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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-10-06
    Description: The Caspian Sea is an important source of water in terms of having valuable resources of sturgeon and bony fish is taken into consideration roach(Rutilus rutilus caspicus (L.)) is one of the most important commercial species in the southern coast of the Caspian Sea in Iran , the catch of this species has declined substantially in the last 10 years, The management and exploitation need of comprehensive review of its biology .This study as part of a comprehensive study of feeding , spawning and growth of this species.In this study, using samples caught in beach seine along the southern coast of the Caspian Sea coastal ( Iranian waters ) took place. The fork length and total weight ranged between 12.5 to29.5(cm) and 29 to293( grm),10.5 to23(cm) and17.2 to21(grm) in Golestan and Gilan Province respectively. The b value of the length-weight relationship ranged 3.02 to 3.25 and 3.28 to 3.75 for female and male, in Golestan and Gilan Province respectively. The age composition of the catch was from 1 to 4 year in both Province, there was one spawning peak and Fecundity variations were high and ranged 7260 to 231965 eggs. Average growth in length was described with the Von Bertalanffy growth model: L (t) = 30.94(1-exp (0.42(t-0.18) and L (t) = 20.49(1-exp (0.53(t-1). The percent of empty stomach and prey dominant evaluated during different seasons by specific formula. Result showed that gastropod, Polychaete worms and molluscs were dominated and specific food items respectively. Shrimp, fish, insects, zooplankton and clams were scare of prey.
    Keywords: Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-10-05
    Description: Reservoirs are one of the most constructions for control and water supply for different usage that could have various social an economical effects. The Khandaghloo dam reservoir with area of 100 ha located in Mahneshan city of Zanjan province and related to Parichay river watershed. Khandaghloo reservoir is valuable water body that the aim of its establishment was supply of water for agriculture farms. The reservoir has been studied for responsible and sustainable fisheries exploitation proposes. Results showed that the reservoir categorizes as eutroph to super eutroph based on different indices.Also phosphorous is limiting factor of the water body.Totally 42 genera from 6 phyla including green-blue algae cyanophyta, diatoms (Bacillariophyta), green algae, chlorophyta, euglenophyta, pyrrophyta and xanthophyta has been identified and cyanophyta was the dominant group that comprise 74.3 % of phytoplankton population. The zooplankton of the reservoir comprised 4 phyla and 20 genera. 1 genera of the protozoa and rhizopoda, 1 genra of the ciliophora ,15 genera of rotatoria, 2 genera of cladocera has been identified in zooplankton communities. Tubificidae and chironomidae has been identified in all months of the survey. The mean total length of crayfish was 130.5±20.5 mm ( 636) and mean weight was measured as 69.4±34.1 g with maximum and minimum weight of 1.9 and 207.2 g respectively .Total biomass of crayfish in Khandaghloo reservoir estimated as 3.4 tones with a range of 1.1–5.7 tones. But it is recommended not to harvest for at least two year due to high mortality of the populations.The fishes of the reservoir comprised common carp Chinese carp (silver carp, big head and grass carp) (released), Caspian kutum (accidentally released by fishery sector) and some endemic species as Siamahii. The catch of the reservoir fluctuated between 8 to 26 tones during 2000-2010.The fish production of Khandaghloo reservoir ranged from 167 to 324 kg/ha based on different methods that by consideration of 100 ha area of the reservoir, the total production of fish fluctuated between 16.7 to 32.4 tones. The fingerling restocking of Chinese carp in Khandaghloo reservoir with density of 1500 fingerling/ha recommended as 68% of phytoplanktonivorous fish (silver carp) ,12% zooplanktonivorous fish (big head), 6.6% of Crass carp and 10% of benthophagous fish (common carp).
    Keywords: Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-10-13
    Description: The Caspian Sea is the largest lake, both by its area and volume. Zooplankton are very important in the food web since many animals eat them. The Sampling was done in 4 transacts in Anzali, Tonekaboun, Noushahr and Amirabad at 3 different depths including 5, 10 and 20 m. Sampling was carried out in four seasons of spring, summer, autumn and winter in 2013. The annual changes of zooplankton was between 392±113 ind./ m^3 in autumn (Amirabad) to 8065±11735 ind./m^3 in winter (Amirabad). The lowest density of zooplankton in the spring was 2207 ind./ m^3 in Anzali. The density of zooplankton in Tonekabon and Amirabad was 2.0 and 2.8 fold more than other transects respectively. The results showed that the abundance of zooplankton in summer was between 1964±470 ind./m^3 (Amirabad) to 5706±6088 ind./m^3 (Tonekabon). The biomass was 30.02, 52.22, 22.98 and 18.31 in Anzali, Tonekabon, noshahr and Amirabad respectively. The abundance of zooplankton in the autumn reached the lowest value. The lowest value was 392 ±113 ind./m^3 and 3.71±0.19 mg/m^3 (Amirabad) and highest value was 2280 ±1435 ind./ m3 and 20.23±14.50 5mg/m^3 (Anzali). The highest density was observed in Amirabad (8065 ind./m^3) and Anzali (8061 ind./m^3) in winter. The aim of this study was diversity, distribution, density and biomass of zooplankton in the southern of Caspian Sea.
    Keywords: Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-02-21
    Description: This study focused on zooplankton structure, biodiversity, relationship between a biotic parameters and zooplankton variation, and trophy state of the Persian Gulf Martyrs Lake (Chitgar-Tehran). Based on the lake condition, samples were collected by Juday net at the 5 stations between 2013 and 2014. This study identified 36 zooplankton taxa comprised of Arthropoda (6 genus), Protozoa (6 genus), Rotatoria (20 genus), Nematoda (1 genus), Gastrotricha (2 genus) and Oligochaeta (1 genus). Furthermore, the first record of the freshwater jellyfish Craspedacusta sp. in Iran, with size group of 15-20 mm in diameter in September is reported in the Chitgar lake. The Rotatoria abundance average was measured 61 ±18 ind.l-1 in the lake. The Nematoda, Gastrotricha and Oligochaeta taxa were measured the lowest abundance (〈 1 ind.l-1 ) in this study. The annual average zooplankton abundance was measured as 72±18 ind.l-1 . The PCA displayed, the Rotatoria Trichocerca sp. and Polyarthera sp. were dominated with high components loading, low variance and high abundance. The CCA showed, there was no correlation between Rotatoria abundance and a biotic parameters. Based on the zooplankton structure and bio-indicator, the lake situation is in the meso-oligotrophic category. Thus, it is might be increased eutrophication trend due to no management and no aquatic control in this ecosystem.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-04-24
    Description: Mnemiopsis leidyi which was accidentally introduced into the Caspian Sea in 1999 and since then has colonized extensively. The horizontal distribution of M. leidyi and dominant mesozooplankton species was investigated in the south western Caspian Sea during February, May, July and November 2008. The average number and biomass of M. leidyi were in the same range (ca 200 individuals m^-3 (2000 ind m^-2)) and 16 g wet weight m^-3 (180 g m^-2) in comparison with previous surveys. As in previous years the population consisted mainly of individuals 〈1 cm. The decline in mesozooplankton species observed since 1996 continued in 2008. Only two species of the previously recorded 24 Cladocera species were found in 2008. Of five Copepoda species recorded in 1996, only one, Acartia tonsa, was found in 2008 and even here adult individuals have reduced 3-fold since 1996. Bivalve larvae have declined by one order of magnitude since 1996. Among the dominant species, only the numbers of Cirripedia larvae and in part the numbers of Pleopis polyphemoides (Cladocera) were in the same range as in 1996.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-01-25
    Description: Anzali wetland is one of the most important places for migratory fishes. Zooplankton organisms are the first consumers in the ecosystem. They are perfect food for the larvae of fishes. Six stations from different areas of wetland were examined for the study of zooplankton population during March 2011 to April 2012. Sampling was done by tube (PVC) and passing through of 30 micron plankton net. The samples were identified and counted by inverted microscope. According to the results, 60 Genus and 6 phylum (11, 31, 10, 2, 1, 1, 1, 2 genus of phylum Protozoa, Rotatoria, Arthropoda, Gastrotricha, Mollusca, Tardigrada, Nematoda, Porifera, Annelida) respectively were identified. The results showed that the maximum annual average density of zooplankton was observed with 2497 ± 687number per litre in Karkan station and the population was more in the summer than in other seasons. Density of Rotatoria, protozoa and superclass Copepoda were 48%, 45% and 6% respectively. Results showed the population structure of zooplankton did not change much compared to past studies (due to improper environmental conditions), excluding Protozoa but the diversity of all zooplankton group is extremely declined. Kruskal Wallis test showed there was not significant difference between density of zooplankton in different stations, months and seasons (p〉0.05), but significant differences were found between densities of different zooplankton phylum (p〈0.05).
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-07-18
    Description: Plankton samples were collected in 28 stations in Anzali Lagoon and nearby coastal areas during 1997-1999. Overall, 9 phyla, 134 genera and 278 phytoplankton species were identified. Of the identified species, 56 genera and 107 species belonged to phylum Chlorophyta, 39 genera and 87 species belonged to Bacillariophyta, 2 genera and 2 species were from Xanthophyta, 4 genera and 4 species belonged to Chrysophyta, 6 genera and 34 species were from Euglenophyta, 7 genera and 9 species belonged to Pyrrophyta, I genus and 2 species were from Cyanophyta, 18 genera and 32 species were from Cyanophyta and I genus and species was of Rhodophyta. We showed Cyanophyta and Bacillariophyta to be the most abundant phyla and western and southern parts of the lagoon the richest in terms of phytoplankton diversity and density. Cyanophyta planktons were the most abundant in summer in western part of the lagoon and were comprised of Microcystis aeruginosa, Oscillatoria limosa and Anabaenopsis raciborskii. Diatoms were observed throughout the year everywhere in the lagoon with their diversity being highest in late autumn, winter and spring. The dominant species of Bacillariophyta were Cyclotella meneghiniana, Synedra ulna and Nitzschia acicularis in the lagoon while Rhizosolenia calcar was dominant in estuarine and coastal areas during summer. Of Chlorophyta, species belonging to Scenedesmus were abundant in spring and of Euglenophyta, Euglena acus and Trachelomonas armata were most abundant in southern part of the lagoon in spring and summer. Gymnodinium coronatum from Pyrrophyta was abundant in summer in western part of the lagoon while Exuviaella cordata was dominant in estuary and coastal areas during autumn.
    Keywords: Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-08-04
    Description: A Comprehensive hydrobiological and hydrological investigation was conducted on Hevigh River, west of Guilan Province from 2001 to 2002. Totally, 4 Phyla of phytoplanktons including 21 genera were observed. The maximum phytoplankton density belonged to the Phylum Chrysophyta with genera, Nitzchia, Diatoma, Cocconeis, Navicula and Cymbella comprising 95.7% of the phytoplankton population throughout the year. Chlorophyta ranked second with genera Scenedesmus, Cruciginia and Anicistrodesmus, comprising 2.20% of the population during the year. Cyanophyta with Oscillatoria and Euglenophyta with Euglena consisted the remaining few percents of the phytoplankton population. Zooplankton population in Hevigh River was found to be very poor, and mostly belonged to Protozoa and Rotatoria. However, 4 Phyla and 12 genera of zooplanktons were distinguished in the River the highest density of which belonged to Protozoa with genera Amelia, Difflugia, Cyphoderia and Euglypha, comprising 64% of the total population. Rotatoria with genera Keratella, Cephalodella, Lecane and Rotaria, consisted 14% of the zooplankton population during the year. Arthropoda, Nematoda, Tardigrada were very low in numbers.
    Keywords: Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-09-07
    Description: Sabzkooh in Ardal and Gandoman region in Charmahal province with annual production of 1300 metric tons of rainbow trout, is one of the most important rivers in the province. The effects of fish farms effluent on the river water quality and the possibilities to develop or limit the existing ones were studied. Flora and fauna of the river including Phyto and zooplankton, macroinvertebrates and fishes were sampled and studied. Moreover some key physico-chemical water quality parameters, concentrations of stable pollutants (heavy metals: Zn, Cu, Fe, Pb, Cd and agricultural poisons (herbicides or pesticides: DDT, Lindane, Alderine and indosulfate) and Coliform contamination were also measured. All phytoplankton genus were of tow taxa, Cianophyta and Chrysophyta and zooplankton fauna belonged to Rotatoria, Protozoa and meroplanktonic chirinomids and nematodes. Four fish species from 3 families were identified of which rainbow trout had the highest relative frequency (94.6%).All the measured heavy metals including Zn, Cu, Fe, Pb, Cd and the agricultural poisons concentrations such as DDT, Lindane, Alderine and indosulfate were lower than the hazardous level suggested for the surface waters. According to the benthic macroinvertebrates populations study, stations at downstream (no. 6 and 7) which received the Chartakhteh and Rudarud farms effluent had least EPT richness and the hilsenhof family level biotic index at this locations was greater than 5.25, classifying them as having organic pollution. Even though measured key physico-chemical parameters such as nutrients (N and P compounds and BOD5) in the receiving stations and effluent water never exceed the maximum permitted range but in downstream stations these factors were very close to the range. One way analyze of variance (P 95%) for TN, TP, No_2, NH_4, BOD_5, pH, PO_4 and Ec revealed no significant differences between stations before and just after receiving the effluents, however these parameters in the effluents themselves significantly differ from upstream stations 1,2 and 3 proving relatively lower organic pollution and the potential for constructing new farms or expanding the existed ones in upstream region from Chartagh to Dehnoo. At downstream from Dehnoo to Rudarud and lower parts, dense trout farm effluents in addition with point and non point pollution (municipal, agricultural and other coming run off from the catchments area) had remarkable effects on the river water quality and as a result no farm construction or expansion is recommended. To avoid or reduce the existing farms effects on the river system there should be certainly some remediation actions carried out. Constructing sedimentation ponds before releasing the effluents, obeying the rule of water extracting, preventing fish escape, increasing feeding efficiency and controlling the lateral inlets from catchments area which are potentially pollutant, should be considered to improve the situation and prevent further environmental problems caused by fish farms effluent in these area.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-09-23
    Description: This survey was carried out by R/V Gilan with a conical plankton net of 100 micron mesh by vertical hauls at 8 transect in the southern Caspian sea. Transects were located at Astara, Anzali, Sefid roud, Tonekabon, Noshahr, Babolsar, Amirabad and Torkman in depths of 5, 10,20,50and 100m. Samples were taken in 4 seasons (in each season 64 samples) in 2009. In this study 23 species formed the zooplankton community including 4 species of Copepoda, 8 species of Rotatoria, 2 species of Protozoa and 8 species of Cladocera. The meroplankton blonged to 2 species of Balanus sp and Lamellibranchiata larvae. The annual results revealed that the maximum abundance of Copepoda were 3612±4839 ind/m^3 and 35/75±42/81 mg/m^3 in summer and decreased gradually since autumn and reached to minimum value in winter. The maximum abundance of Cladocera was 300± 383 ind/m^3 in spring and reached to less than 4 ind/m^3 in summer and autumn. The Rotatoria had high population (3775± 8632 ind/m^3) in winter which consisted the zooplankton population with Copepoda. The Protozoa had no efficient role in zooplankton population of Caspian sea during the year. The zooplankton population was affected by Meroplankton and Lamellibranchiata larvae in spring and winter. The Copepoda contributed in zooplankton population only in summer and autumn. The maximum zooplankton abundance and biomass were in 5m depth which included 10209±8352 ind/m^3 and 43.56±26.08mg/m^3 in spring, 8545±7127 ind/m^3 and 73.59±56.65 mg/m3 in summer (10 m depth), 8427±6711 ind/m^3 and 43.15± 29.59 mg/m3 in autumn and 24426±26975 ind/m^3 and 334.25±392.21 mg/. m3 in winter which decresed from surface to depth. The maximum abundance and biomass of zooplankton were 5119±6018 ind/m^3 in east and 28.59±24.79 mg/m^3 in central area in spring, 6628±7117 ind/m^3 in west area and 50.73±59.52 mg/m^3 in central area in summer, 5248±5489 ind/m^3 and 31/16 ±31/22 mg/ m^3 in west area in autumn and 11588±16191 ind/m^3 and 131.02±193.61 mg/ m^3 in west area in winter. The annual statistical analysis reveals that there is significant difference between Copepoda and Cirripedia population among seasons, sampling stations, depth and sampling layer (Kruskalwallis test, p〈0.05) and the total zooplankton populatin had no significant difference only between seasons (Kruskal-wallis test, p〉0.05). The Cladocera, Lamellibranchiata larvae and the Rotatoria had significant difference between seasons only (Kruskal-wallis test, p〈0.01).
    Keywords: Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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