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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈p〉HIV persistence during combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is the principal obstacle to cure. Mechanisms responsible for persistence remain uncertain; infections may be maintained by persistence and clonal expansion of infected cells or by ongoing replication in anatomic locations with poor antiretroviral penetration. These mechanisms require different strategies for eradication, and determining their contributions to HIV persistence is essential. We used phylogenetic approaches to investigate, at the DNA level, HIV populations in blood, lymphoid, and other infected tissues obtained at colonoscopy or autopsy in individuals who were on cART for 8 to 16 years. We found no evidence of ongoing replication or compartmentalization of HIV; we did detect clonal expansion of infected cells that were present before cART. Long-term persistence, and not ongoing replication, is primarily responsible for maintaining HIV. HIV-infected cells present when cART is initiated represent the only identifiable source of persistence and is the appropriate focus for eradication.〈/p〉
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-07-22
    Description: Cachexia is a wasting disorder of adipose and skeletal muscle tissues that leads to profound weight loss and frailty. About half of all cancer patients suffer from cachexia, which impairs quality of life, limits cancer therapy and decreases survival. One key characteristic of cachexia is higher resting energy expenditure levels than in healthy individuals, which has been linked to greater thermogenesis by brown fat. How tumours induce brown fat activity is unknown. Here, using a Lewis lung carcinoma model of cancer cachexia, we show that tumour-derived parathyroid-hormone-related protein (PTHrP) has an important role in wasting, through driving the expression of genes involved in thermogenesis in adipose tissues. Neutralization of PTHrP in tumour-bearing mice blocked adipose tissue browning and the loss of muscle mass and strength. Our results demonstrate that PTHrP mediates energy wasting in fat tissues and contributes to the broader aspects of cancer cachexia. Thus, neutralization of PTHrP might hold promise for ameliorating cancer cachexia and improving patient survival.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4224962/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4224962/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kir, Serkan -- White, James P -- Kleiner, Sandra -- Kazak, Lawrence -- Cohen, Paul -- Baracos, Vickie E -- Spiegelman, Bruce M -- DK31405/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK031405/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Sep 4;513(7516):100-4. doi: 10.1038/nature13528. Epub 2014 Jul 13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; Department of Oncology, Division of Palliative Care Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton T6G 1Z2, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25043053" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adipose Tissue, Brown/cytology/drug effects/*metabolism/pathology ; Animals ; Cachexia/*metabolism/pathology ; Carcinoma, Lewis Lung/genetics/*metabolism/*pathology ; Culture Media, Conditioned/pharmacology ; Energy Metabolism/drug effects ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects ; Humans ; Male ; Mice ; Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism/pathology ; Organ Size/drug effects ; Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein/antagonists & inhibitors/*metabolism ; Thermogenesis/drug effects/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2012-06-13
    Description: Reduced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) expression and mitochondrial dysfunction in adipose tissue have been associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Whether this association is causally involved in the development of insulin resistance or is only a consequence of this condition has not been clearly determined. Here we studied the effects of adipose-specific deficiency of PGC-1α on systemic glucose homeostasis. Loss of PGC-1α in white fat resulted in reduced expression of the thermogenic and mitochondrial genes in mice housed at ambient temperature, whereas gene expression patterns in brown fat were not altered. When challenged with a high-fat diet, insulin resistance was observed in the mutant mice, characterized by reduced suppression of hepatic glucose output. Resistance to insulin was also associated with an increase in circulating lipids, along with a decrease in the expression of genes regulating lipid metabolism and fatty acid uptake in adipose tissues. Taken together, these data demonstrate a critical role for adipose PGC-1α in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and a potentially causal involvement in the development of insulin resistance.
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2012-07-21
    Description: Author(s): D. Bothner, T. Gaber, M. Kemmler, D. Koelle, R. Kleiner, S. Wünsch, and M. Siegel We performed transmission spectroscopy experiments on coplanar half-wavelength niobium resonators at temperature T =4.2  K. We observe not only a strong dependence of the quality factor Q and the resonance frequency f res on an externally applied magnetic field but also on the magnetic history of our r... [Phys. Rev. B 86, 014517] Published Fri Jul 20, 2012
    Keywords: Superfluidity and superconductivity
    Print ISSN: 1098-0121
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-3795
    Topics: Physics
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