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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-09-13
    Description: This project was designed with for objective on estimation of Biomass and optimum time for catch season of P.merguinsis and M.affinis shrimps. This investigation was carried out monthly by swept area method in coastal waters of Hormozgan province. The optimum time for fishing season in Bandar Abbas to Sirik waters in 2004,2005 and 2006 respectively was about 25/9/2004, 24/9/2005 and 25/9/2006. Total allowable catch (T.A.C.) for P.merguiensis and M.affinis estimated in 2004 to 2006 were 600, 170 tonnes, 850, 550 tonnes and 650, 400 tonnes respectively. The densest catch was obtained for P.merguiensis (from 58/5 to 65/5 %) and the least catch for P.indicus (from 0/04 to 1/1 % ), respectievly.
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-09-23
    Description: This study focuses on molecular investigation of two commercial shrimp species of penaeus family namely as : P. merguiensis and P. indicus in order to find and introduce the genetic differentiations and also probable genotypes for monitoring and managing the genetic resources of populations in three major catch areas in the Persian Gulf and the Oman Sea. Only five out of the eight primers for P. merguiensis and four out of the eight primers for P. indicus produced good amplified PCR products with fixed annealing temperature. The rest of the primers were either not easily amplified or produced nonspecific bands. Seven and six alleles were found to be unique to each of the three populations in P.merguiensis and and two populations of P. indicus respectively. Occurrences of heterozygosity deficiency were found at most loci. These heterozygosity deficiencies in observed heterozygosity in compare to expected heterozygosity may be due to inbreeding, genetic drift and consequences of illegal overharvesting of P. merguiensis and P. indicus in the studied areas as well. Deviation from HWE in both studied species was significant in most microsatellite loci (P 〈0.001). We observed deviation from HWE in most loci with hetrozygosity deficits. The genetic variation results showed that the pairwise Fst values were significant between populations in both species. The assignment test for P. merguiensis revealed high gene flow between Hormoz and Jask and restricted genetic flow between Guatr and Hormoz populations .We observed high gene flow between Hormoz and Jask populations for P. indicus. It seems that the changes in immigration patterns of populations between Hormoz, Jask and Guatr areas in both species are depend on the influence of Persian Gulf currents or the life cycle of studied species. Alternatively, the presence of ecological barriers such as mangrove forests may result in restricted genetic flow between Guatr and both Hormoz and Jask populations.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-10-07
    Description: Shrimp production increasing rapidly in the world and in2013 the production reaches 4.2 MT. In Iran the shrimp production is under development and estimated in 1393, 20 thousand tons produced. In this regards the important subject is health and disease in shrimp farm. The white spot syndrome virus for second time appears in chabahar and damage many farms. Because the aquaculture activity expand in the world in national, regional and international scale, many emerge disease are endanger. In this regard the viral disease is very important and not only decrease the production but also has a side effect in business and national economy. For control and prevention the viral disease, the accurate methods such as PCR kit were developed. In this project the PCR methods with sensitivity, specificity and efficacy was designed and used for detection viral disease. Many viruses have several serotypes and in different area maybe new serotype induce the disease. For this reason, the specific kit will be design. Three viruses consist of MBV, TSV and IHHNV are very pathogenic in shrimp farm and need the specific PCR kit for detection them. In this project the MBV virus was identified and designs a new primer with Oligo software and the primer amplified a part of DNA with 185 bp in the gel. The specificity and sensitivity of primer were checked by IQ2000 Kit and the primer used for detection unknown samples.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Health
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-10-14
    Description: In this study, to assess and classify risks associated with working in the laboratories of Persian Gulf and Oman Sea Ecological Research Center, the method of "Failure Mode Effects Analysis" (FMEA) as well as some statistical methods were used. The results of the risk assessment in the 11 affiliated laboratories showed that the risk levels in all cases, except for benthos laboratory, could be evaluated as moderate or high and therefore appropriate corrective actions must be implemented. Based on the results of the Kruskal-Wallis tests both before and after the corrective actions, there were significant differences between the laboratories from the viewpoint of risk priority number (RPN). The post hoc tests showed the lowest risk levels for the benthose and histology laboratories, while the highest risks identified in the laboratory of instrumental analysis. The results of the classification of the laboratories using cluster analysis are largely similar to those of the posthoc tests. According to Mann-Whitney U test, only in the case of the samples preparation laboratory, significant differences between the values of the RPN before and after the corrective actions could be observed (p〉 0.05), however, the risk levels still remained high. In general it can be concluded that FMEA is an effective method for risk assessment in the research laboratories and appropriate statistical methods can also be used for complementary analysis.
    Keywords: Information Management ; Management
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-10-08
    Description: For the first time white spot disease (WSD) was reported in shrimp farms of khoozestan province, in southwest of IRAN in 2002. Then in 2005 the neighbor province, boushehr, was contaminated. In 2008 WSD outbreak reported in sistan-bloochestan province in southeast of Iran. In 2015 all of southern shrimp farms of country except Hormozgan, the middle southern province, which has remained free of WSD, are being contaminated. White Spot disease suspended shrimp culture in thousands hectares of shrimp farms. Considering that white spot disease has not been observed in Hormozgan province yet, the question is; to what extent environmental and management factors participated in preventing WSD outbreak or cause WSD outbreak. In this study (20102012), the effects of environmental factors and management, stressors that decrease immune system function of shrimp are discussed. In addition, the role of pathogen as the main factor of outbreak is discussed. The goal of this study is to define environmental parameters and management practices associates with outbreak of white spot disease in affected provinces and discover reasons of being Hormozgan province free of this disease. In this study the role of the local environmental factors and management practice stressors in susceptibility to WSD was determine. Both the effects of environmental factors in water of ponds including total ammonia, nitrogen, dissolved oxygen, pH, salinity, transparency, and temperature and management issues related to biosecurity are studied. There were overlaps on physical and chemical parameter values obtained in clear areas with contaminated areas .Results of the data analysis suggest that lack of association with WSD incidence was 7 times greater than WSD incidence despite of disease outbreak in sistan-bloochestan province, so other sources of white spot disease virus incidence was suspected in affected areas. Histopathological examinations and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests during project performance did not reveal white spot disease virus evidences in post larvae examined from khoozestan province stocked in farms but disease outbreak was happened in that farms , so we suspected to management practice include feed , pond preparation and carrier of disease. Recorded values of temperature and salinity in some months during inspection in Hormozgan province specified stressful condition that may lead to WSD outbreak, however the disease did not appear. Therefore the hypothesis that the water physical and chemical conditions are reasons to prevent disease outbreak in Hormozgan province is being rejected. The policy of Hormozgan’s fishery authorities, to replaced Fenneropenaeus indicus with specific pathogen free Litopenaeus vannamei, that is more resistant to some of diseases, before incidence of WSD in farms and to before being endemic in the Hormozgan province, made an advantage compare to affected southern provinces that introduced Litopenaeus vannamei after WSD prevalence to their farms. However it does not guarantee to maintain current trend of being Hormozgan province farms free of white spot disease. Therefore establishing the principals of biosecurity are strongly emphasized. Strategies taken by the proficient authorities in preparation of SPF shrimp broodstock can be the most important factor in preventing WSD. Regarding biosecurity principals purchased feed must be free of shrimp head powder. Construction the new shrimp farms should be as far as it could be away from contaminated areas.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Ecology ; Health
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-09-03
    Description: More than 20 viruses have been reported as pathogenic to shrimp.WSV has been found to be highly pathogenic not only to penaeid shrimps, but also to a wide range of hosts which include marine crabs , copepods, freshwater crabs and prawns. Main objective of this study was detection and identification of white spot virus from wild shrimp and crabs population on the coastal waters of Hormozgan Province.The samples were collected from three area seasonally include: coastal waters of Qeshm Island, Hengam Island and Jask. In this survey have been examined 1080 shrimp from each species of P.indicus, P.semisulcatus, P.merguiensis, Metapenaeus affinis and 1080 crabs (gill organs) by PCR and histopathological methods. Diagnostic kit for this survey have been prepared from Genesis Biotechnology CO.in Malaysia, so called "Single-Tube Nested PCR for WSSV". The analysis results revealed that all samples which examined from these area were free from WSV. Following PCR tests that were negative for all samples so no observed any damages of histology due to WSV on gills.
    Keywords: Health
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-09-23
    Description: Present study was conducted in the Persian Gulf (Iranian waters) from 2009 to 2012. The main objective of the research was economical evalution of the stock enhancement of banana prawn (Fenneropenaeus merguiensis) and green tiger shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) in the studied area. Also tagging effects on the growth and mortality of tagged shrimp were studied. In banana prawn, broodstock shrimps were hatched in June. In July 2010 and 2011some of the juvenile of this species were marked by red fluorescent liquid injection and released were made at night in the estuaries of Tiab, Kolahi and Koolgan in the Hormozgan province. 84000 juveniles of banana prawn in 2010 and about 50000 in 2011 were released in this area. In Bushehr province waters, adults shrimp were reared and when juveniles reached to optimum size, some of them were tagged by red and blue coloures and were released in the coastal waters of Bandargah and Delvar. Tagging and releasing program of green tiger prawn was performed in 2010 and 2012. A total number of 8000 prawn in 2010 and about 30000 juveniles prawn in 2010 were released. Activities for recaptured shrimps were informed by posters describing the tagging program that were distributed to local peoples, as well as local magazines, and a tagging program awareness film was broadcast on national television three times prior to the shrimp fishing season and during catch season. To encourage people to report recaptures a reward of two handered thousent riales was paid for the return of each marked shrimp accompanied by information. Economical evaluation of banana prawn was performed based on releasing and recaptured program in 2011. As it mentioned in this year 50000 of juvenile shrimp were tagged and released. At the same time 4700000 of unmarked shrimp were released in this area. In the shrimp season 11 (./022%) of tagged shrimp were recaptured. Movements of tagged shrimp were northwesterly to released area. Weight average of tagged prawns was 1.2 gram. Mean weight of the recaptured prawns was 22.06±4.9 gram. Body weight Growth of the recaptured prawns was between 16-26 grams with the growth speed of 0.88-1.41 per week. The number of recaptured prawn to the released prawn was 0.022 percent. Based on the released prawns (4700000) to the recaptured percent (./022%), about 103400 of released shrimp with mean weight of 2.5 tones were observed in the Hormozgan shrimp catch. The average price of shrimp in the studied year in the local market was 85000 Rials per kilogram. These results showed that the ratio of profit is 210 milion riales. In the taggiing program of green tiger prawn in the Bushehr waters only one recaptured shrimp was observed in the catch season (2012). Total weigth and total length of this prawn was 99 gram and 22 centimeter respectively .given the small percentage of the recaptured, economical analyses was not performed on this species. The effects of tagging on the growth and mortality of green tiger prawn were studied. The present study was carried out in the shrimp research station in Bandargah and Abzistan shrimp Hatchery Company in Delvar during 2010 and 2012. The accuracy of the study was more rialable in 2012. In this year growth and mortality of juveniles that was marked by red and blue coloures, were studied in both area Bandargah and Delvar. In Bandargah, three tanks of 300 l each with 30 specimens were used for untagged shrimp as a control group, and tagged with injected liquid fluorescent during 98 days. Length and weigh of 10 specimens were measured evenly in different times. ANOVA results (α = 0.1 and α = 0.5) showed no significant differences between length growth of tagged shrimp and control group. The mortality of two groups was evaluated by numbering of remained shrimps and the average of survival was 52 percent in the tagged and 44.5 percent in tagged shrimps. In the Delvar station, Abzistan Company, the specimens were kept in the 9 tanks each 300 l that included of 30 untagged shrimps, 30 blue tagged shrimps and 30 red florescent tagged shrimp. The growth and mortality of this station were evaluated during 110 days. The growth rate of the specimens were measured and recorded evenly. The results of ANOVA (α = 0.1 and α = 0.5) showed no difference significantly in the weight growth of tagged and control groups. The mortality rates among the control group, red tagged and blue tagged were 63 percent, 59 percent and 40 percent. The mortality of the groups was differences in the two stations and it seems the management and environmental conditions were more affected on the mortalities. The results of the study show that the ratio of profit to the coast is 0.46 that is covering half of the coasts, so that the expenditures are two times more than profit. This result is the minimum of economical value of stock enhancement of shrimp. The results of study showed that the injected tags into the body tissue of shrimp has no affected on the growth rate and mortality.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-10-13
    Description: Genetic knowledge and Gene bank preparation can help to protect biodiversity and detect , species identify , fishing offenses , genetic classification and also identification the faliure cross hybridizations of marine animals. In this study, sampling was performed from Jask, guatr and Hormuz areas, which is the most important habitats for the species studied using bottom trawl. Total DNA extraction was performed using phenol- chloroform method. After relevant studies on this gene primers were designed and in use. After editing the sequences, nucleotide BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) was performed using NCBI blast main page. The sequences obtained from each sample were aligned and corrected from any ambiguities and assembled using Bio edit program. Trees were generated using maximum parsimony (MP), a character-based algorithm and neighbor joining (NJ) a distance-based algorithm for phenetic analysis. The distance matrix option of MEGA4 was used to calculate genetic distance according to the Kimura 2-parameter model of sequence evolution. Based on the results obtained, the optical density of 260 to 280 nm in the samples was recorded between 1/8 - 2, indicating good quality DNA samples. Optimized PCR reaction to 16SrRNA and COI gene amplification using the gradient between 48 - 60° C showed that the most suitable criteria for binding primers, 48 and 54 Celsius degrees respectively. The project objectives including the identification of the genetic structure of the species, and draw the phylogenetic trees using two genes 16SrRNA and COI, making identification and registration of specified computer storage and regulate the structure and management of mentioned species by focus on genetic resources 5 species of shrimp (P. semisulcatus، P. indicus، P. merguiensis ، P. monodon، M. affinis) in the Persia Gulf and Oman Sea through the creation of an integrated network of aquatic genetic resources in the region to try to identify genetic resources and aquatic gene bank. Molecular investigation of mitochondria DNA (mtDNA) using partial sequences of 16S rRNA gene showed relatively low genetic differences between the P. semisulcatus morphotypes. These sequences were able to distinguish between the two morphotypes, and separated them into two distinct clades. Also genetic divergence detected by COI gene analysis was consistently higher. High genetic divergence for COI was observed between the two morphotypes of P.semeisulcatus which emphesise that the gene bank preparation should be perform for this morphotype of this species. This type of analysis could be considered as an important tool to be used in broodstock selection in breeding programs. In this case, different management in broodstocking programs should be performed for two morphotypes of P. semisulcatus which were detected in Persian Gulf. The results of this study show that two Morphotype of P.semisulcatus can be considered as two separate species from genetic aspects. In this regard, it can be assumed that the genetic composition of the studied species is very close together and we've no seen a huge difference in the species except in the green tiger species.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-10-08
    Description: Jinga shrimp Metapenaeus affinis is one of the most important penaeide shrimp species in Persian Gulf that has the highest amount of shrimp catch after banana shrimp in Hormozgan province. Regarding the importance of Jinga shrimp in fisheries of this province, genetic diversity and population structure of this species was assessed for the first time by mitochondrial 16SrRNA sequencing. A number of 18 shrimps were collected from the regions of Bandar Abbas, Bushehr and Khuzestan (six samples each region). DNA Extraction was performed using phenolchloroform and by optimizing the PCR for amplification of 16SrRNA, the most suitable temperature for primer binding was 48 °C. Analysis of 18 sequenced samples including 486 aligned base pairs of 16SrRNA yielded 480 monomorphic loci, 6 polymorphic loci and 2 transitions. No insertions and deletions were observed. 9 haplotypes were identified from the 18 samples. Mean haplotype diversity in each region was recorded from 0.0 ± 0.0 (Bandar Abbas) to 0.333 ± 0.215 (Bushehr) and 0.333 ± 0.215 (Khuzestan), and mean nucleotide diversity from 0.0 ± 0.0 (Bandar Abbas) to 0.003 ± 0.003 (Bushehr) and 0.001 ± 0.001 (Khuzestan). Haplotype and nucleotide diversity of all samples were 0.608 ± 0.007 and 0.002 ± 0.003, respectively. The maximum amount of F- statistic parameter was 0.750 between samples of Bandar Abbas and Khuzestan and the minimum amount between Bushehr and Khuzestan (-0.105). At probability level of 0.05, population differentiation was significant between Bandar Abbas and two other regions of Bushehr and Khuzestan but not significant between regions of Bushehr and Khuzestan. Test of exact p values within population confirmed the difference of Bandar Abbas population from the two other populations. Phylogenetic trees showed the differentiation of Bandar Abbas population from the two other regions. The results of this study using mitochondrial 16SrRNA sequencing revealed that the Jinga shrimp population of Bandar Abbas is a differentiated and separated gene pool from the two other regions, and although the populations of Bushehr and Khuzestan seem not genetically separated, molecular diversity of this species is acceptable in these two regions.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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