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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-05-10
    Description: Knowing the slip amplitudes that large earthquakes produced in prehistorical times is one key to anticipate the magnitude of large forthcoming events. It is long known that the morphology is preserving remnants of paleoearthquake slips in the form of fault-offset landforms. However the measured offsets that can be attributed to the most recent paleoearthquakes are generally few along a fault, so that they rarely allow recovering the slip distributions and largest slips of these earthquakes. We acquired ~1 m resolution airborne LiDAR data on a 30 km stretch of a fast-slipping strike-slip fault (Eastern Hope fault, New Zealand) located in a region of high alluvial dynamics where landforms are rapidly evolving. Data analysis reveals 〉 200 offset landforms, only 30 % allow a good to moderate quality offset measurement. From these good to moderate quality measures, we recover the slip-length distributions and largest slips of the four most recent large paleoearthquakes, and find evidence of 4–6 prior events. The record suggests that large earthquake slip recurred in multiples of about 4 m along the 30 km stretch. Although they have larger uncertainties, the more numerous lower quality offsets that we also measured reveal a similar earthquake slip record. This shows that, although offset landforms are partly degraded in dynamically active landscapes, they store valuable information on paleoearthquake slips. This information might be recovered provided that the morphology is analyzed at high resolution and “continuously” over a significant fault length. Remote LiDAR data are powerful to perform such analyses.
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2005
    Description: Earthquake scarps associated with recent historical events have been found on the floor of the Sea of Marmara, along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF). The MAuto-Regressive Moving Average-processRASCARPS cruise using an unmanned submersible (ROV) provides direct observations to study the fine-scale morphology and geology of those scarps, their distribution, and geometry. The observations are consistent with the diversity of fault mechanisms and the fault segmentation within the north Marmara extensional step-over, between the strike-slip Ganos and Izmit faults. Smaller strike-slip segments and pull-apart basins alternate within the main step-over, commonly combining strike-slip and extension. Rapid sedimentation rates of 1-3 mm/yr appear to compete with normal faulting components of up to 6 mm/yr at the pull-apart margins. In spite of the fast sedimentation rates the submarine scarps are preserved and accumulate relief. Sets of youthful earthquake scarps extend offshore from the Ganos and Izmit faults on land into the Sea of Marmara. Our observations suggest that they correspond to the submarine ruptures of the 1999 Izmit (Mw 7.4) and the 1912 Ganos (Ms 7.4) earthquakes. While the 1999 rupture ends at the immediate eastern entrance of the extensional Cinarcik Basin, the 1912 rupture appears to have crossed the Ganos restraining bend into the Sea of Marmara floor for 60 km with a right-lateral slip of 5 m, ending in the Central Basin step-over. From the Gulf of Saros to Marmara the total 1912 rupture length is probably about 140 km, not 50 km as previously thought. The direct observations of submarine scarps in Marmara are critical to defining barriers that have arrested past earthquakes as well as defining a possible segmentation of the contemporary state of loading. Incorporating the submarine scarp evidence modifies substantially our understanding of the current state of loading along the NAF next to Istanbul. Coulomb stress modeling shows a zone of maximum loading with at least 4-5 m of slip deficit encompassing the strike-slip segment 70 km long between the Cinarcik and Central Basins. That segment alone would be capable of generating a large-magnitude earthquake (Mw 7.2). Other segments in Marmara appear less loaded. FROTH
    Keywords: Earthquake hazard ; Turkey ; Fault zone ; NAF ; G3 ; G-cubed ; AGU ; Ucarkus ; Lepinay ; Cagatay ; Cakir ; Structural geology ; 7230 ; Seismology: ; Seismicity ; and ; tectonics ; Oezalaybey ; Ozalaybey ; Lefevre ; 7223 ; Earthquake ; interaction, ; forecasting, ; and ; prediction ; morphology ; submersible ; 8110 ; Tectonophysics: ; Continental ; tectonics: ; general ; 1766 ; 1894 ; 1912 ; 1999 ; Earthquake
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  • 3
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    In:  Tectonophys., Amsterdam, Elsevier, vol. 293, no. 3-4, pp. 207-224, pp. 2486, (ISBN 1-86239-117-3)
    Publication Date: 1998
    Keywords: Subduction zone ; Crustal deformation (cf. Earthquake precursor: deformation or strain) ; Plate tectonics ; Hune ; Huene
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-12-29
    Description: Measuring fault offsets preserved at the ground surface is of primary importance to recover earthquake and long-term slip distributions and understand fault mechanics. The recent explosion of high-resolution topographic data, such as Lidar and photogrammetric DEMs, offers an unprecedented opportunity to measure dense collections of fault offsets. We have developed a new Matlab code, 3D_Fault_Offsets, to automate these measurements. In topographic data, 3D_Fault_Offsets mathematically identifies and represents nine of the most prominent geometric characteristics of common sub-linear markers along faults (especially strike-slip) in 3D, such as the streambed (minimum elevation), top, free face and base of channel banks or scarps (minimum Laplacian, maximum gradient and maximum Laplacian), and ridges (maximum elevation). By calculating best-fit lines through the 9 point clouds on either side of the fault, the code computes the lateral and vertical offsets between the piercing points of these lines onto the fault plane, providing 9 lateral and 9 vertical offset measures per marker. Through a Monte Carlo approach, the code calculates the total uncertainty on each offset. It then provides tools to statistically analyze the dense collection of measures, and to reconstruct the pre-faulted marker geometry in the horizontal and vertical planes. We applied 3D_Fault_Offsets to re-measure previously published offsets across 88 markers on the San Andreas, Owens Valley, and Hope faults. We obtained 5454 lateral and vertical offset measures. These automatic measures compare well to prior ones, field and remote, while their rich record provides new insights on the preservation of fault displacements in the morphology.
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈p〉Human blood CD14〈sup〉+〈/sup〉 monocytes are bone marrow–derived white blood cells that sense and respond to pathogens. Although innate immune activation by RNA viruses preferentially occurs through intracellular RIG-I–like receptors, other nucleic acid recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), play a role in finely programming the final outcome of virus infection. Here, we dissected how human monocytes respond to infection with either Coxsackie (CV), encephalomyocarditis (EMCV), influenza A (IAV), measles (MV), Sendai (SV), or vesicular stomatitis (VSV) virus. We found that in monocytes, type I interferon (IFN) and cytokine responses to infection were RNA virus specific and differentially involved TLR7 and TLR8, which sense single-stranded RNA. These TLRs activated distinct signaling cascades in monocytes, which correlated with differences in the production of cytokines involved in the polarization of CD4〈sup〉+〈/sup〉 T helper cells. Furthermore, we found that TLR7 signaling specifically increased expression of the transcription factor FOSL1, which reduced IL-27 and TNFα production by monocytes. TLR7, but not TLR8, activation of monocytes also stimulated Ca〈sup〉2+〈/sup〉 flux that prevented type I IFN responses. Our work demonstrates that in human monocytes, TLR7 and TLR8 triggered different signaling pathways that contribute to distinct phenotypes during RNA virus infection. In addition, we defined individual targets within these pathways that promoted specific T helper and antiviral responses.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 1945-0877
    Electronic ISSN: 1937-9145
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-10-29
    Description: We present the deepest near-infrared ( ZJK s ) photometry yet obtained of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal (Sgr dSph), using Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) to survey 11 square degrees centred on its core. We list locations and ZJK s -band magnitudes for over 2.9 million sources in the field. We discuss the isolation of the Sgr dSph from the foreground and Galactic Bulge populations, identify the Sgr dSph's horizontal branch in the near-infrared for the first time and map the density of the galaxy's stars. We present isochrones for the Sgr dSph and Bulge populations. These are consistent with the previously reported properties of the Sgr dSph core: namely that it is dominated by a population between [Fe/H]  –1 dex and solar, with a significant [α/Fe] versus [Fe/H] gradient. While strong contamination from the Galactic Bulge prevents accurate measurement of the (Galactic) north side of the Sgr dSph, the dwarf galaxy can be well approximated by a roughly ovaloid projection of characteristic size 4° 2°, beyond which the projected stellar density is less than half that of the region surrounding the core. The galaxy's major axis is perpendicular to the Galactic Plane, as in previous studies. We find slight evidence to confirm a metallicity gradient in the Sgr dSph and use isochrones to fit a distance of 24.3 ± 2.3 kpc. We were unable to fully constrain the metallicity distribution of the Sgr dSph due to the Bulge contamination and strong correlation of [α/Fe] with metallicity; however, we find that metal-poor stars ([Fe/H]  –1) make up 29 per cent of the Sgr dSph's upper red giant branch population. The Bulge population is best fitted by a younger population with [Fe/H] 0 and [α/Fe] 0 or slightly higher. We find no evidence for a split, peanut- or X-shaped Bulge population in this line of sight ( l  = 5 $_{.}^{\circ}$ 6 ± ~1°, b  = –14 $_{.}^{\circ}$ 1 ± ~3°).
    Print ISSN: 0035-8711
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
    Topics: Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-07
    Description: [1]  Past earthquake slips on faults are commonly determined by measuring morphological offsets at current ground surface. Because those offsets might not always be well preserved, we examine whether the first 10 m below ground surface contain relevant information to complement them. We focus on the Te Marua site, New Zealand, where 11 alluvial terraces have been dextrally offset by the Wellington fault. We investigated the site using pseudo-3D Ground Penetrating Radar, and also produced a high-resolution DEM of the zone to constrain the surface slip record. The GPR data reveal additional information: 1) they image the 3D stratigraphic architecture of the 7 youngest terraces and show that they are strath terraces carved into graywacke bedrock. Each strath surface is overlain by 3-5 m of horizontally bedded gravel sheets, including two pronounced and traceable reflectors; 2) thanks to the multi-layer architecture, terrace risers and channels are imaged at three depths and their lateral offsets can be measured 3-4 times, constraining respective offsets and their uncertainties more reliably; 3) the offsets are better preserved in the subsurface than at the ground surface, likely due to subsequent erosion-deposition on the latter. From surface and subsurface data, we infer that Te Marua has recorded six cumulative offsets of 2.9, 7.6, 18, 23.2, 26 and 31 m (± 1-2 m). Large earthquakes on southern Wellington fault might produce 3-5 m of slip, slightly less than previously proposed. Pseudo-3D GPR thus provides a novel paleoseismological tool to complement and refine surface investigations.
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2012-08-22
    Description: Answer to Blaauw et al. (I.I.-A., J.L.B., R.B.F., J.P.K., A.W.)Blaauw et al. (1) take issue with our age–depth model for the Cuitzeo core. They state that no offset for our accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C dates was quantified, that our identification of the Cieneguillas tephra is doubtful, that we used an outdated calibration model, and they object to our rejection of six AMS dates in the anomalous zone.Regarding the offset question, dissolved HCO3 in modern Lake Cuitzeo water precipitated in the laboratory as CaCO3 yielded a modern age (US Geological Service laboratory #WW 5645), so the offset is deemed to...
    Keywords: Letters
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-03-23
    Description: In Taiwan, about one third of the lithospheric plate convergence between Eurasia and the Philippine Sea plate is accommodated on the eastern coast across the narrow Longitudinal Valley (LV). The Longitudinal Valley Fault (LVF) is the main seismically active fault zone in this region. However, the spatial distribution of ground deformation due to interseismic loading on locked fault segments remains widely unknown. To address this problem, we use a “permanent scatterer” (PS) interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) approach for processing the ERS satellite archives. The PS mean velocity maps allow accurately mapping and quantifying the ground deformation all along the LV. Assuming that, close to the surface, the fault plane along the central LVF creeping segment dips 55° to the east, we derive a slip vector at the surface of ∼25 mm/yr with a mean rake of 70°. In agreement with our PS observations, shallow seismicity indicates a clear change in the fault mechanical behavior of the creeping segment around Fuli town. Finally, we propose a combination of the PS velocity fields for estimating a 3-D map of ground deformation. In the southern part of the LV, the vertical component reveals an uplift of the Coastal Range with respect to the LV of ∼10 mm/yr. Moreover, between Taitung and Luyeh, the vertical deformation is essentially accommodated along the Luyeh Strand. Finally, north of Rueisuei, the Coastal Range uniformly subsides at ∼15 mm/yr relative to the western side of the LV. However, a local uplift pattern is detected around latitude 23°42′.
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-12-17
    Description: Why are large, complex ecosystems stable? Both theory and simulations of current models predict the onset of instability with growing size and complexity, so for decades it has been conjectured that ecosystems must have some unidentified structural property exempting them from this outcome. We show that trophic coherence—a hitherto ignored...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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