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  • 1
    Call number: 12/N 03.0520
    In: Ecological studies
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: xii, 376 S.
    ISBN: 0387952861
    Series Statement: Ecological studies 152
    Classification: D.5.
    Location: Reading room
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    Call number: PIK N 531-01-0478
    In: Ecological studies
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 376 p.
    ISBN: 0387952497
    Series Statement: Ecological studies 152
    Branch Library: PIK Library
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1435-0629
    Keywords: Key words: precipitation-use efficiency; primary production; grasslands; normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI); satellites; gradients.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: ABSTRACT Aboveground net primary production (ANPP) is positively related to mean annual precipitation, an estimate of water availability. This relationship is fundamental to our understanding and management of grassland ecosystems. However, the slope of the relationship between ANPP and precipitation (precipitation-use efficiency, PUE) has been shown to be different for temporal compared with spatial precipitation series. When ANPP and precipitation are averaged over a number of years for different sites, PUE is similar for grasslands all over the world. Studies for two US Long Term Ecological Research Sites have shown that PUE derived from a long-term dataset (temporal model) has a significantly lower slope than the value derived for sites distributed across the US central grassland region (spatial model). PUE differences between the temporal model and the spatial model may be associated with both vegetational and biogeochemical constraints. Here we use two independent datasets, one derived from field estimates of ANPP and the other from remote sensing, to show that the PUE is low at both the dry end and the wet end of the annual precipitation gradient typical of grassland areas (200–1200 mm), and peaks around 475 mm. The intermediate peak may be related to relatively low levels of both vegetational and biogeochemical constraints at this level of resource availability.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 412 (2001), S. 34-36 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Human activities are drastically altering Earth's biodiversity. To get a handle on what the consequences might be, ecologists have been busily carrying out experiments. But interpreting such experiments has been confounded by the possible operation of two different causal mechanisms, with ...
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Human alteration of the global environment has triggered the sixth major extinction event in the history of life and caused widespread changes in the global distribution of organisms. These changes in biodiversity alter ecosystem processes and change the resilience of ecosystems to environmental ...
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Water availability limits plant growth and production in almost all terrestrial ecosystems. However, biomes differ substantially in sensitivity of aboveground net primary production (ANPP) to between-year variation in precipitation. Average rain-use efficiency (RUE; ANPP/precipitation) also ...
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2486
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography
    Notes: As a result of stratospheric ozone depletion, more solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280–315 nm) is reaching the Earth's surface. Enhanced levels of UV-B may, in turn, alter ecosystem processes such as decomposition. Solar UV-B radiation could affect decomposition both indirectly, by changes in the chemical composition of leaves during growth, or directly by photochemical breakdown of litter and through changes in decomposer communities exposed to sunlight. In this experiment, we studied indirect and direct effects of solar UV-B radiation on decomposition of barley (Hordeum vulgare). We used barley straw and leaf litter grown under reduced UV-B (20% of ambient UV-B) or under near-ambient UV-B (90% of ambient UV-B) in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and decomposed the litter under reduced or near-ambient solar UV-B for 29 months in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.We found that the UV-B treatment applied during growth decreased the decay rate. On the other hand, there was a marginally significant direct effect of elevated UV-B during the early stages of decomposition, suggesting increased mass loss. The effect of UV-B during growth on decomposition was likely the result of changes in plant litter chemical composition. Near-ambient UV-B received during plant growth decreased the concentrations of nitrogen, soluble carbohydrates, and N/P ratio, and increased the concentrations of phosphorus, cellulose, UV-B-absorbing compounds, and lignin/N ratio. Thus, solar UV-B radiation affects the decomposition of barley litter directly and indirectly, and indirect effects are persistent for the whole decomposition period.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-2486
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography
    Notes: A study was made of the effects of solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) on the growth of the dominant plant species of a shrub-dominated ecosystem in Tierra del Fuego. This part of southern Argentina can be under the direct influence of the Antarctic ‘ozone hole’ during the austral spring and lingering ozone-depleted air during the summer. The plant community is dominated by an evergreen shrub (Chiliotrichum diffusum) with an herbaceous layer of Gunnera magellanica and Blechnum penna-marina in the interspaces between the shrubs. Inspections of ozone trends indicate that the springtime and summertime ozone column over Tierra del Fuego has decreased by 10–13% from 1978/9 to 1998/9. In a set of well-replicated field plots, solar UV-B was reduced to approximately 15–20% of the ambient UV-B using plastic films. Polyester films were used to attenuate UV-B radiation and UV-transparent films (∼90% UV-B transmission) were used as control. Treatments were imposed during the growing season beginning in 1996 and continued for three complete growing seasons. Stem elongation of the shrub C. diffusum was not affected by UV-B attenuation in any of the three seasons studied. However, frond length of B. penna-marina under attenuated UV-B was significantly greater than that under near-ambient UV-B in all three seasons. Attenuation of solar UV-B also promoted the expansion of G. magellanica leaves in two of the growing seasons. Differences between treatments in leaf or frond length in B. penna-marina and G. magellanica did not exceed 12%. Another significant effect of UV-B attenuation was a promotion of insect herbivory in G. magellanica, with a 25–75% increase in the leaf area consumed. Changes in plant phenology or relative species cover were not detected within the time frame of this study. The results suggest that the increase in UV-B radiation associated with the erosion of the ozone layer might be affecting the functioning of this ecosystem to some degree, particularly by inhibiting the growth of some plant species and by altering plant–insect interactions.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-2486
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography
    Notes: Tierra del Fuego, Argentina (55°S), receives increased solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) as a result of Antarctic stratospheric ozone depletion. We conducted a field study to examine direct and indirect effects of solar UV-B radiation on decomposition of Gunnera magellanica, a native perennial herb, and on the native community of decomposer organisms. In general, indirect effects of UV-B mostly occur due to changes in the chemical composition of litter, whereas direct effects during decomposition result from changes in decomposer organisms and/or differences in the photochemical breakdown of litter. We designed a full-factorial experiment using senescent leaves that had received either near-ambient or attenuated UV-B during growth. The leaves were distributed in litterbags and allowed to decompose under near-ambient or reduced solar UV-B during the growing season. We evaluated initial litter quality, mass loss, and nutrient release of decomposing litter, and microbial colonization of both initial litter and decomposed litter. We found that litter that decomposed under near-ambient UV-B had significantly less mass loss than litter that decomposed under reduced UV-B. The UV-B conditions received by plants during growth, which did not affect mass loss and nutrient composition of litter, affected fungal species composition but in different ways throughout the decomposition period. Before the decomposition trial, Beauveria bassiana and Penicillium frequentans were higher under reduced UV-B, whereas Cladosporium herbarum and pigmented bacteria were more common under the near-ambient compared to the reduced UV-B treatment. After the decomposition period, leaves that had grown under reduced UV-B showed higher frequency of Penicillium thomii and lower frequency of Trichoderma polysporum than leaves that had grown under near-ambient conditions. The UV-B condition received during decomposition also affected fungal colonization, with Penicillium chrysogenum being more frequent in leaves that had decomposed under reduced UV-B, while the other species were not affected. Our results demonstrate that, in this ecosystem, the effects of UV-B radiation on decomposition apparently occurred mostly through changes in the fungal community, while changes in photochemical breakdown appeared to be less important.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-5052
    Keywords: Competition ; Cyclic succession ; Facilitation ; Patagonian arid steppe ; Resource utilization ; Shrub-grass association
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Two patch types were recognized in the Occidental District of the Patagonian arid steppe: i) shrubs encircled by a ring of tussock grasses, and ii) tracts of scattered tussocks. Completeness of the ring of grasses around the three dominant shrubs was a function of shrub size. Average completeness was 62, 71 and 83%, respectively for the three dominant shrubs (Senecio filaginoides, Mulinum spinosum and Adesmia campestris). A model for the cyclic dynamics of the two patch types was proposed. It includes a building phase (grass ring construction), a mature phase (maximum ring completeness) and a degenerate phase. In this last phase, triggered by shrub death, completeness of the ring progressively decreases until remnant grasses become undistinguishable from the scattered tussocks patch type. Ring formation occurred independently of shrub species. Grass species were differentially associated to the two patch types and to rings of different shrub species. Cyclical patch dynamics influenced the pattern of resource utilization, since the shrub-ring patch, with a share of only 18% of cover, contributed 44% of the total primary productivity.
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