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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: During the second Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE 2B), meteorological observations, chemical measurements, and model simulations are utilized in order to interpret convective cloud draft structure and to analyze its role in transport and vertical distribution of trace gases. One-dimensional photochemical model results suggest that the observed poststorm changes in ozone concentration can be attributed to convective transports rather than photochemical production and the results of a two-dimensional time-dependent cloud model simulation are presented for the May 6, 1987 squall system. The mesoscale convective system exhibited evidence of significant midlevel detrainment in addition to transports to anvil heights. Chemical measurements of O3 and CO obtained in the convective environment are used to predict photochemical production within the troposphere and to corroborate the cloud model results.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 95; 17015-17
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Measurements of NO, NO2, O3, and CO were obtained for tropopause fold events encountered during two flights of the NASA global tropospheric experiment aircraft in 1984. The results suggest that NO(x) may not always be a good tracer of air of recent stratospheric origin. It is suggested that the stratospheric source of NO(x) acts to introduce NO(x) over a short period and through a large vertical region of the troposphere.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 93; 15813-15
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: A generalized theory for optical heterodyne spectroscopy with phase modulated laser radiation is used which allows the calculation of signal line shapes for frequency modulation spectroscopy of Lorentzian gas absorption lines. In particular, synthetic spectral line shapes for both single-tone and two-tone modulation of lead-salt diode lasers are presented in which the contributions from both amplitude and frequency modulations are included.
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
    Type: Applied Optics (ISSN 0003-6935); 26; 3584-358
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: A set of 14 pairs of vertical profiles of ozone and carbon monoxide, obtained with fast-response instrumentation, is presented. Most of these profiles, which were measured in the remote troposphere, also have supporting fast-response dew-point temperature profiles. The data suggest that the continental boundary layer is a source of tropospheric ozone, even in October and November, when photochemical activity should be rather small. In general, the small-scale vertical variability between CO and O3 is in phase. At low latitudes this relationship defines levels in the atmosphere where midlatitude air is being transported to lower latitudes, since lower dew-point temperatures accompany these higher CO and O3 concentrations. A set of profiles which is suggestive of interhemispheric transport is also presented. Independent meteorological analyses support these interpretations.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 92; 2083-209
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: An overview of the airborne intercomparisons of CO, NO, and OH instrumentation is presented in this first paper of the series on the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment/Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation (GTE/CITE 1). This paper provides the reader with background information about several important characteristics of the project. These include the overall objectives and approach, the measurements taken, the intercomparison protocol, aircraft platform, profiles of each aircraft flight, and the participants. A synopsis of the overall results of the CO, NO, and OH instrument intercomparisons is also included. Companion papers discuss the detailed results of the CO and NO intercomparison tests as well as pertinent scientific findings.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 92; 1977-198
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The variations of ozone and carbon monoxide with respect to the atmospheric flow structure are investigated for two aircraft flights: one in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere over the continental United States on April 20, 1984, and the other in the marine troposphere over the eastern Pacific on April 26, 1984. The high frequency (1 Hz) and precision of the measurements allow detailed analysis of the species distribution down to length scales of the order of 1 km. Correlations between the two species are made on large, medium, and small scales of motion, and the results are interpreted. In general, the correlations are negative with some regions of positive correlation. The interpretation of these results is discussed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 92; 2121-213
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The usability and reliability of potential vorticity as a meteorological stratospheric tracer are evaluated. The concept of potential vorticity conservation during transport in which stratospheric and tropospheric air are mixing is tested. Aircraft data collected on April 20, 1984 in the western and southwestern U.S. are analyzed in order to derive potential vorticity data; vertical cross sections of constant-pressure data and temperature and wind speed gradients are examined. The tropopause fold observed during the April 20, 1984 aircraft flights is described. The potential vorticity, ozone mixing ratio, and carbon monoxide mixing ratio are compared; a positive correlation between potential vorticity and the ozone mixing ratio and a negative correlation between the potential vorticity and the carbon monoxide mixing ratio are detected. The data support the concepts of the conservation of potential vorticity, the entrainment and mixing of tropospheric air across the boundaries of the fold, and the applicability of potential vorticity as a stratospheric tracer.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 92; 2103-211
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: A tunable diode laser instrument, denoted as DACOM (Differential Absorption CO Measurement), has been developed to meet the fast-response, high-precision CO measurement needs of the GTE (Global Tropospheric Experiment) program. Under the GTE program, DACOM participated in the three field missions of CITE 1 (Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 1), a project involving the intercomparison of trace gas measurement techniques. DACOM performance, including analyses of measurement error sources, is discussed for the ground-based mission at Wallops Island, VA (summer 1983), and two missions on the NASA CV-990 (fall 1983 and spring 1984). Examples of fast-response (about 1 s), high-precision (+ or - 1 part per billion by volume, + or - 1.5 percent of reading) airborne data are included to illustrate the capability of this instrument.
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 92; 2071-208
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Meteorological contexts for the NASA GTE/CITE 1 fall 1983 flight series are presented and discussed. The large-scale wind, cold cloud, and moisture patterns are illustrated by composite diagrams based on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 700-, 500-, and 250-mbar analyses and the GOES-West broadband and 6.7-micron (water vapor) infrared photographs. Detailed flight path diagrams are included for seven maritime flights and one continental flight in the free troposphere and boundary layer. For three flights from Hickam Field, in Honolulu, HI, to the Intertropical Convergence Zone, vertical profiles of temperature, dew/frost point departures, wind velocity, and ozone, and carbon monoxide mixing ratios are also presented and discussed. Excellent agreement is demonstrated between the in situ and remote measurements. In particular, the predictive and diagnostic value of the 6.7-micron water vapor photographs is demonstrated.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 92; 1986-199
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Enhanced concentrations of CH4 in the unpolluted atmospheric mixed layer over both Arctic and subarctic tundra landscapes are documented here using data from the NASA Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3A). The CH4 concentration gradients were determined mainly by interactions of biogenic emission from wet tundra and turbulent mixing proceses. The gradient were most frequently associated with intrusion of upper tropospheric or stratospheric air into the midtroposphere, emissions from forest and tundra fires, and long-range transport of enhanced concentration of these gases from unidentified sources. Summertime haze layers exhibited midtropospheric enhancements of CH4 similar to those measured in winter Arctic events. The observations confirm the importance of Arctic and Subarctic wetland environments as a regional source of global atmospheric CH4.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 97; D15; p. 16,589-16,599.
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