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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-02-19
    Description: Sex differences in physiology and disease susceptibility are commonly attributed to developmental and/or hormonal factors, but there is increasing realization that cell-intrinsic mechanisms play important and persistent roles. Here we use the Drosophila melanogaster intestine to investigate the nature and importance of cellular sex in an adult somatic organ in vivo. We find that the adult intestinal epithelium is a cellular mosaic of different sex differentiation pathways, and displays extensive sex differences in expression of genes with roles in growth and metabolism. Cell-specific reversals of the sexual identity of adult intestinal stem cells uncovers the key role this identity has in controlling organ size, reproductive plasticity and response to genetically induced tumours. Unlike previous examples of sexually dimorphic somatic stem cell activity, the sex differences in intestinal stem cell behaviour arise from intrinsic mechanisms that control cell cycle duration and involve a new doublesex- and fruitless-independent branch of the sex differentiation pathway downstream of transformer. Together, our findings indicate that the plasticity of an adult somatic organ is reversibly controlled by its sexual identity, imparted by a new mechanism that may be active in more tissues than previously recognized.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hudry, Bruno -- Khadayate, Sanjay -- Miguel-Aliaga, Irene -- Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 18;530(7590):344-8. doi: 10.1038/nature16953.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Campus, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult Stem Cells/*cytology ; Animals ; Cell Cycle ; Cell Proliferation ; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic ; Dosage Compensation, Genetic ; Drosophila Proteins/metabolism ; Drosophila melanogaster/*anatomy & histology/*cytology/genetics/growth & ; development ; Female ; Intestines/*cytology ; Male ; Nuclear Proteins/metabolism ; *Organ Size ; RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism ; Reproduction ; Ribonucleoproteins/metabolism ; *Sex Characteristics ; Sex Differentiation/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-06-07
    Description: Large intronic expansions of the triplet-repeat sequence (GAA.TTC) cause transcriptional repression of the Frataxin gene ( FXN ) leading to Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA). We previously found that GAA-triplet expansions stimulate heterochromatinization in vivo in transgenic mice. We report here using chromosome conformation capture (3C) coupled with high-throughput sequencing that the GAA-repeat expansion in FRDA cells stimulates a higher-order structure as a fragment containing the GAA-repeat expansion showed an increased interaction frequency with genomic regions along the FXN locus. This is consistent with a more compacted chromatin and coincided with an increase in both constitutive H3K9me3 and facultative H3K27me3 heterochromatic marks in FRDA. Consistent with this, DNase I accessibility in regions flanking the GAA repeats in patients was decreased compared with healthy controls. Strikingly, this effect could be antagonized with the class III histone deactylase (HDAC) inhibitor vitamin B3 (nicotinamide) which activated the silenced FXN gene in several FRDA models. Examination of the FXN locus revealed a reduction of H3K9me3 and H3K27me3, an increased accessibility to DNase I and an induction of euchromatic H3 and H4 histone acetylations upon nicotinamide treatment. In addition, transcriptomic analysis of nicotinamide treated and untreated FRDA primary lymphocytes revealed that the expression of 67% of genes known to be dysregulated in FRDA was ameliorated by the treatment. These findings show that nictotinamide can up-regulate the FXN gene and reveal a potential mechanism of action for nicotinamide in reactivating the epigenetically silenced FXN gene and therefore support the further assessment of HDAC inhibitors (HDACi's) in FRDA and diseases caused by a similar mechanism.
    Print ISSN: 0964-6906
    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2083
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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