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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-06-22
    Description: Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are bioactive components of membrane phospholipids and serve as substrates for signaling molecules. LCPUFA can be obtained directly from animal foods or synthesized endogenously from 18 carbon precursors via the FADS2 coded enzyme. Vegans rely almost exclusively on endogenous synthesis to generate LCPUFA and we hypothesized that an adaptive genetic polymorphism would confer advantage. The rs66698963 polymorphism, a 22-bp insertion–deletion within FADS2 , is associated with basal FADS1 expression, and coordinated induction of FADS1 and FADS2 in vitro. Here, we determined rs66698963 genotype frequencies from 234 individuals of a primarily vegetarian Indian population and 311 individuals from the US. A much higher I/I genotype frequency was found in Indians (68%) than in the US (18%). Analysis using 1000 Genomes Project data confirmed our observation, revealing a global I/I genotype of 70% in South Asians, 53% in Africans, 29% in East Asians, and 17% in Europeans. Tests based on population divergence, site frequency spectrum, and long-range haplotype consistently point to positive selection encompassing rs66698963 in South Asian, African, and some East Asian populations. Basal plasma phospholipid arachidonic acid (ARA) status was 8% greater in I/I compared with D/D individuals. The biochemical pathway product–precursor difference, ARA minus linoleic acid, was 31% and 13% greater for I/I and I/D compared with D/D, respectively. This study is consistent with previous in vitro data suggesting that the insertion allele enhances n-6 LCPUFA synthesis and may confer an adaptive advantage in South Asians because of the traditional plant-based diet practice.
    Print ISSN: 0737-4038
    Electronic ISSN: 1537-1719
    Topics: Biology
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  • 2
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    Fredrick R. Schumacher; Stephanie L. Schmit; Shuo Jiao; Christopher K. Edlund; Hansong Wang; Ben Zhang; Li Hsu; Shu-Chen Huang; Christopher P. Fischer; John F. Harju; Gregory E. Idos; Flavio Lejbkowicz; Frank J. Manion; Kevin McDonnell; Caroline E. McNeil; Marilena Melas; Hedy S. Rennert; Wei Shi; Duncan C. Thomas; David J. Van Den Berg; Carolyn M. Hutter; Aaron K. Aragaki; Katja Butterbach; Bette J. Caan; Christopher S. Carlson; Stephen J. Chanock; Keith R. Curtis; Charles S. Fuchs; Manish Gala; Edward L. Giovannucci; Stephanie M. Gogarten; Richard B. Hayes; Brian Henderson; David J. Hunter; Rebecca D. Jackson; Laurence N. Kolonel; Charles Kooperberg; Sébastien Küry; Andrea La; Croix; Cathy C. Laurie; Cecelia A. Laurie; Mathieu Lemire; David Levine; Jing Ma; Karen W. Makar; Conghui Qu; Darin Taverna; Cornelia M. Ulrich; Kana Wu; Suminori Kono; Dee W. West; Sonja I. Berndt; Stephane Bezieau; Hermann Brenner; Peter T. Campbell; Andrew T. Chan; Jenny Chang-Claude; Gerhard A. Coetzee; David V. Conti; David Duggan; Jane C. Figueiredo; Barbara K. Fortini; Steven J. Gallinger; W. James Gauderman; Graham Giles; Roger Green; Robert Haile; Tabitha A. Harrison; Michael Hoffmeister; John L. Hopper; Thomas J. Hudson; Eric Jacobs; Motoki Iwasaki; Sun Ha Jee; Mark Jenkins; Wei-Hua Jia; Amit Joshi; Li Li; Noralene M. Lindor; Keitaro Matsuo; Victor Moreno; Bhramar Mukherjee; Polly A. Newcomb; John D. Potter; Leon Raskin; Gad Rennert; Stephanie Rosse; Gianluca Severi; Robert E. Schoen; Daniela Seminara; Xiao-Ou Shu; Martha L. Slattery; Shoichiro Tsugane; Emily White; Yong-Bing Xiang; Brent W. Zanke; Wei Zheng; Loic Le Marchand; Graham Casey; Stephen B. Gruber; Ulrike Peters
    Springer Nature
    Publication Date: 2015-10-28
    Description: Corrigendum Nature Communications doi: 10.1038/ncomms9739 Authors: Fredrick R. Schumacher, Stephanie L. Schmit, Shuo Jiao, Christopher K. Edlund, Hansong Wang, Ben Zhang, Li Hsu, Shu-Chen Huang, Christopher P. Fischer, John F. Harju, Gregory E. Idos, Flavio Lejbkowicz, Frank J. Manion, Kevin McDonnell, Caroline E. McNeil, Marilena Melas, Hedy S. Rennert, Wei Shi, Duncan C. Thomas, David J. Van Den Berg, Carolyn M. Hutter, Aaron K. Aragaki, Katja Butterbach, Bette J. Caan, Christopher S. Carlson, Stephen J. Chanock, Keith R. Curtis, Charles S. Fuchs, Manish Gala, Edward L. Giovannucci, Stephanie M. Gogarten, Richard B. Hayes, Brian Henderson, David J. Hunter, Rebecca D. Jackson, Laurence N. Kolonel, Charles Kooperberg, Sébastien Küry, Andrea LaCroix, Cathy C. Laurie, Cecelia A. Laurie, Mathieu Lemire, David Levine, Jing Ma, Karen W. Makar, Conghui Qu, Darin Taverna, Cornelia M. Ulrich, Kana Wu, Suminori Kono, Dee W. West, Sonja I. Berndt, Stephane Bezieau, Hermann Brenner, Peter T. Campbell, Andrew T. Chan, Jenny Chang-Claude, Gerhard A. Coetzee, David V. Conti, David Duggan, Jane C. Figueiredo, Barbara K. Fortini, Steven J. Gallinger, W. James Gauderman, Graham Giles, Roger Green, Robert Haile, Tabitha A. Harrison, Michael Hoffmeister, John L. Hopper, Thomas J. Hudson, Eric Jacobs, Motoki Iwasaki, Sun Ha Jee, Mark Jenkins, Wei-Hua Jia, Amit Joshi, Li Li, Noralene M. Lindor, Keitaro Matsuo, Victor Moreno, Bhramar Mukherjee, Polly A. Newcomb, John D. Potter, Leon Raskin, Gad Rennert, Stephanie Rosse, Gianluca Severi, Robert E. Schoen, Daniela Seminara, Xiao-Ou Shu, Martha L. Slattery, Shoichiro Tsugane, Emily White, Yong-Bing Xiang, Brent W. Zanke, Wei Zheng, Loic Le Marchand, Graham Casey, Stephen B. Gruber, Ulrike Peters
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-1723
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-08-05
    Description: We report on the origin of the anomalous temperature dependence of coercivity observed in some soft ferromagnets by studying the magnetic and electronic properties of FeZr films doped using ion implantation by H, He, B, C, and N. The anomalous increase of the coercivity with temperature was observed only in the C- and B-doped samples. Using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we show that the anomalous behavior of the coercivity coincides with the occurrence of an electron charge transfer for those implanted samples. The origin of the anomaly is discussed in terms of (i) magnetic softness, (ii) nature of the Fe-C and -B covalent bonds, and (iii) large charge transfer.
    Print ISSN: 0021-8979
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7550
    Topics: Physics
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  • 4
  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019
    Print ISSN: 1755-4330
    Electronic ISSN: 1755-4349
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2014-12-10
    Description: Myocardial infarction (MI), a leading cause of death around the world, displays a complex pattern of inheritance. When MI occurs early in life, genetic inheritance is a major component to risk. Previously, rare mutations in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) genes have been shown to contribute to MI risk in individual families, whereas common variants at more than 45 loci have been associated with MI risk in the population. Here we evaluate how rare mutations contribute to early-onset MI risk in the population. We sequenced the protein-coding regions of 9,793 genomes from patients with MI at an early age (〈/=50 years in males and 〈/=60 years in females) along with MI-free controls. We identified two genes in which rare coding-sequence mutations were more frequent in MI cases versus controls at exome-wide significance. At low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), carriers of rare non-synonymous mutations were at 4.2-fold increased risk for MI; carriers of null alleles at LDLR were at even higher risk (13-fold difference). Approximately 2% of early MI cases harbour a rare, damaging mutation in LDLR; this estimate is similar to one made more than 40 years ago using an analysis of total cholesterol. Among controls, about 1 in 217 carried an LDLR coding-sequence mutation and had plasma LDL cholesterol 〉 190 mg dl(-1). At apolipoprotein A-V (APOA5), carriers of rare non-synonymous mutations were at 2.2-fold increased risk for MI. When compared with non-carriers, LDLR mutation carriers had higher plasma LDL cholesterol, whereas APOA5 mutation carriers had higher plasma triglycerides. Recent evidence has connected MI risk with coding-sequence mutations at two genes functionally related to APOA5, namely lipoprotein lipase and apolipoprotein C-III (refs 18, 19). Combined, these observations suggest that, as well as LDL cholesterol, disordered metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins contributes to MI risk.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4319990/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4319990/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Do, Ron -- Stitziel, Nathan O -- Won, Hong-Hee -- Jorgensen, Anders Berg -- Duga, Stefano -- Angelica Merlini, Pier -- Kiezun, Adam -- Farrall, Martin -- Goel, Anuj -- Zuk, Or -- Guella, Illaria -- Asselta, Rosanna -- Lange, Leslie A -- Peloso, Gina M -- Auer, Paul L -- NHLBI Exome Sequencing Project -- Girelli, Domenico -- Martinelli, Nicola -- Farlow, Deborah N -- DePristo, Mark A -- Roberts, Robert -- Stewart, Alexander F R -- Saleheen, Danish -- Danesh, John -- Epstein, Stephen E -- Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh -- Hovingh, G Kees -- Kastelein, John J -- Samani, Nilesh J -- Schunkert, Heribert -- Erdmann, Jeanette -- Shah, Svati H -- Kraus, William E -- Davies, Robert -- Nikpay, Majid -- Johansen, Christopher T -- Wang, Jian -- Hegele, Robert A -- Hechter, Eliana -- Marz, Winfried -- Kleber, Marcus E -- Huang, Jie -- Johnson, Andrew D -- Li, Mingyao -- Burke, Greg L -- Gross, Myron -- Liu, Yongmei -- Assimes, Themistocles L -- Heiss, Gerardo -- Lange, Ethan M -- Folsom, Aaron R -- Taylor, Herman A -- Olivieri, Oliviero -- Hamsten, Anders -- Clarke, Robert -- Reilly, Dermot F -- Yin, Wu -- Rivas, Manuel A -- Donnelly, Peter -- Rossouw, Jacques E -- Psaty, Bruce M -- Herrington, David M -- Wilson, James G -- Rich, Stephen S -- Bamshad, Michael J -- Tracy, Russell P -- Cupples, L Adrienne -- Rader, Daniel J -- Reilly, Muredach P -- Spertus, John A -- Cresci, Sharon -- Hartiala, Jaana -- Tang, W H Wilson -- Hazen, Stanley L -- Allayee, Hooman -- Reiner, Alex P -- Carlson, Christopher S -- Kooperberg, Charles -- Jackson, Rebecca D -- Boerwinkle, Eric -- Lander, Eric S -- Schwartz, Stephen M -- Siscovick, David S -- McPherson, Ruth -- Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne -- Abecasis, Goncalo R -- Watkins, Hugh -- Nickerson, Deborah A -- Ardissino, Diego -- Sunyaev, Shamil R -- O'Donnell, Christopher J -- Altshuler, David -- Gabriel, Stacey -- Kathiresan, Sekar -- 090532/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 095552/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 5U54HG003067-11/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- G-0907/Parkinson's UK/United Kingdom -- K08 HL114642/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- K08HL114642/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P01 HL076491/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P01 HL098055/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL107816/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL107816/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- RC2 HL-102923/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- RC2 HL-102924/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- RC2 HL-102925/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- RC2 HL-102926/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- RC2 HL-103010/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- T32 HL007208/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- T32HL00720/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- T32HL007604/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR000439/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- England -- Nature. 2015 Feb 5;518(7537):102-6. doi: 10.1038/nature13917. Epub 2014 Dec 10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. [2] Cardiovascular Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. [3] Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. [4] Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; 1] Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. [2] Division of Statistical Genomics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; Department of Clinical Biochemistry KB3011, Section for Molecular Genetics, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospitals and Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 1165, Denmark. ; Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Mediche e Medicina Traslazionale, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milano 20122, Italy. ; Division of Cardiology, Ospedale Niguarda, Milano 20162, Italy. ; Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2J, UK. ; Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. ; Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA. ; University of Verona School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Verona 37129, Italy. ; John &Jennifer Ruddy Canadian Cardiovascular Genetics Centre, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario K1Y 4W7, Canada. ; Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1TN, UK. ; MedStar Health Research Institute, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Hyattsville, Maryland 20782, USA. ; Department of Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam 1105 AZ, The Netherlands. ; Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, and Leicester NIHR Biomedical Research Unit in Cardiovascular Disease, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester LE3 9QP, UK. ; DZHK (German Research Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Munich Heart Alliance, Deutsches Herzzentrum Munchen, Technische Universitat Munchen, Berlin 13347, Germany. ; Medizinische Klinik II, University of Lubeck, Lubeck 23562, Germany. ; 1] Center for Human Genetics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA. [2] Department of Cardiology and Center for Genomic Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA. ; Department of Cardiology and Center for Genomic Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA. ; Division of Cardiology, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario K1Y 4W7, Canada. ; Department of Biochemistry, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada. ; 1] Department of Biochemistry, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada. [2] Department of Medicine, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada. ; 1] Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim Institute of Public Health, Social and Preventive Medicine, Heidelberg University, Ludolf Krehl Strasse 7-11, Mannheim D-68167, Germany. [2] Clinical Institute of Medical and Chemical Laboratory Diagnostics, Medical University of Graz, Graz 8036, Austria. [3] Synlab Academy, Mannheim 68259, Germany. ; Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim Institute of Public Health, Social and Preventive Medicine, Heidelberg University, Ludolf Krehl Strasse 7-11, Mannheim D-68167, Germany. ; The National Heart, Lung, Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, Massachusetts 01702, USA. ; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Center for Population Studies, The Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, Massachusetts 01702, USA. ; Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. ; Department of Epidemiology, University of Alabama-Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35233, USA. ; Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA. ; School of Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27106, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. ; 1] Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. [2] Carolina Center for Genome Sciences, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. ; Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA. ; University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi 39216, USA. ; Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Department of Medicine, and Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm 171 77, Sweden. ; Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD, UK. ; Merck Sharp &Dohme Corporation, Rahway, New Jersey 08889, USA. ; The Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD, UK. ; 1] The Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD, UK. [2] Department of Statistics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD, UK. ; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20824, USA. ; 1] Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Departments of Medicine, Epidemiology, and Health Services, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. [2] Group Health Research Institute, Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, Washington 98101, USA. ; Section on Cardiology, and Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27106, USA. ; Jackson Heart Study, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson State University, Jackson, Mississippi 39217, USA. ; Center for Public Health Genomics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904, USA. ; 1] Division of Genetic Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. [2] Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, Washington 98105, USA. [3] Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05405, USA. ; Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA. ; Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. ; Cardiovascular Institute, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. ; St Luke's Mid America Heart Institute, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, Missouri 64111, USA. ; 1] Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. [2] Department of Genetics, Washington University in St Louis, Missouri 63130, USA. ; Department of Preventive Medicine and Institute for Genetic Medicine, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA. ; Cardiovascular Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA. ; 1] Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA. [2] Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA. ; Human Genetics Center, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; 1] Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. [2] Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; 1] Department of Clinical Biochemistry KB3011, Section for Molecular Genetics, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospitals and Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 1165, Denmark. [2] Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, 2200 Kobenhavn N, Denmark. ; Center for Statistical Genetics, Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Missouri 48109, USA. ; 1] Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2J, UK. [2] The Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD, UK. ; Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; Department of Cardiology, Parma Hospital, Parma 43100, Italy. ; 1] Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [2] Division of Genetics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; 1] Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. [2] Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25487149" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Age Factors ; Age of Onset ; *Alleles ; Apolipoproteins A/*genetics ; Case-Control Studies ; Cholesterol, LDL/blood ; Coronary Artery Disease/genetics ; Exome/*genetics ; Female ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics ; Genetics, Population ; Heterozygote ; Humans ; Male ; Middle Aged ; Mutation/genetics ; Myocardial Infarction/blood/*genetics ; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.) ; Receptors, LDL/*genetics ; Triglycerides/blood ; United States
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-09-22
    Description: Most cancer-associated genetic variants identified from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) do not obviously change protein structure, leading to the hypothesis that the associations are attributable to regulatory polymorphisms. Translating genetic associations into mechanistic insights can be facilitated by knowledge of the causal regulatory variant (or variants) responsible for the statistical signal. Experimental validation of candidate functional variants is onerous, making bioinformatic approaches necessary to prioritize candidates for laboratory analysis. Thus, a systematic approach for recognizing functional (and, therefore, likely causal) variants in noncoding regions is an important step toward interpreting cancer risk loci. This review provides a detailed introduction to current regulatory variant annotations, followed by an overview of how to leverage these resources to prioritize candidate functional polymorphisms in regulatory regions.
    Electronic ISSN: 1176-9351
    Topics: Computer Science , Medicine
    Published by Libertas Academica
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-08-23
    Description: Analytical Chemistry DOI: 10.1021/ac501839b
    Print ISSN: 0003-2700
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-6882
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-02-15
    Description: The Journal of Organic Chemistry DOI: 10.1021/jo5000829
    Print ISSN: 0022-3263
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-6904
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-10-04
    Description: The emergence of very large cohorts in genomic research has facilitated a focus on genotype-imputation strategies to power rare variant association. These strategies have benefited from improvements in imputation methods and association tests, however little attention has been paid to ways in which array design can increase rare variant association power. Therefore, we developed a novel framework to select tag SNPs using the reference panel of 26 populations from Phase 3 of the 1000 Genomes Project. We evaluate tag SNP performance via mean imputed r 2 at untyped sites using leave-one-out internal validation and standard imputation methods, rather than pairwise linkage disequilibrium. Moving beyond pairwise metrics allows us to account for haplotype diversity across the genome for improve imputation accuracy and demonstrates population-specific biases from pairwise estimates. We also examine array design strategies that contrast multi-ethnic cohorts vs. single populations, and show a boost in performance for the former can be obtained by prioritizing tag SNPs that contribute information across multiple populations simultaneously. Using our framework, we demonstrate increased imputation accuracy for rare variants (frequency 〈 1%) by 0.5–3.1% for an array of one million sites and 0.7–7.1% for an array of 500,000 sites, depending on the population. Finally, we show how recent explosive growth in non-African populations means tag SNPs capture on average 30% fewer other variants than in African populations. The unified framework presented here will enable investigators to make informed decisions for the design of new arrays, and help empower the next phase of rare variant association for global health.
    Electronic ISSN: 2160-1836
    Topics: Biology
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