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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-09-20
    Description: Coxsackievirus A10 (CVA10) recently emerged as a major pathogen of hand, foot, and mouth disease and herpangina in children worldwide, and lack of a vaccine or a cure against CVA10 infections has made therapeutic antibody identification a public health priority. By targeting a local isolate, CVA10-FJ-01, we obtained a potent antibody, 2G8, against all three capsid forms of CVA10. We show that 2G8 exhibited both 100% preventive and 100% therapeutic efficacy against CVA10 infection in mice. Comparisons of the near-atomic cryo–electron microscopy structures of the three forms of CVA10 capsid and their complexes with 2G8 Fab reveal that a single Fab binds a border region across the three capsid proteins (VP1 to VP3) and explain 2G8’s remarkable cross-reactivities against all three capsid forms. The atomic structures of this first neutralizing antibody of CVA10 should inform strategies for designing vaccines and therapeutics against CVA10 infections.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-11-12
    Description: Resonant photoemission spectroscopy is used to study the intermediate-band material Cr doped ZnS. Using resonant photoemission, we show that the intermediate-band can be characterized, revealing the filling and specific orbital character of the states contributing to the resonant photoemission signal. We demonstrate that resonant photoemission spectroscopy is a powerful approach for understanding the origin of intermediate bands in doped ZnS. The methodology can be widely extended to a large variety of materials, providing useful information towards engineering of high efficiency intermediate band solar cells and of other optoelectronic devices.
    Print ISSN: 0003-6951
    Electronic ISSN: 1077-3118
    Topics: Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-09-02
    Description: NONO, SFPQ and PSPC1 make up a family of proteins with diverse roles in transcription, RNA processing and DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. To understand long-term effects of loss of NONO, we characterized murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from knockout mice. In the absence of genotoxic stress, wild-type and mutant MEFs showed similar growth rates and cell cycle distributions, and the mutants were only mildly radiosensitive. Further investigation showed that NONO deficiency led to upregulation of PSPC1, which replaced NONO in a stable complex with SFPQ. Knockdown of PSPC1 in a NONO-deficient background led to severe radiosensitivity and delayed resolution of DSB repair foci. The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) inhibitor, NU7741, sensitized wild-type and singly deficient MEFs, but had no additional effect on doubly deficient cells, suggesting that NONO/PSPC1 and DNA-PK function in the same pathway. We tested whether NONO and PSPC1 might also affect repair indirectly by influencing mRNA levels for other DSB repair genes. Of 12 genes tested, none were downregulated, and several were upregulated. Thus, NONO or related proteins are critical for DSB repair, NONO and PSPC1 are functional homologs with partially interchangeable functions and a compensatory response involving PSPC1 blunts the effect of NONO deficiency.
    Print ISSN: 0305-1048
    Electronic ISSN: 1362-4962
    Topics: Biology
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-03-25
    Description: Author(s): P. W. Luo, X. G. Wu, H. B. Sun, G. S. Li, C. Y. He, Y. Zheng, C. B. Li, S. P. Hu, Y. H. Wu, H. W. Li, J. J. Liu, J. L. Wang, S. H. Yao, and Scott A. Edwards The high-spin level structure of the semi-magic nucleus Nb91 has been investigated via the 82Se(14N,5n)Nb91 reaction at a beam energy of 60 MeV. Based on these experimental results, a new level scheme is established that modifies and extends earlier schemes. Shell-model calculations have been carrie... [Phys. Rev. C 89, 034318] Published Mon Mar 24, 2014
    Keywords: Nuclear Structure
    Print ISSN: 0556-2813
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-490X
    Topics: Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2014-04-18
    Description: Mutations in TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) are associated with familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Although recent studies have revealed that mutant TDP-43 in neuronal and glial cells is toxic, how mutant TDP-43 causes primarily neuronal degeneration in an age-dependent manner remains unclear. Using adeno-associated virus (AAV) that expresses mutant TDP-43 (M337V) ubiquitously, we found that mutant TDP-43 accumulates preferentially in neuronal cells in the postnatal mouse brain. We then ubiquitously or selectively expressed mutant TDP-43 in neuronal and glial cells in the striatum of adult mouse brains via stereotaxic injection of AAV vectors and found that it also preferentially accumulates in neuronal cells. Expression of mutant TDP-43 in neurons in the striatum causes more severe degeneration, earlier death and more robust symptoms in mice than expression of mutant TDP-43 in glial cells; however, aging increases the expression of mutant TDP-43 in glial cells, and expression of mutant TDP-43 in older mice caused earlier onset of phenotypes and more severe neuropathology than that in younger mice. Although expression of mutant TDP-43 in glial cells via stereotaxic injection does not lead to robust neurological phenotypes, systemic inhibition of the proteasome activity via MG132 in postnatal mice could exacerbate glial TDP-43-mediated toxicity and cause mice to die earlier. Consistently, this inhibition increases the expression of mutant TDP-43 in glial cells in mouse brains. Thus, the differential accumulation of mutant TDP-43 in neuronal versus glial cells contributes to the preferential toxicity of mutant TDP-43 in neuronal cells and age-dependent pathology.
    Print ISSN: 0964-6906
    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2083
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2014-06-17
    Description: Motivation: Transcriptome sequencing has long been the favored method for quickly and inexpensively obtaining a large number of gene sequences from an organism with no reference genome. Owing to the rapid increase in throughputs and decrease in costs of next- generation sequencing, RNA-Seq in particular has become the method of choice. However, the very short reads (e.g. 2 x 90 bp paired ends) from next generation sequencing makes de novo assembly to recover complete or full-length transcript sequences an algorithmic challenge. Results: Here, we present SOAPdenovo-Trans, a de novo transcriptome assembler designed specifically for RNA-Seq. We evaluated its performance on transcriptome datasets from rice and mouse. Using as our benchmarks the known transcripts from these well-annotated genomes (sequenced a decade ago), we assessed how SOAPdenovo-Trans and two other popular transcriptome assemblers handled such practical issues as alternative splicing and variable expression levels. Our conclusion is that SOAPdenovo-Trans provides higher contiguity, lower redundancy and faster execution. Availability and implementation: Source code and user manual are available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/soapdenovotrans/ . Contact: xieyl@genomics.cn or bgi-soap@googlegroups.com Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
    Print ISSN: 1367-4803
    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2059
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science , Medicine
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2015-01-16
    Description: Current gene co-expression databases and correlation networks do not support cell-specific analysis. Gene co-expression and expression correlation are subtly different phenomena, although both are likely to be functionally significant. Here, we report a new database, ImmuCo ( http://immuco.bjmu.edu.cn ), which is a cell-specific database that contains information about gene co-expression in immune cells, identifying co-expression and correlation between any two genes. The strength of co-expression of queried genes is indicated by signal values and detection calls, whereas expression correlation and strength are reflected by Pearson correlation coefficients. A scatter plot of the signal values is provided to directly illustrate the extent of co-expression and correlation. In addition, the database allows the analysis of cell-specific gene expression profile across multiple experimental conditions and can generate a list of genes that are highly correlated with the queried genes. Currently, the database covers 18 human cell groups and 10 mouse cell groups, including 20 283 human genes and 20 963 mouse genes. More than 8.6 x 10 8 and 7.4 x 10 8 probe set combinations are provided for querying each human and mouse cell group, respectively. Sample applications support the distinctive advantages of the database.
    Print ISSN: 0305-1048
    Electronic ISSN: 1362-4962
    Topics: Biology
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-01-16
    Description: One of the key features of the dynamics of a bubble near a rigid wall is the development of a high liquid jet, generating highly localized pressure on the wall. In present study, the boundary integral method is employed to simulate this phenomenon, and the vortex ring model is introduced to handle the discontinued potential of the toroidal bubble. Meanwhile, the pressure induced in the whole process is calculated by an auxiliary function. The effect of the stand-off parameter on the bubble dynamics and the pressure on the wall is investigated, and a double-peaked structure occurs in the pressure profile after the jet impact in some cases, which is associated with the jet impact and the high internal pressure inside the bubble.
    Print ISSN: 1757-8981
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-899X
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-04-16
    Description: Ubiquitination of misfolded proteins, a common feature of many neurodegenerative diseases, is mediated by different lysine (K) residues in ubiquitin and alters the levels of toxic proteins. In Huntington disease, polyglutamine expansion causes N-terminal huntingtin (Htt) to misfold, inducing neurodegeneration. Here we report that shorter N-terminal Htt fragments are more...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈p〉Metallic sodium is a potential anode material for rechargeable sodium-based batteries because of its high specific capacity and low cost. However, sodium commonly suffers from severe sodium dendrites and infinitely huge volume change, hampering its practical applications. Here, we demonstrate that sodium can be controllably deposited through main group II metals such as Be, Mg, and Ba since they have definite solubility in sodium and thus enable a marked reduction of the nucleation barriers of sodium, guiding the parallel growth of sodium on the metal substrates. By further homogeneously dispersing Mg clusters in a three-dimensional hierarchical structure on the basis of a carbonized Mg-based metal-organic framework–74 membrane, the nucleation barriers of sodium can be eliminated, owing to the plentiful Mg nucleation seeds. Hence, a dendrite-free sodium metal anode with a very low overpotential of 27 mV and a superior cycling stability of up to 1350 hours is achieved.〈/p〉
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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