54.5 ± 4.13SE percent in 5 m depth to 2.8 ± 0.53SE percent in 100 m depth. Result of current study showed that total abundance of macrobenthoses had positive significantly correlation with TOM percent (p〈0.01) and silt/clay percent (p〈0.05). Abundance of Oligochaeta had positive significantly correlation (p〈 0.01) with TOM and silt/clay percent. Two groups of Polychaeta, Gammaridae and Cerastoderma lamarcki had negative significantly correlation with TOM and silt/clay percent (p〈 0.01), and every four aforementioned groups had positive significantly correlation with sand percent (p〈 0.01). Overall, different correlation between abundance of various macrobenthos groups and TOM percent and type of grain size of sediment could be related to fluctuation of abundance of various macrobenthos groups at difference transects and depths. On the other hand, in study area were occurred simultaneously some phenomena such as increased abundance of Oligochaeta and Polychaeta, dominance of Streblospio Genuse (Polychaeta group), and decreases abundance of Bivalvia and appearance of Menemiopsis leidyi which need to study more and monitoring of this area.
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