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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-04-01
    Print ISSN: 0022-1694
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-2707
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-11-06
    Description: Trust has been used in family business research mostly to explain firm performance or as a characteristic of family businesses. Despite this interest to trust, theories and evidence accumulating on trust in family business is not well integrated and that the literature as a whole lacks coherence. The study, focuses on conceptualizations and operationalization of trust, addresses some issues relating to trust and represents an empirical research to investigate parts and contents of trust within family businesses. Our findings support our belief, decision and action models. The results suggest that contents of trust determine the trustor’s perception of other party’s trustworthiness in family businesses. There is a necessity to follow integrated model of trust in future family business researches, since trust is an important factor in this field and need to be investigated more coherently.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. ; Stafa-Zurich, Switzerland
    Advanced materials research Vol. 41-42 (Apr. 2008), p. 491-497 
    ISSN: 1662-8985
    Source: Scientific.Net: Materials Science & Technology / Trans Tech Publications Archiv 1984-2008
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: In the result of corrosion phenomena in automotive metallic fuel tank, a layer of rust which consistsof hard and micronized oxide grits with low cohesion and adhesion could appear. Through gasolinedelivery from fuel tank to chamber of combustion, these hard and micronized grits could causeerosion and service problem for the components in this rout.In concept of after sale services, some defective parts such as fuel tank, injector pump,nozzle of injector and etc, needs to be repaired or changed due to the corrosion.In this article in order to improvement of corrosion resistance, some investigations into therecognition and assessment of corrosion in which relative these parts have been done. The corrosionmechanisms such as galvanic corrosion, general corrosion have been recognized. Based on thisinformation modification and improvement are concentrated in field of welding, plating showedconsiderable improvement in corrosion resistance
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-07-25
    Description: Extraction of omega-3 fatty acids from Kilka fish oil was conducted at the laboratory scale. Extraction and purification of raw and refined Kilka oil were done in three temperatures (1, -5 and -10C) using urea complex method. The results indicated that maximum extraction of fatty acids were achieved at 1C and during the experiment, omega-3 ratio was increased while the saturated fatty acid and long chain monosaturated fatty acids were decreased. The mean value of omega-3 acids for the refined and raw fish oil was 29.28% and 26.05% respectively. The extraction and purification increased omega-3 fatty acids in the refined and raw fish oil to 79.8% and 68.9% respectively. Moreover, the maximum rate of pure fatty acids was also 80.51% and 69.29%. The statistical analysis showed that omega-3 ratio before and after extraction as well as purification, were significantly different (P〈0.04 for raw and P〈0.03 for refined fish oil). In conclusion, we can say that the fatty acids purification by urea complex was fully successful and it has the potential to be used in fish oil extraction pilot plants.
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-09-20
    Description: Sediments samples were collected using Veen Grab Sampler (0.1 square meter) at 8 transects namely Astara, Anzali, Sefidroud, Tonekabon, Noshahr, Babolsar, Amirabad, Torkman in the southern of Caspian Sea. Five stations were selected at 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 meter depths in each transect. Sediments were sampled triplicate at each station. Samples also were collected during four seasons (spring (May), summer (July), fall (November) and winter (January)) in 2009. Results of this study showed that species composition of Macrobenthos consisted of 32 species which belonged to 7 families of Polychaeta, Crustacea and Bivalvia at studied area. In addition, Oligochaeta identified in “Class”, Chironomidae considered in Insecta categories “Family” and Streblospio spp. (Polychaeta) was recognized in “Genus”. Gammaridae and Pseudocumidae of Crustacea with 12 and 10 species had the highest species diversity compared to other groups, respectively. Polychaeta was consisted 75.5 percent of total abundance of macrobenthos which the major abundance (equal 62.4% of total abundance) were belong to Streblospio spp. from Spionidae family, while its biomass was equals 5.11% of total macrobenthos. In contrast, Cerastoderma lamarcki species from Bivalvia Class with only 1.7% of total abundance of macrobenthos allocated 69 percent of total biomass. In the southern of Caspian Sea, average total abundance was significantly less at 4 western transects (Astara, Anzali, Sefidroud, Tonekabon) compared to 4 eastern transects (Noshahr, Babolsar, Amirabad, Torkman) (p〈0.05). The highest average abundance of macrobenthos (10655±1246SE ind/m^2) was observed at transect of Torkman, and lowest value (4032 ± 686SE ind/m^2) was recorded at transect of Sefidroud (p〈 0.05). Generally, minimum species diversity were obtained at 20 m depth in all transects and the maximum value was observed at 5 m depth in most of transects (p〈0.05). In contrary, maximum average abundance of Macrobenthoses was at 20 m depth in transects of Anzali, Sefidroud, Tonekabon, Nowshahr and Amirabad compared to other depths. Macrobenthoses abundance average in 5 m depth (except Astara and Torkman) was less than other depths in 6 transect (p 〈 0.05). Total average abundance and biomass of macrobenthos was 5976±583SE ind/m^2 and 43.675 ± 11.402SE gr/ m^2, respectively. Maximum and minimum of abundance of macrobenthos were observed in summer (7714±778 ind/m^2) and winter (4071 ± 340 ind/m^2), respectively. Maximum and minimum of biomass of macrobenthos were obtained in fall (50.271±13.258SE gr/ m^2) and in summer (35.123 ± 8.903SE gr/ m^2), respectively (p〈 0.05). Percent of total organic matter (TOM) were low in 5 and 10 m depths and increased toward offshore depths. TOM percent was 2.06±0.11SE at 10 m depth and increased to 4.62 ±0.17SE in 100 m depth. Percent of silt and clay (grains size less than 63 micron) had positive significantly correlation with percent of TOM (p〈0.01).While they had negative significantly correlation with percent of sand (grains size between 63 and 1000 micron) (p〈0.01). Percent of silt and clay like organic matter, had ascending trend toward to depth increased and varied from 44.4 ± 4.06SE percent in 5 m depth to 96.5 ± 0.59SE percent in 100 m depth. In contrast, percent of sand decreased toward depth and varied from 54.5 ± 4.13SE percent in 5 m depth to 2.8 ± 0.53SE percent in 100 m depth. Result of current study showed that total abundance of macrobenthoses had positive significantly correlation with TOM percent (p〈0.01) and silt/clay percent (p〈0.05). Abundance of Oligochaeta had positive significantly correlation (p〈 0.01) with TOM and silt/clay percent. Two groups of Polychaeta, Gammaridae and Cerastoderma lamarcki had negative significantly correlation with TOM and silt/clay percent (p〈 0.01), and every four aforementioned groups had positive significantly correlation with sand percent (p〈 0.01). Overall, different correlation between abundance of various macrobenthos groups and TOM percent and type of grain size of sediment could be related to fluctuation of abundance of various macrobenthos groups at difference transects and depths. On the other hand, in study area were occurred simultaneously some phenomena such as increased abundance of Oligochaeta and Polychaeta, dominance of Streblospio Genuse (Polychaeta group), and decreases abundance of Bivalvia and appearance of Menemiopsis leidyi which need to study more and monitoring of this area.
    Keywords: Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-07-12
    Description: In this project various amounts of Potassium Sorbate were employed to prows of 144 cans of sevruga caviar grade 1 & 2 with the ultimate of preserving temperature (-2,-3°C) to modify the quality of the product during 1 year of research period (1992-1993). 100 samples of Caviar were drawn at one month interval during 6 months to evaluate the quality changes or Caviar in comparison with the blank changes in total bacterial count, Pheochrophilic bacteria, coliforms, Fungi, Staphilococ aureus, E.coli, Cl, Perfringens, Salmonella, total volatile nitrogen, Peroxide value, pH, NaCl %, Potassium Sorbate %, Color, Odor, taste and stability of Caviar were determined. The study indicates that the quality of Caviar with Potassium Sorbate was significantly different from caviar without preserves, Caviar with 2000 P.P.M Potassium Sorbate had the better quality.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-08-02
    Description: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the quality of preserved kilka for human consumption. The different preservation methods (CSW and crushed ice) were used and the results were compared with the traditional method. Two main parameters (TVN and Histamine) of collected samples were measured in different preservation-time, namely: a) Time zero (after fishing), b) T5 and T10 (5 and 10 hours duration from fishing ground to processing room). The mean value of Histamine of T10 (10 hours after fishing) for traditional, CSW and crushed ice methods were determined 10.3, 2.2 and 1.5mg/100, respectively. On the other hand, the measured TVN values above mentioned methods were 22.3, 19.0 and 17.0 mg/100, respectively. The results showed a significant difference between the traditional method and two other methods (P〈0.05) but (here was no significant between CSW and crushed ice methods. Since, the preserved kilkas in the CSW showed higher quality, therefore, it is proposed that tor using kilka as human consumption, they showed be preferably preserved in chilled sea water after fishing.
    Keywords: Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-08-26
    Description: The alarming rate of population growth has increased the demand for food production in third-world countries leading to a yawning gap in demand and supply. This has led to an increase in the number of hungry and chronically malnourished people. This situation has created a demand for the formulation of innovative and alternative proteinaceous food sources. Single cell protein production is a major step in this direction. SCP is the protein extracted from cultivated microbial biomass. Algae, fungi and bacteria are the chief sources of microbial protein that can be utilized as SCP. Produced proteins from these microbes have various nutrition values. SCP is the manufacture of cell mass using microorganisms by culturing on available agriculture, industrial wastes and fisheries by products. Fish wastes due to high protein are the most important substrates for SCP production. In this study, SCP production was done from Silver carp and tuna fish wastes (head, tail and vise versa) and cooked water of canned tuna factories. The used microbes were six genus and species of yeasts include Candida utilis, Saccharomyces cereviceae, Rhodotorula, Khyveromyces marxians, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Bacillus subtilis and B.licheniformis. The examination was done in bench scale and CSTR bioreactor (Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor). The effects of various parameters such as pH, temperature, time, supplemented substrates, method of inoculation of microbes, rpm were evaluated. Changes of microbial growth and protein contents were tested by using Optical Density (OD) and Makrokjeldal methods respectively. In end of examination, produced protein were extracted and lyophilized. The results showed that protein percentage in bacterial protein was than yeast protein but wet percentage in bacterial protein was low. Production value produced from tuna fish wastes was higher than (30-45 g/l) to Silver carp wastes (25-29 g/l) and cooked water (10-15 g/l). By adding supplemented substrates, production value has been increased. Candida utilis, in comparison other yeasts, has high activation. B.licheniformis has also had more activation than Bacillus subtilis. The results of the effect some parameters on fermentation showed that yeasts and Bacillus in pH= 5.4 and 32oC and pH=6.9 and 35oC were better than growth pH=6 and 25oC and pH=6.5 and 30oC respectively. Time of fermentation in batch and bioreactor was 54 and 21 hours respectively. High rpm has been caused increasing of microbial growth in bioreactor. The conclusion showed that with optimizing of the growth condition such as some parameters (pH, temperature, substrates and so on) produced SCP with high efficiency. However, produced SCP should be exanimated with other specific tests such as amino acid and fatty acid profiles, minerals, nucleic acids and so on. After full examination, this SCP as probiotic could be used in fish and poultry feed.
    Keywords: Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-09-03
    Description: The present project in related to survey of factors and hydrology and hydrochemical features (water temperature, dissolve oxygen saturation, pH, clearance, salinity, nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon) hydrobiology (zooplankton, phytoplankton, macrobenthos) and survey of bio environment pollution (oil, heavy metal, detergent) executed in lower 10m in different water larger in southern Caspian Sea in 2002-2003. For sampling 8 lines number were vertical on coast that selected from Astra in west to Gomishan in east in southern Caspian Sea basin. The result indicated the average physical factors such as pH were 8.11 and salinity12.12 ppt ,and disolve oxygen6.7 mg/l. Average chemical factors such as NO_2 , NO_3 and NH_4 were 1.2 µg/l, 25.7 µg/l, 13 µg/l respectively.Total nitogen and organic nitrogen and inorganic nitrogen were 690.2 µg/l , 667.6 µg/l , 41.6 µg/l. Average silicat were recrded 266.35 µg/l . Total Phosphorus was observed 37.35 µg/l and average of organic Phosphorus concentration was and 20.25 µg/l .Average of Total organic matter (T.O.M) was 4.98% maximum amount were observed in Lisar and minimum in Nooshahr . Concentration of heavy metal during sampling were respectively ,Fe〉Mn〉Zn〉Cr〉Ph〉Co〉Cd〉Cu. Maximum concentration of Fe were determined in winter in Nooshahr and Babolsar respectively 13/3 µg/l 17/1 µg/l. In many stations and different Season, the amount of heavy meta were lower standard of in marine water. The concentration of oil hydrocarborate (PAHs) in autumn was 0/13 ppb and in winter 0/12 ppb. The amount of (PAHs) in Southern Caspian Sea were Lower than other parts of Caspian Sea. The average of detergent concentration (LAS) was 0/036 µg/l that was two fold higher than determined in 2001. Total 107 species of phytoplankton belong to 5 phylum were identified. The numbers of species of phytoplankton groups were respectively, chrysophyta (42 species), cyanophyta (17 species), pyruphyta (17 species), chlorophyta (21 species) and euglenophyta (9 species). The maximum diversity of phytoplankton observed in summer and minimum in autumn. High diversity of chrysophta and cyanophyta observed in summer and phyrophyta and chrlophyta in spring. The composition of phytoplanhkton groups were respectively, chrysophyta (70%), phyrophyta (9%) and chlorophyta (7%) and euglonophyta (1%). Maximum density of phytoplankton was observed in autumn and minimum in winter. Total 19 species of Zooplankton were identified. Maximum diversity was observed in summer and minimum in winter. Zooplankton changes during sampling, showed amount of density of zooplankton in 5m were more than 10 m depths. Total (17 species macrobenthos were identified. The composition of macrobenthos groups were respectively , Annalida (92/7% ) , Bivalvia (2/7%) gumarida (108%) cumacea ( 1/5%) , Balanidae 103% . max . density were observed in Astara and min . in Sefied roud Average of density were 1218 0/851 ind /m^2 and biomass 14 15 g/m^2 High density were recorded in autumn and low density in winter . Correlation of phytoplankton and zooplankton with physicochemical parameter and also relation between total organic matter and sediment grain size were calculated.Ecological indicies (simpson diversity evenns diversity and shanoon-wiever diversity) were calculated for macrobenthos. Data were shown impact of cetenephora (Mnenemiopsis leidyi) on zooplankton and phytoplankton and macrobenthos density.
    Keywords: Ecology ; Pollution
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-09-05
    Description: Exploitation of bony fishes resources started on 12 October 2005 and finished on 9 April 2006 in 2005-2006. 142 beach seines caught about 14333.4 tons of bony fishes by 47101 hauling. The total catch was estimated 21844.7 tones (Includes illegal fishery). Kutum, mullets and common carp comprised more than 97 percent of total catch. Length classes 39-40, 31-32 and 40-41 cm predominated for kutum, golden grey mullet and common carp, respectively. Age groups 3 to 5 year comprised 84.2, 74.8 and 83.7 percent for Kutum, golden grey mullet and common carp, respectively and age group 4 year was dominant with 42.0, 35.9 and 43.0 percent, respectively. K value and L_∞ calculated 0.26 (/year) and 58.3 cm for Kutum and 0.15 (/year) and 61.5 cm for golden grey mullet, respectively. The total biomass and MSY estimated about 24733.7 and 8550.4 tones for kutum and about 16948.0 and 4999.0 tones for golden grey mullet, respectively. Exploitation rate (E) calculated 0.71 and 0.70 for Kutum and golden grey mullet, respectively. In 2006-2007, the exploitation of bony fishes resources started on 12 October 2006 and finished on 7 April 2007 in 2006-2007. 134 beach seines caught about 14120.0 tons of bony fishes by 48470 hauling. The total catch was estimated 23801.8 tones (Includes illegal fishery). Kutum, mullets and common carp comprised more than 98.5 percent of total catch. Length classes 39-40 and 38-39 cm predominated for kutum and common carp, respectively and length classes 27-28 and 29-30 cm predominated for golden grey mullet. Age groups 3 to 5 year comprised 80.2 and 71.8 percent for kutum and golden grey mullet, respectively and age groups 4 to 6 year comprised 71.8 percent for common carp. Age group 3, 4 and 5 year was dominant with 35.5, 32.1 and 27.1 percent for kutum, golden grey mullet and common carp respectively. K value and L∞ calculated 0.27 (/year) and 60.7 cm for Kutum, 0.2 (/year) and 58.4 cm for golden grey mullet and 0.19 (/year) and 66.7 cm for common carp, respectively. The total biomass and MSY estimated about 46654.9 and 14801.4 tones for Kutum, about 19549.0 and 5748.4 tones for golden grey mullet and about 10584.3 and 2186.0 tones for common carp, respectively. Exploitation rate (E) calculated 0.69, 0.53 and 0.52 for kutum, golden grey mullet and common carp, respectively.
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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