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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We present here the chemical composition of outflow from the Asian continent to the atmosphere over the western Pacific basin during the Pacific Exploratory Mission-West (PEM-West B) in February-March 1994. Comprehensive measurements of important tropospheric trace gases and aerosol particulate matter were performed from the NASA DC-8 airborne laboratory. Backward 5 day isentropic trajectories were used to partition the outflow from two major source regions- continental north (greater than 20 deg N) and continental south (less than 20 deg N). Air parcels that had not passed over continental areas for the previous 5 days were classified as originating from an aged marine source. The trajectories and the chemistry together indicated that there was extensive rapid outflow of air parcels at altitudes below 5 km, while aged marine air was rarely encountered and only at less than 20 deg N latitude. The outflow at low altitudes had enhancements in common industrial solvent vapors such as C2Cl4, CH3CCl3, and C6H6, intermixed with the combustion emission products C2H2, C2H6, CO, and NO. The mixing ratios of all species were up to tenfold greater in outflow from the continental north compared to the continental south source region, with Pb-210 concentrations reaching 38 fCi (10(exp -15) curies) per standard cubic meter. In the upper troposphere we again observed significant enhancements in combustion-derived species in the 8-10 km altitude range, but water-soluble trace gases and aerosol species were depleted. These observations suggest that ground level emissions were lofted to the upper troposphere by wet convective systems which stripped water-soluble components from these air parcels. There were good correlations between C2H2 and CO and C2H6 (r(sup 2) = 0.70 - 0.97) in these air parcels and much weaker ones between C2H2 and H2O2 or CH3OOH (r(sup 2) = 0.50). These correlations were the strongest in the continental north outflow where combustion inputs appeared to be recent (1 - 2 days old). Ozone and PAN showed general correlation in these same air parcels but not with the combustion products. It thus appears that several source inputs were intermixed in these upper tropospheric air masses, with possible contributions from European or Middle Eastern source regions. In aged marine air mixing ratios of 03 (approximately equals 20 parts per billion by volume) and PAN (less than or equal to 10 parts per trillion by volume) were nearly identical at less than 2 km and 10 - 12 km altitudes due to extensive convective uplifting of marine boundary layer air over the equatorial Pacific even in wintertime. Comparison of the Pacific Exploratory Mission-West A and PEM-West B data sets shows significantly larger mixing ratios of SO2 and H2O2 during PEM-West A. Emissions from eruption of Mount Pinatubo are a likely cause for the former, while suppressed photochemical activity in winter was probably responsible for the latter. This comparison also highlighted the twofold enhancement in C2H2, C2H6, and C3H8 in the continental north outflow during /PEM-West B. Although this could be due to reduced OH oxidation rates of these species in wintertime, we argue that increased source emissions are primarily responsible.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: NASA/CR-97-207352 , NAS 1.26:207352 , Paper-96JD02340 , Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 102; D23; 28,255-28,274
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting; San Francisco, CA; United States
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We report in situ stratospheric measurements of CH4, N2O, and O3 obtained aboard the NASA DC-8 during the January-March 1992 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition 2 field campaign. These data demonstrate a strong linear correlation between N2O and CH4 in the lower stratosphere thus indicating that both species are effective tracers of stratospheric air motion. Measurements of both species on constant geometric height surfaces indicate that significant subsidence of the arctic stratospheric air mass occurred at DC-8 altitudes over the course of the AASE-2 expedition. In addition, a widespread reduction in O3 mixing ratios (up to 20%) relative to these conserved tracers was also observed in the lower stratosphere in March as compared to January and February results.
    Keywords: ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 20; 22; p. 2543-2546
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH4) were measured in the 0.15- to 6-km portion of the troposphere over subarctic and boreal landscapes of midcontinent and eastern Canada during July - August 1990. In the mid-continent region, Arctic air entering the region was characterized by relatively uniform CO concentrations (86-108 parts per billion by volume (ppbv)) and CH4 concentrations (1729-1764 ppbv). Local biomass burning and long-range transport of CO into the area from industrial/urban sources and distant fires did frequently produce enhanced and variable concentrations. Emissions of CH4 from the Hudson Bay lowlands was the primary source for enhanced and variable concentrations, especially at altitudes of 0.15-1 km. In eastern Canada, most of the observed variability in CO and CH4 was similar in origin to the phenomena described for the midcontinent region. However, unexpectedly low concentrations of CO (51 ppbv) and CH4 (1688 ppbv) were measured in the midtroposphere on several flights. Combined meteorological and chemical data indicated that the low CO-CH4 events were the result of long-range transport of tropical Pacific marine air to subarctic latitudes.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 99; D1; p. 1659-1669
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The characteristics of the Southeastern Virginia urban plume were defined with emphasis on the photon-oxidant species. The measurement area was a rectangle, approximately 150 km by 100 km centered around Cape Charles, Virginia. Included in this area are the cities of Norfolk, Virginia Beach, Chesapeake, Newport News, and Hampton. The area is bounded on the north by Wallops Island, Virginia, and on the south by the Hampton Roads area of Tidewater Virginia. The major axis of the rectangle is oriented in the southwest-northeast direction. The data set includes aircraft measurements for carbon monoxide, methane, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and ozone. The experiment shows that CO can be successfully measured as a tracer gas and used as an index for determining localized and urban plumes. The 1978 data base provided sufficient data to assess an automated chromatograph with flame ionization detection used for measuring methane and nonmethane hydrocarbons in flight.
    Keywords: ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION
    Type: L-13758 , NASA-TM-81930
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The development and capabilities of a tunable laser source utilizing a wideband electro-optic modulator and a CO2 laser are described. The precision tunability and high stability of the device are demonstrated with examples of laboratory spectroscopy. Heterodyne measurements are also presented to demonstrate the performance of the laser source as a heterodyne local oscillator. With the use of five CO2 isotope lasers and the 8 to 18 GHz sideband offset tunability of the modulator, calculations indicate that 50 percent spectral coverage in the 9 to 12 micron region is achievable. The wavelength accuracy and stability of this laser source is limited by the CO2 laser and is more than adequate for the measurement of narrow Doppler-broadened line profiles. The room-temperature operating capability and the programmability of the microwave tunable laser source are attractive features for its in-the-field implementation. Although heterodyne measurements indicated some S/N degradation when using the device as a local oscillator, there does not appear to be any fundamental limitation to the heterodyne efficiency of this laser source. Through the use of a lower noise-figure traveling wave tube amplifier and optical matching of the output beam with the photomixer, a substantial increase in the heterodyne S/N is expected.
    Keywords: LASERS AND MASERS
    Type: Heterodyne Systems and Technol., Pt. 2; p 399-415
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2005-06-09
    Description: We survey measurements of stratospheric NO(y) on the NASA DC-8 during AASE 2 in early 1992. Emphasis is on correlations with other long-lived species: O3, N2O, and CH4. No cases of extremely high NO(y)/O3 ratios were seen in 1992. This suggests that denitrification at higher altitudes was less pervasive than in 1989. Values of NO(y)/O3 in 1992 are comparable to, though perhaps lower than, those measured in 1989. The correlation of NO(y) with N2O changes over the course of the mission. Relative to the correlation for the whole season, low values of NO(y) occur in February, most notably on the 22nd. The reason for the low NO(y) is unknown It is generally too warm at DC-8 altitudes for the presence of PSC particles, but denitrification at higher altitudes, followed by descent, might account for the low values seen on 22 February. However, this may be unlikely since the NASA ER-2, flying during the same period, saw no evidence of denitrification at higher altitudes.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition 2 Air Parcel Trajectories (ISSN 0094-8534); Volume 20; No. 22; 2563-2566; NASA-TM-112699
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2005-06-09
    Description: We report in situ stratospheric measurements of CH4, N2O, and O3 obtained aboard the NASA DC-8 during the January-March 1992 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition II field campaign. These data demonstrate a strong linear correlation between N2O and CH4 in the lower stratosphere thus indicating that both species are effective tracers of stratospheric air motion. Measurements of both species on constant geometric height surfaces indicate that significant subsidence of the arctic stratospheric air mass occurred at DC-8 altitudes over the course of the AASE-II expedition. In addition, a widespread reduction in O3 mixing ratios (up to 20%) relative to these conserved tracers was also observed in the lower stratosphere in March a compared to January and February results.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition 2 Air Parcel Trajectories (ISSN 0094-8534); Volume 20; No. 22; 2543-2546; NASA-TM-112699
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2005-06-09
    Description: We report tropospheric (altitudes greater than 5 km) observations of CO2, CO, CH4, and light hydrocarbons (C2-C4) over the latitude range from 90 deg N to 23 deg S recorded onboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the winter 1992 Second Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE-II). Mixing ratios for these species exhibited significant north-south gradients with maximum values in subpolar and arctic regions and minima over the southern tropics. At latitudes greater than 40 deg N, the mixing ratios of most species increased significantly over the course of the 3-month measurement period. Also at high northern latitudes, the variations of all relatively long-lived reactive carbon species were linearly correlated with fluctuations of CO2 with CO, CH4, C2H6, C2H2, C3H8, and n-C4H10 exhibiting average enhancement ratios in terms of ppbv(X)/ppmv(CO2) of 13.8, 8.4, 0.21, 0.075, 0.085, and 0.037, respectively.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition 2 Air Parcel Trajectories (ISSN 0094-8534); Volume 20; No. 22; 2539-2542; NASA-TM-112699
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Aircraft measurements of selected trace gas species, aerosols, and meteorological parameters were performed in the lower troposphere off the U.S. east coast during August and September 1989 as part of the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE) Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation (CITE 3) expedition. In this paper, we examine these data to assess the impact of continental outflow on western Atlantic O3 and small aerosol budgets. Results show that mixed layer (ML) O3 concentrations and small aerosol number densities (Np) were enhanced by factors of 3 and 6, respectively, within air masses of predominantly continental origin compared with clean maritime background air. These enhancements exhibited a marked altitude dependence, declining rapidly above the ML to the point where only slight to moderate differences in O3 and Np, respectively, were notable above 2.4 km. Within continentally influenced ML's, both O3 and Np were correlated with CO, exhibiting linear regression slopes averaging 0.4 ppbv (O3)/ppbv(CO) for O3 and 7.7 (particles/cc)/ppbv(CO) for Np and indicating a primarily anthropogenic origin for the observed enhancement of these species. Comparisons between profiles in continental and background maritime air masses suggest that photochemical production below 1.4-km altitude adds over 10% to western Atlantic tropospheric column O3 abundance in continental outflow regimes. For aerosols, eastward advection of low-level continental air contributes an average net flux of 2.8 metric tons of submicron (accumulation mode) particles per kilometer of shoreline per day to the western Atlantic troposphere.
    Keywords: ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 98; D12; p. 23,477-23,489
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