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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-12-20
    Description: In a small fraction of patients with schizophrenia or autism, alleles of copy-number variants (CNVs) in their genomes are probably the strongest factors contributing to the pathogenesis of the disease. These CNVs may provide an entry point for investigations into the mechanisms of brain function and dysfunction alike. They are not fully penetrant and offer an opportunity to study their effects separate from that of manifest disease. Here we show in an Icelandic sample that a few of the CNVs clearly alter fecundity (measured as the number of children by age 45). Furthermore, we use various tests of cognitive function to demonstrate that control subjects carrying the CNVs perform at a level that is between that of schizophrenia patients and population controls. The CNVs do not all affect the same cognitive domains, hence the cognitive deficits that drive or accompany the pathogenesis vary from one CNV to another. Controls carrying the chromosome 15q11.2 deletion between breakpoints 1 and 2 (15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion) have a history of dyslexia and dyscalculia, even after adjusting for IQ in the analysis, and the CNV only confers modest effects on other cognitive traits. The 15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion affects brain structure in a pattern consistent with both that observed during first-episode psychosis in schizophrenia and that of structural correlates in dyslexia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Stefansson, Hreinn -- Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas -- Steinberg, Stacy -- Magnusdottir, Brynja -- Morgen, Katrin -- Arnarsdottir, Sunna -- Bjornsdottir, Gyda -- Walters, G Bragi -- Jonsdottir, Gudrun A -- Doyle, Orla M -- Tost, Heike -- Grimm, Oliver -- Kristjansdottir, Solveig -- Snorrason, Heimir -- Davidsdottir, Solveig R -- Gudmundsson, Larus J -- Jonsson, Gudbjorn F -- Stefansdottir, Berglind -- Helgadottir, Isafold -- Haraldsson, Magnus -- Jonsdottir, Birna -- Thygesen, Johan H -- Schwarz, Adam J -- Didriksen, Michael -- Stensbol, Tine B -- Brammer, Michael -- Kapur, Shitij -- Halldorsson, Jonas G -- Hreidarsson, Stefan -- Saemundsen, Evald -- Sigurdsson, Engilbert -- Stefansson, Kari -- G0701748/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jan 16;505(7483):361-6. doi: 10.1038/nature12818. Epub 2013 Dec 18.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] deCODE genetics/Amgen, Sturlugata 8, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland [2]. ; 1] Central Institute of Mental Health, University of Heidelberg Medical Faculty Mannheim, 68159 Mannheim, Germany [2]. ; deCODE genetics/Amgen, Sturlugata 8, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland. ; Landspitali, Department of Psychiatry, National University Hospital, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland. ; Central Institute of Mental Health, University of Heidelberg Medical Faculty Mannheim, 68159 Mannheim, Germany. ; 1] deCODE genetics/Amgen, Sturlugata 8, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland [2] Landspitali, Department of Psychiatry, National University Hospital, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland. ; Institute of Psychiatry, King's College, 16 De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, UK. ; 1] Landspitali, Department of Psychiatry, National University Hospital, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland [2] University of Iceland, Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland. ; Rontgen Domus, Egilsgotu 3, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland. ; Mental Health Centre Sct. Hans, Copenhagen University Hospital, Research Institute of Biological Psychiatry, Boserupvej 2, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark. ; Tailored Therapeutics, Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Lilly Corporate Center DC 1940, Indianapolis, Indiana 46285, USA. ; H. Lundbeck A/S, Ottiliavej 9, DK-2500 Valby, Denmark. ; University of Iceland, Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland. ; The State Diagnostic and Counselling Centre, Digranesvegur 5, IS-200 Kopavogur, Iceland. ; 1] University of Iceland, Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland [2] The State Diagnostic and Counselling Centre, Digranesvegur 5, IS-200 Kopavogur, Iceland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24352232" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adolescent ; Adult ; Aged ; Autistic Disorder/*genetics ; Brain/abnormalities/anatomy & histology/metabolism ; Case-Control Studies ; Chromosome Deletion ; Chromosomes, Human/genetics ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15/genetics ; Cognition/*physiology ; DNA Copy Number Variations/*genetics ; Dyslexia/genetics ; Female ; Fertility/genetics ; *Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; Heterozygote ; Humans ; Iceland ; Learning Disorders/genetics ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; Male ; Middle Aged ; Neuropsychological Tests ; Phenotype ; Schizophrenia/*genetics ; Young Adult
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 1981-07-31
    Description: The formation of diketopiperazines from the dipeptides isoleucylglycine and glycylisoleucine was investigated at 132 degrees C over the pH range approximately 2 to 10. At pH 6.2, approximately 50 percent of the original dipeptides were converted to the diketopiperazines during the heating experiments. Hydrolysis of the diketopiperazines can yield either the original dipetide or an inverted dipeptide product. The isoleucine in the diketopiperazines was the most highly epimerized component in the system. Previous racemization and epimerization studies with dipeptides have not taken into account the formation of diketopiperazines and, as a result, the cortclusions about the mechanism and geochemical implications of amino acid racemization in dipeptides will require revision.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Steinberg, S -- Bada, J L -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Jul 31;213(4507):544-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17794841" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 1993-04-30
    Description: Lattice mismatch stresses, which severely restrict heteroepitaxial growth, are greatly minimized when thin alumina films are grown by means of van der Waals forces on inert mica substrates. A 10-nanometer-thick epitaxial film exhibits crystallographic sixfold symmetry, a lattice constant close to that of the basal plane [0001] of alpha-alumina (sapphire), and an aluminum: oxygen atomic ratio of 1:1.51 +/- 0.02 (measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), again the same as for bulk sapphire. The film is free of steps and grain boundaries over large areas and appears to be an ideal model system for studying adhesion, tribology, and other surface phenomena at atomic scales.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Steinberg, S -- Ducker, W -- Vigil, G -- Hyukjin, C -- Frank, C -- Tseng, M Z -- Clarke, D R -- Israelachvili, J N -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1993 Apr 30;260(5108):656-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17812223" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 1994-06-24
    Description: An x-ray surface forces apparatus for simultaneously measuring forces and structures of confined complex fluids under static and flow conditions is described. This apparatus, combined with an intense synchrotron x-ray source, allows investigation of molecular orientations within a thin liquid crystal film confined between two shearing mica surfaces 3900 angstroms apart. The layer-forming smectic liquid crystal 8CB (4-cyano-4'-octylbiphenyl) adopted a series of distinct planar layer orientations, including the bulk flow-forbidden b orientation.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Idziak, S H -- Safinya, C R -- Hill, R S -- Kraiser, K E -- Ruths, M -- Warriner, H E -- Steinberg, S -- Liang, K S -- Israelachvili, J N -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1994 Jun 24;264(5167):1915-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17794078" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2012-07-18
    Description: The prevalence of dementia in the Western world in people over the age of 60 has been estimated to be greater than 5%, about two-thirds of which are due to Alzheimer's disease. The age-specific prevalence of Alzheimer's disease nearly doubles every 5 years after age 65, leading to a prevalence of greater than 25% in those over the age of 90 (ref. 3). Here, to search for low-frequency variants in the amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP) gene with a significant effect on the risk of Alzheimer's disease, we studied coding variants in APP in a set of whole-genome sequence data from 1,795 Icelanders. We found a coding mutation (A673T) in the APP gene that protects against Alzheimer's disease and cognitive decline in the elderly without Alzheimer's disease. This substitution is adjacent to the aspartyl protease beta-site in APP, and results in an approximately 40% reduction in the formation of amyloidogenic peptides in vitro. The strong protective effect of the A673T substitution against Alzheimer's disease provides proof of principle for the hypothesis that reducing the beta-cleavage of APP may protect against the disease. Furthermore, as the A673T allele also protects against cognitive decline in the elderly without Alzheimer's disease, the two may be mediated through the same or similar mechanisms.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jonsson, Thorlakur -- Atwal, Jasvinder K -- Steinberg, Stacy -- Snaedal, Jon -- Jonsson, Palmi V -- Bjornsson, Sigurbjorn -- Stefansson, Hreinn -- Sulem, Patrick -- Gudbjartsson, Daniel -- Maloney, Janice -- Hoyte, Kwame -- Gustafson, Amy -- Liu, Yichin -- Lu, Yanmei -- Bhangale, Tushar -- Graham, Robert R -- Huttenlocher, Johanna -- Bjornsdottir, Gyda -- Andreassen, Ole A -- Jonsson, Erik G -- Palotie, Aarno -- Behrens, Timothy W -- Magnusson, Olafur T -- Kong, Augustine -- Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur -- Watts, Ryan J -- Stefansson, Kari -- HL-102924/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL-102925/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL-102926/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL-103010/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Aug 2;488(7409):96-9. doi: 10.1038/nature11283.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉deCODE genetics, Sturlugata 8, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22801501" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging/*genetics ; Alleles ; Alzheimer Disease/*genetics/pathology/physiopathology/prevention & control ; Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases/metabolism ; Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor/chemistry/*genetics/*metabolism ; Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases/metabolism ; Cognition/physiology ; Cognition Disorders/*genetics/*physiopathology/prevention & control ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; HEK293 Cells ; Humans ; Mutation/*genetics ; Plaque, Amyloid/genetics/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2008-08-01
    Description: Reduced fecundity, associated with severe mental disorders, places negative selection pressure on risk alleles and may explain, in part, why common variants have not been found that confer risk of disorders such as autism, schizophrenia and mental retardation. Thus, rare variants may account for a larger fraction of the overall genetic risk than previously assumed. In contrast to rare single nucleotide mutations, rare copy number variations (CNVs) can be detected using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. This has led to the identification of CNVs associated with mental retardation and autism. In a genome-wide search for CNVs associating with schizophrenia, we used a population-based sample to identify de novo CNVs by analysing 9,878 transmissions from parents to offspring. The 66 de novo CNVs identified were tested for association in a sample of 1,433 schizophrenia cases and 33,250 controls. Three deletions at 1q21.1, 15q11.2 and 15q13.3 showing nominal association with schizophrenia in the first sample (phase I) were followed up in a second sample of 3,285 cases and 7,951 controls (phase II). All three deletions significantly associate with schizophrenia and related psychoses in the combined sample. The identification of these rare, recurrent risk variants, having occurred independently in multiple founders and being subject to negative selection, is important in itself. CNV analysis may also point the way to the identification of additional and more prevalent risk variants in genes and pathways involved in schizophrenia.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2687075/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2687075/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Stefansson, Hreinn -- Rujescu, Dan -- Cichon, Sven -- Pietilainen, Olli P H -- Ingason, Andres -- Steinberg, Stacy -- Fossdal, Ragnheidur -- Sigurdsson, Engilbert -- Sigmundsson, Thordur -- Buizer-Voskamp, Jacobine E -- Hansen, Thomas -- Jakobsen, Klaus D -- Muglia, Pierandrea -- Francks, Clyde -- Matthews, Paul M -- Gylfason, Arnaldur -- Halldorsson, Bjarni V -- Gudbjartsson, Daniel -- Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir E -- Sigurdsson, Asgeir -- Jonasdottir, Adalbjorg -- Jonasdottir, Aslaug -- Bjornsson, Asgeir -- Mattiasdottir, Sigurborg -- Blondal, Thorarinn -- Haraldsson, Magnus -- Magnusdottir, Brynja B -- Giegling, Ina -- Moller, Hans-Jurgen -- Hartmann, Annette -- Shianna, Kevin V -- Ge, Dongliang -- Need, Anna C -- Crombie, Caroline -- Fraser, Gillian -- Walker, Nicholas -- Lonnqvist, Jouko -- Suvisaari, Jaana -- Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamarie -- Paunio, Tiina -- Toulopoulou, Timi -- Bramon, Elvira -- Di Forti, Marta -- Murray, Robin -- Ruggeri, Mirella -- Vassos, Evangelos -- Tosato, Sarah -- Walshe, Muriel -- Li, Tao -- Vasilescu, Catalina -- Muhleisen, Thomas W -- Wang, August G -- Ullum, Henrik -- Djurovic, Srdjan -- Melle, Ingrid -- Olesen, Jes -- Kiemeney, Lambertus A -- Franke, Barbara -- GROUP -- Sabatti, Chiara -- Freimer, Nelson B -- Gulcher, Jeffrey R -- Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur -- Kong, Augustine -- Andreassen, Ole A -- Ophoff, Roel A -- Georgi, Alexander -- Rietschel, Marcella -- Werge, Thomas -- Petursson, Hannes -- Goldstein, David B -- Nothen, Markus M -- Peltonen, Leena -- Collier, David A -- St Clair, David -- Stefansson, Kari -- 089061/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- G0901310/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- PDA/02/06/016/Department of Health/United Kingdom -- R01 MH078075/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01MH71425-01A1/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2008 Sep 11;455(7210):232-6. doi: 10.1038/nature07229.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉CNS Division, deCODE genetics, Sturlugata 8, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18668039" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: China ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1/genetics ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15/genetics ; Europe ; Gene Dosage/genetics ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics ; Genome, Human/genetics ; Genotype ; Humans ; Loss of Heterozygosity ; Models, Genetic ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Psychotic Disorders/genetics ; Schizophrenia/*genetics ; Sequence Deletion/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-06-29
    Description: Bernard, K. S., and Steinberg, D. K. 2013. Krill biomass and aggregation structure in relation to tidal cycle in a penguin foraging region off the Western Antarctic Peninsula. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 70: 834–849 Antarctic krill are a key component of the diet of Adélie penguins inhabiting the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP), yet our understanding of the variability of krill distribution patterns within nearshore penguin feeding grounds is limited. A recent study of the foraging patterns of penguins breeding in the northern WAP suggests that tidal phase plays a role in foraging distance. We used acoustics to examine biomass and aggregation structure of krill in the penguin foraging grounds off Palmer Station during diurnal and semi-diurnal tides. Nearshore, integrated krill biomass during diurnal tides was significantly higher than during semi-diurnal tides. Krill aggregations were also shallower, closer together, and larger in dimension during diurnal tides. Conversely, krill aggregations had higher volumetric biomass and abundance during semi-diurnal tides. Further offshore, at the head of the Palmer Deep canyon, krill aggregations were similar to those observed nearshore during diurnal tides (i.e. shallow, close together, and large in dimension). Since krill aggregation structure strongly influences availability as a potential prey source, we suggest that foraging behavior of Adélie penguins in this region is strongly linked to the variability in nearshore krill aggregation structure as well as biomass.
    Print ISSN: 1054-3139
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9289
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-06-28
    Description: The emergence and future of mammalian synthetic biology depends on technologies for orchestrating and custom tailoring complementary gene expression and signaling processes in a predictable manner. Here, we demonstrate for the first time multi-chromatic expression control in mammalian cells by differentially inducing up to three genes in a single cell culture in response to light of different wavelengths. To this end, we developed an ultraviolet B (UVB)-inducible expression system by designing a UVB-responsive split transcription factor based on the Arabidopsis thaliana UVB receptor UVR8 and the WD40 domain of COP1. The system allowed high (up to 800-fold) UVB-induced gene expression in human, monkey, hamster and mouse cells. Based on a quantitative model, we determined critical system parameters. By combining this UVB-responsive system with blue and red light-inducible gene control technology, we demonstrate multi-chromatic multi-gene control by differentially expressing three genes in a single cell culture in mammalian cells, and we apply this system for the multi-chromatic control of angiogenic signaling processes. This portfolio of optogenetic tools enables the design and implementation of synthetic biological networks showing unmatched spatiotemporal precision for future research and biomedical applications.
    Print ISSN: 0305-1048
    Electronic ISSN: 1362-4962
    Topics: Biology
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2009-07-03
    Description: Schizophrenia is a complex disorder, caused by both genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. Research on pathogenesis has traditionally focused on neurotransmitter systems in the brain, particularly those involving dopamine. Schizophrenia has been considered a separate disease for over a century, but in the absence of clear biological markers, diagnosis has historically been based on signs and symptoms. A fundamental message emerging from genome-wide association studies of copy number variations (CNVs) associated with the disease is that its genetic basis does not necessarily conform to classical nosological disease boundaries. Certain CNVs confer not only high relative risk of schizophrenia but also of other psychiatric disorders. The structural variations associated with schizophrenia can involve several genes and the phenotypic syndromes, or the 'genomic disorders', have not yet been characterized. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genome-wide association studies with the potential to implicate individual genes in complex diseases may reveal underlying biological pathways. Here we combined SNP data from several large genome-wide scans and followed up the most significant association signals. We found significant association with several markers spanning the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region on chromosome 6p21.3-22.1, a marker located upstream of the neurogranin gene (NRGN) on 11q24.2 and a marker in intron four of transcription factor 4 (TCF4) on 18q21.2. Our findings implicating the MHC region are consistent with an immune component to schizophrenia risk, whereas the association with NRGN and TCF4 points to perturbation of pathways involved in brain development, memory and cognition.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3077530/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3077530/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Stefansson, Hreinn -- Ophoff, Roel A -- Steinberg, Stacy -- Andreassen, Ole A -- Cichon, Sven -- Rujescu, Dan -- Werge, Thomas -- Pietilainen, Olli P H -- Mors, Ole -- Mortensen, Preben B -- Sigurdsson, Engilbert -- Gustafsson, Omar -- Nyegaard, Mette -- Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari -- Ingason, Andres -- Hansen, Thomas -- Suvisaari, Jaana -- Lonnqvist, Jouko -- Paunio, Tiina -- Borglum, Anders D -- Hartmann, Annette -- Fink-Jensen, Anders -- Nordentoft, Merete -- Hougaard, David -- Norgaard-Pedersen, Bent -- Bottcher, Yvonne -- Olesen, Jes -- Breuer, Rene -- Moller, Hans-Jurgen -- Giegling, Ina -- Rasmussen, Henrik B -- Timm, Sally -- Mattheisen, Manuel -- Bitter, Istvan -- Rethelyi, Janos M -- Magnusdottir, Brynja B -- Sigmundsson, Thordur -- Olason, Pall -- Masson, Gisli -- Gulcher, Jeffrey R -- Haraldsson, Magnus -- Fossdal, Ragnheidur -- Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir E -- Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur -- Ruggeri, Mirella -- Tosato, Sarah -- Franke, Barbara -- Strengman, Eric -- Kiemeney, Lambertus A -- Genetic Risk and Outcome in Psychosis (GROUP) -- Melle, Ingrid -- Djurovic, Srdjan -- Abramova, Lilia -- Kaleda, Vasily -- Sanjuan, Julio -- de Frutos, Rosa -- Bramon, Elvira -- Vassos, Evangelos -- Fraser, Gillian -- Ettinger, Ulrich -- Picchioni, Marco -- Walker, Nicholas -- Toulopoulou, Timi -- Need, Anna C -- Ge, Dongliang -- Yoon, Joeng Lim -- Shianna, Kevin V -- Freimer, Nelson B -- Cantor, Rita M -- Murray, Robin -- Kong, Augustine -- Golimbet, Vera -- Carracedo, Angel -- Arango, Celso -- Costas, Javier -- Jonsson, Erik G -- Terenius, Lars -- Agartz, Ingrid -- Petursson, Hannes -- Nothen, Markus M -- Rietschel, Marcella -- Matthews, Paul M -- Muglia, Pierandrea -- Peltonen, Leena -- St Clair, David -- Goldstein, David B -- Stefansson, Kari -- Collier, David A -- 089061/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 1R01HL087679-01/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- PDA/02/06/016/Department of Health/United Kingdom -- R01 MH078075/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2009 Aug 6;460(7256):744-7. doi: 10.1038/nature08186. Epub 2009 Jul 1.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉deCODE genetics, Sturlugata 8, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19571808" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11/genetics ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18/genetics ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6/genetics ; DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics ; Genetic Markers/genetics ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics ; Genome, Human/genetics ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; Genotype ; Humans ; Major Histocompatibility Complex/genetics ; Neurogranin/genetics ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/*genetics ; Schizophrenia/*genetics/immunology ; Transcription Factors/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2012-08-24
    Description: Mutations generate sequence diversity and provide a substrate for selection. The rate of de novo mutations is therefore of major importance to evolution. Here we conduct a study of genome-wide mutation rates by sequencing the entire genomes of 78 Icelandic parent-offspring trios at high coverage. We show that in our samples, with an average father's age of 29.7, the average de novo mutation rate is 1.20 x 10(-8) per nucleotide per generation. Most notably, the diversity in mutation rate of single nucleotide polymorphisms is dominated by the age of the father at conception of the child. The effect is an increase of about two mutations per year. An exponential model estimates paternal mutations doubling every 16.5 years. After accounting for random Poisson variation, father's age is estimated to explain nearly all of the remaining variation in the de novo mutation counts. These observations shed light on the importance of the father's age on the risk of diseases such as schizophrenia and autism.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3548427/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3548427/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kong, Augustine -- Frigge, Michael L -- Masson, Gisli -- Besenbacher, Soren -- Sulem, Patrick -- Magnusson, Gisli -- Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A -- Sigurdsson, Asgeir -- Jonasdottir, Aslaug -- Jonasdottir, Adalbjorg -- Wong, Wendy S W -- Sigurdsson, Gunnar -- Walters, G Bragi -- Steinberg, Stacy -- Helgason, Hannes -- Thorleifsson, Gudmar -- Gudbjartsson, Daniel F -- Helgason, Agnar -- Magnusson, Olafur Th -- Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur -- Stefansson, Kari -- MH071425/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH071425/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Aug 23;488(7412):471-5. doi: 10.1038/nature11396.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉deCODE Genetics, Sturlugata 8, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland. kong@decode.is〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22914163" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Autistic Disorder/epidemiology/etiology/*genetics ; Chromosomes, Human/genetics ; Female ; *Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; Genome, Human/genetics ; Humans ; Iceland/epidemiology ; Male ; Middle Aged ; Mothers ; *Mutation Rate ; Ovum/metabolism ; *Paternal Age ; Pedigree ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Risk Factors ; Schizophrenia/epidemiology/etiology/*genetics ; Selection, Genetic/genetics ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Spermatozoa/metabolism ; Young Adult
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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