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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-06-24
    Description: Adjusting the growth conditions from those for c -plane growth realizes high-quality semipolar ( 1 1 ¯ 02 ) AlGaN/AlN quantum wells (QWs) with atomically smooth surfaces and abrupt interfaces on AlN substrates. Upon comparing the optical properties to those of c -plane QWs using time-integrated and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy, the estimated internal electric field is much smaller in ( 1 1 ¯ 02 ) AlGaN/AlN QWs than in c -plane QWs. Thus, ( 1 1 ¯ 02 ) AlGaN/AlN QWs have narrower emission line widths and remarkably faster radiative recombination lifetimes, realizing highly efficient deep ultraviolet emissions.
    Print ISSN: 0003-6951
    Electronic ISSN: 1077-3118
    Topics: Physics
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  • 2
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-05-27
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nagata, Shigekazu -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 18;533(7604):474-6. doi: 10.1038/nature18439.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Biochemistry and Immunology, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27225115" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Caspases/*metabolism ; *Cell Differentiation ; Cytochrome c Group/*metabolism ; Drosophila melanogaster/*cytology ; Male ; Spermatozoa/*cytology/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2009-06-30
    Description: Innate immunity is stimulated not only by viral or bacterial components, but also by non-microbial danger signals (damage-associated molecular patterns). One of the damage-associated molecular patterns is chromosomal DNA that escapes degradation. In programmed cell death and erythropoiesis, DNA from dead cells or nuclei expelled from erythroblasts is digested by DNase II in the macrophages after they are engulfed. DNase II(-/-) (also known as Dnase2a(-/-)) mice suffer from severe anaemia or chronic arthritis due to interferon-beta (IFN-beta) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) produced from the macrophages carrying undigested DNA in a Toll-like receptor (TLR)-independent mechanism. Here we show that Eyes absent 4 (EYA4), originally identified as a co-transcription factor, stimulates the expression of IFN-beta and CXCL10 in response to the undigested DNA of apoptotic cells. EYA4 enhanced the innate immune response against viruses (Newcastle disease virus and vesicular stomatitis virus), and could associate with signalling molecules (IPS-1 (also known as MAVS), STING (TMEM173) and NLRX1). Three groups have previously shown that EYA has phosphatase activity. We found that mouse EYA family members act as a phosphatase for both phosphotyrosine and phosphothreonine. The haloacid dehalogenase domain at the carboxy terminus contained the tyrosine-phosphatase, and the amino-terminal half carried the threonine-phosphatase. Mutations of the threonine-phosphatase, but not the tyrosine-phosphatase, abolished the ability of EYA4 to enhance the innate immune response, suggesting that EYA regulates the innate immune response by modulating the phosphorylation state of signal transducers for the intracellular pathogens.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Okabe, Yasutaka -- Sano, Teruyuki -- Nagata, Shigekazu -- England -- Nature. 2009 Jul 23;460(7254):520-4. doi: 10.1038/nature08138. Epub 2009 Jun 28.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Medical Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19561593" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Apoptosis ; Cell Line ; Chemokine CXCL10/metabolism ; Gene Expression Regulation/*immunology ; Humans ; Immunity, Innate/*immunology ; Interferon-beta/metabolism ; Membrane Proteins/metabolism ; Mice ; Mitochondrial Proteins/metabolism ; Phosphoprotein Phosphatases/*metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; Trans-Activators/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2010-11-26
    Description: In all animal cells, phospholipids are asymmetrically distributed between the outer and inner leaflets of the plasma membrane. This asymmetrical phospholipid distribution is disrupted in various biological systems. For example, when blood platelets are activated, they expose phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) to trigger the clotting system. The PtdSer exposure is believed to be mediated by Ca(2+)-dependent phospholipid scramblases that transport phospholipids bidirectionally, but its molecular mechanism is still unknown. Here we show that TMEM16F (transmembrane protein 16F) is an essential component for the Ca(2+)-dependent exposure of PtdSer on the cell surface. When a mouse B-cell line, Ba/F3, was treated with a Ca(2+) ionophore under low-Ca(2+) conditions, it reversibly exposed PtdSer. Using this property, we established a Ba/F3 subline that strongly exposed PtdSer by repetitive fluorescence-activated cell sorting. A complementary DNA library was constructed from the subline, and a cDNA that caused Ba/F3 to expose PtdSer spontaneously was identified by expression cloning. The cDNA encoded a constitutively active mutant of TMEM16F, a protein with eight transmembrane segments. Wild-type TMEM16F was localized on the plasma membrane and conferred Ca(2+)-dependent scrambling of phospholipids. A patient with Scott syndrome, which results from a defect in phospholipid scrambling activity, was found to carry a mutation at a splice-acceptor site of the gene encoding TMEM16F, causing the premature termination of the protein.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Suzuki, Jun -- Umeda, Masato -- Sims, Peter J -- Nagata, Shigekazu -- England -- Nature. 2010 Dec 9;468(7325):834-8. doi: 10.1038/nature09583. Epub 2010 Nov 24.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Medical Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Yoshida, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21107324" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; B-Lymphocytes/cytology/drug effects ; Calcium/antagonists & inhibitors/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Cell Line ; Cell Membrane/drug effects/*metabolism ; Cloning, Molecular ; DNA, Complementary/genetics ; Flow Cytometry ; Gene Library ; Humans ; Ionophores/pharmacology ; Mice ; Mutant Proteins/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Phosphatidylserines/metabolism ; Phospholipid Transfer Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Phospholipids/*metabolism ; RNA Splice Sites/genetics ; Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction ; Syndrome
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-09-30
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sakahira, Hideki -- Enari, Masato -- Nagata, Shigekazu -- England -- Nature. 2015 Oct 29;526(7575):728. doi: 10.1038/nature15532. Epub 2015 Sep 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26416741" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-07-13
    Description: A classic feature of apoptotic cells is the cell-surface exposure of phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) as an "eat me" signal for engulfment. We show that the Xk-family protein Xkr8 mediates PtdSer exposure in response to apoptotic stimuli. Mouse Xkr8(-/-) cells or human cancer cells in which Xkr8 expression was repressed by hypermethylation failed to expose PtdSer during apoptosis and were inefficiently engulfed by phagocytes. Xkr8 was activated directly by caspases and required a caspase-3 cleavage site for its function. CED-8, the only Caenorhabditis elegans Xk-family homolog, also promoted apoptotic PtdSer exposure and cell-corpse engulfment. Thus, Xk-family proteins have evolutionarily conserved roles in promoting the phagocytosis of dying cells by altering the phospholipid distribution in the plasma membrane.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Suzuki, Jun -- Denning, Daniel P -- Imanishi, Eiichi -- Horvitz, H Robert -- Nagata, Shigekazu -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Jul 26;341(6144):403-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1236758. Epub 2013 Jul 11.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Medical Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23845944" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; *Apoptosis ; Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/*metabolism ; Calcium/metabolism ; Caspases/metabolism ; Cell Line ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Membrane/*metabolism ; CpG Islands ; Humans ; Macrophages/physiology ; Membrane Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; Molecular Sequence Data ; *Phagocytosis ; Phosphatidylserines/*metabolism ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-10-12
    Description: Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are biosynthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) and transported via the Golgi apparatus to the extracellular space. The coat protein complex II (COPII) transport vesicles are approximately 60–90 nm in diameter. However, several ECM molecules are much larger, up to several hundreds of nanometers. Therefore,...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-07-04
    Description: Chromatin structure and its alteration play critical roles in the regulation of transcription. However, the transcriptional silencing mechanism with regard to the chromatin structure at an unstimulated state of the interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene (ISG) remains unclear. Here we investigated the role of template activating factor-I (TAF-I, also known as SET) in ISG transcription. Knockdown (KD) of TAF-I increased ISG transcript and simultaneously reduced the histone H1 level on the ISG promoters during the early stages of transcription after IFN stimulation from the unstimulated state. The transcription factor levels on the ISG promoters were increased in TAF-I KD cells only during the early stages of transcription. Furthermore, histone H1 KD also increased ISG transcript. TAF-I and histone H1 double KD did not show the additive effect in ISG transcription, suggesting that TAF-I and histone H1 may act on the same regulatory pathway to control ISG transcription. In addition, TAF-I KD and histone H1 KD affected the chromatin structure near the ISG promoters. On the basis of these findings, we propose that TAF-I and its target histone H1 are key regulators of the chromatin structure at the ISG promoter to maintain the silent state of ISG transcription.
    Print ISSN: 0305-1048
    Electronic ISSN: 1362-4962
    Topics: Biology
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2012-01-25
    Description: Enhancement of cerebral blood flow by hypoxia is critical for brain function, but signaling systems underlying its regulation have been unclear. We report a pathway mediating hypoxia-induced cerebral vasodilation in studies monitoring vascular disposition in cerebellar slices and in intact mouse brains using two-photon intravital laser scanning microscopy. In this cascade, hypoxia elicits cerebral vasodilation via the coordinate actions of H2S formed by cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and CO generated by heme oxygenase (HO)-2. Hypoxia diminishes CO generation by HO-2, an oxygen sensor. The constitutive CO physiologically inhibits CBS, and hypoxia leads to increased levels of H2S that mediate the vasodilation of precapillary arterioles. Mice with targeted deletion of HO-2 or CBS display impaired vascular responses to hypoxia. Thus, in intact adult brain cerebral cortex of HO-2–null mice, imaging mass spectrometry reveals an impaired ability to maintain ATP levels on hypoxia.
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 10
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-09-19
    Description: The sequence of a human leukocyte-derived complementary DNA (cDNA), Hif-2h, which directs the formation in Escherichia coli of a polypeptide, IFN-alpha 1, with interferon (IFN) activity has been described. A second IFN cDNA, Hif-SN206, which also elicits synthesis of a biologically active IFN, IFN-alpha 2, is described in this article. Whereas IFN-alpha 2 is twice as active on human as on bovine cells, IFN-alpha 1 is 10 to 20 times more active on bovine than on human cells. As deduced from the cDNA's, the messenger RNA's for the two IFN's differ in length and in 20 percent of the nucleotides; the mature IFN polypeptides differ in 17 percent of the amino acids. Both IFN-alpha 1 and IFN-alpha 2 differ from the lymphoblastoid IFN described by others. Therefore, at least three different IFN-alpha genes are expressed in man; studies on genomic DNA reveal the presence of at least eight IFN-related genes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Streuli, M -- Nagata, S -- Weissmann, C -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Sep 19;209(4463):1343-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6158094" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Base Sequence ; DNA, Recombinant ; Escherichia coli/genetics ; Genes ; Humans ; *Interferons/genetics ; Leukocytes ; Lymphocytes ; Mice ; RNA, Messenger/genetics ; Structure-Activity Relationship
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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