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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-12-04
    Description: Highlights • Increased glacial sedimentation rates do not generate sufficient overpressure to trigger a landslide. • Simulated overpressures for different sedimentation scenarios do not significantly differ. • A glacimarine layer underneath rapidly-deposited sediments is important for overpressure build-up. • An earthquake of M6.9 or larger at a short distance from the Tampen Slide headwall could have triggered the Tampen Slide. Abstract Trough mouth fans are environments characterized by high sediment supply during glacial stages and the occurrence of large-scale instabilities. The geological record indicates that several of these environments have failed repeatedly resulting in large submarine landslides. The roles of sedimentation rate, weak layers, glacial loading and unloading as well as seismic activity on triggering megaslides in trough-mouth-fan systems is still unclear. A better understanding of the preconditioning factors, triggers and consequences of these landslides is crucial due to the hazard they pose to coastal communities and offshore industries. In this paper, we focus on the North Sea Trough Mouth Fan, which is the result of massive glacial sediment input delivered to the shelf edge through the Norwegian Channel, southeast Nordic Seas margin. The Tampen Slide, one of several large paleo-landslides that have happened within the North Sea Trough Mouth Fan, took place at c. 130 ka (end of MIS 6), and removed an estimated 1800 km3 of sediment. Here, we use boundary conditions from the Tampen Slide and 2D Finite Element Modeling (Abaqus software from Simulia) to evaluate the effects of variations in sedimentation rates as well as sediment properties on the generation of excess pore pressure, fluid flow, and slope stability along the axis of the trough-mouth-fan system. The model domain, 40 km in length and 2 km in height, is dominated by glacigenic debris flows and glacimarine sediment deposits. We use geotechnical data measured on samples of glacigenic and glacimarine sediment deposits from the nearby Ormen Lange gas field area to constrain the model. We evaluate the stability of the slope under various scenarios, including constant sediment loading, episodic changes in sedimentation rates and abrupt pulses in sediment delivery for a 61 kyr period (MIS 6). The models show that increased sedimentation rates during glacial stages do not generate sufficient excess pore pressure to set off a landslide. Furthermore, the simulated overpressures for the different sedimentation scenarios do not significantly differ at the end of the model runs. The results also highlight the importance of a basal glacimarine sediment layer underneath the rapidly-deposited sediments for the build-up of overpressure. Consequently, this glacimarine sediment layer has the inherited potential to act as a weak layer facilitating instability. However, as overpressure due to sediment deposition alone does not result in slope failure, we couple the preconditioned slope with earthquake ground shaking. Based on attenuation models, an earthquake of approximately M6.9 or larger at a short distance from the Tampen Slide headwall could have triggered the landslide. Therefore, we suggest glacial sedimentation and a glacimarine sediment layer to represent preconditioning factors, and seismic shaking as the final trigger mechanism for the Tampen Slide, i.e. similar to the situation that lead to the development of the Storegga Slide in the same area.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: text
    Format: text
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key words lys3a ; CpG island ; Transient expression ; Particle bombardment ; Immunocytochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  B- and C-hordein gene transcription is severely reduced in the endosperm of the regulatory barley mutant lys3a, and this is correlated with persistent hypermethylation of the promoters. In contrast, D-hordein is expressed at normal levels in the mutant. To confirm the connection between methylation and transcriptional activity, a genomic D-hordein clone was isolated and sequenced. The nucleotide composition of the promoter region revealed a CpG island and methylation analysis, using bisulphite treatment of genomic DNA, confirmed that the D-hordein promoter is unmethylated in endosperm and leaf tissue. Immunocytochemical studies localized D-hordein to the reticular component of protein bodies in both the wild-type Bomi and lys3a. Transient expression of GUS reporter gene constructs in barley endosperm, following transfection by particle bombardment revealed the D-hordein promoter to be 3–5 fold more active than B- or C-hordein promoters. Comparison of transient expression in Bomi and lys3a endosperm demonstrated that the activities of the unmethylated D-hordein and the Hor1-14 C-hordein promoters were equivalent, while the activities in the mutant of the Hor1-17 C-hordein and the Hor2-4 B-hordein promoters were reduced two- and tenfold, respectively. Methylation of plasmids in vitro prior to expression severely inhibited B- and D-hordein promoter activities. Based on these observations two categories of promoters for endosperm-specific expression of storage proteins are recognized and a model involving methylation and modulation of chromatin structure in the regulation by the Lys3 gene is presented.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-06-10
    Description: Published results of coda Q show a large variation in values. These variations are often claimed to be related to different tectonics, whereas they might just be related to using different assumptions in the processing, leading to different input parameters for the analysis. In this study, the effect of using different processing parameters is investigated and significant differences, particularly at low frequencies, are observed. We find a new set of optimal parameters, which we recommend using in future studies. Using a short lapse time of 30 s and optimal parameters, data from both similar and very different tectonic regions are used to calculate coda Q using the same program and the same parameters. The regions considered are eastern Anatolia, the Azores, Jan Mayen, northwestern and central Argentina, the Shanxi rift system in China, and southwestern Norway. We obtain the following relations: eastern Anatolia ( Q =88 f 0.66 ), Azores ( Q =86 f 0.70 ), Jan Mayen ( Q =90 f 0.72 ), northwestern and central Argentina ( Q =89 f 0.94 ), Shanxi rift system ( Q =99 f 0.89 ), and southwestern Norway ( Q =124 f 0.91 ). The results show that coda Q is very similar for regions of similar tectonics and significantly different for regions with varying tectonics. Using alternative, more common parameters gives different Q , but the regional differences remain, so which parameters to use to get correct coda Q values is still uncertain. However, coda Q can clearly distinguish different tectonic areas provided identical processing parameters are used, even if they are not optimal.
    Print ISSN: 0037-1106
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-3573
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2015-10-22
    Description: The Shanxi rift system is one of the most active intraplate tectonic zones in the North China Block, resulting in devastating seismicity. Since 1303, the rift has experienced fifteen M s ≥ 6.5 earthquakes. Aiming at a better understanding of Coulomb stress evolution and its relationship with the seismicity in the rift system, we investigated the Coulomb stress changes due to coseismic slip and post-seismic relaxation processes following strong earthquakes as well as the interseismic tectonic loading since the 1303 Hongdong M s = 8.0 earthquake. Our calculation applies a specified regional medium model, takes the gravity effect into account and uses the fault geometry of the next event as the receiver fault in a given calculation. Our results show that nine out of 12 M s ≥ 6.5 earthquakes since the 1303 Hongdong earthquake and more than 82 per cent of small-medium instrumental events after the 1989 Datong-Yanggao M s = 6.1 earthquake fall into the total stress increased areas. Our results also reveal the different roles of the coseismic, post-seismic and interseismic Coulomb stress changes in the earthquake triggering process in the Shanxi rift system. In a short period after a strong event, the stress field changes are dominated by coseismic Coulomb stress due to sudden slip of the ruptured fault, while in the long term, the stress field is mainly dominated by the accumulation of interseismic tectonic loading. Post-seismic stress changes play an important role by further modifying the distribution of stress and therefore cannot be ignored. Based on the current stress status in the Shanxi rift system, the Linfen basin, southern and northern Taiyuan basin, Xinding basin and the north part of the rift system are identified as the most likely locations of large events in the future. The results of this study can provide important clues for the further understanding of seismic hazard in the Shanxi rift system and thus help guiding earthquake risk mitigation efforts in the future.
    Keywords: Seismology
    Print ISSN: 0956-540X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2010-04-01
    Description: Ground motion prediction equations (GMPE) in terms of macroseismic intensity are a prerequisite for intensity-based shake maps and seismic hazard assessment and have the advantage of direct relation to earthquake damage and good data availability also for historical events. In this study, we derive GMPE for macroseismic intensity for the Campania region in southern Italy. This region is highly exposed to the seismic hazard related to the high seismicity with moderate- to large-magnitude earthquakes in the Appenninic belt. The relations are based on physical considerations and are easy to implement for the user. The uncertainties in earthquake source parameters are accounted for through a Monte Carlo approach and results are compared to those obtained through a standard regression scheme. One relation takes into account the finite dimensions of the fault plane and describes the site intensity as a function of Joyner–Boore distance. Additionally, a relation describing the intensity as a function of epicentral distance is derived for implementation in cases where the dimensions of the fault plane are unknown. The relations are based on an extensive dataset of macroseismic intensities for large earthquakes in the Campania region and are valid in the magnitude range M w = 6.3–7.0 for shallow crustal earthquakes. Results indicate that the uncertainties in earthquake source parameters are negligible in comparison to the spread in the intensity data. The GMPE provide a good overall fit to historical earthquakes in the region and can provide the intensities for a future earthquake within 1 intensity unit. ©2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
    Print ISSN: 1383-4649
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-157X
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-03-07
    Description: Earthquake focal mechanisms of the Shanxi rift system, North China, are investigated for the time period 1965–April 2014. A total of 143 focal mechanisms of M L ≥ 3.0 earthquakes were compiled. Among them, 105 solutions are newly determined in this study by combining the P -wave first motions and full waveform inversion, and 38 solutions are from available published data. Stress tensor inversion was then performed based on the new database. The results show that most solutions in the Shanxi rift system exhibit normal or strike-slip faulting, and the regional stress field is transtensional and dominated by NNW–SSE extension. This correlates well with results from GPS data, geological field observations and levelling measurements across the faults. Heterogeneity exists in the regional stress field, as indicated by individual stress tensor inversions conducted for five subzones. While the minimum stress axis ( 3 ) appears to be consistent and stable, the orientations, especially the plunges, of the maximum and intermediate stresses ( 1 and 2 ) vary significantly along the strike of the different subzones. Based on our results and combining multidisciplinary observations from geological surveys, GPS and cross-fault monitoring, a kinematic model is proposed for the Shanxi rift system, in which the rift is situated between two opposite rotating crustal blocks, exhibiting a transtensional stress regimes. This model illustrates the present-day stress field and its correlation to the regional tectonics, as well as the current crustal deformation of the Shanxi rift system. Results obtained in this study, may help to understand the geodynamics, neotectonic activity, active seismicity and potential seismic hazard in this region.
    Keywords: Seismology
    Print ISSN: 0956-540X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2009-04-01
    Description: Prediction equations for macroseismic intensity are the backbone of seismic hazard assessment, of source parameter estimation, and of shake map generation in cases where an output in terms of intensity is desired. This is especially required when a direct relation to the damage associated with ground shaking is of interest or if ground shaking estimates will be used for informing nonseismologists such as emergency response teams or the general public. In the current study we derive ground-motion prediction equations for macroseismic intensity valid for the Marmara Sea region, northwest Turkey. The relations have a physical basis and are easy to implement for the user. In one relation, the finite extent of the fault rupture is accounted for by defining distance as the Joyner-Boore distance leading to the relation I (sub S) =0.376 M (sub w) +5.913-2.656 log R (super 2) (sub JB) +h (super 2) /h (super 2) -0.0020(R (super 2) (sub JB) +h (super 2) -h), where M (sub w) is the moment magnitude, R (sub JB) is the Joyner-Boore distance, and h is the hypocentral depth. Furthermore, a relation based on the epicentral distance (R (sub epi) ) is derived for application in cases where the extent of the fault plane is unknown: I (sub S) =0.793 M (sub w) +3.417-2.157 log R (super 2) (sub epi) +h (super 2) /h (super 2) -0.0065(R (super 2) (sub epi) +h (super 2) -h). The relations are valid for the ranges 5〈 or =I〈 or =10, 5.9〈 or =M (sub w) 〈 or =7.4, and R〈 or =350 km. It is shown that inclusion of the rupture dimensions leads to an improvement in the ability of the relation to fit observations in the near field for large earthquakes. Comparison to already existing intensity prediction equations for the region shows that the new relations provide better estimates of the macroseismic intensity distribution, especially in the region near the rupturing fault plane.
    Print ISSN: 0037-1106
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-3573
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2007-01-01
    Description: On 26 December 2004, a devastating earthquake of M 9.3 occurred offshore northern Sumatra. Due to the size of this earthquake and the accompanying tsunami wave, disastrous consequences have been observed in several countries around the Indian Ocean. The tectonics in the region are characterized by the oblique, north-northeast-oriented subduction of the Indian-Australian plate under the Sunda microplate with a rate of 6-6.5 cm/yr. This oblique convergence results in strain partitioning, where the trench-perpendicular thrust faulting along the subducting slab accommodates the east-west component of the motion, whereas the north-south component of the motion is probably accommodated by the right-lateral strike-slip faulting along the Great Sumatran fault and the Mentawi fault. Source parameters of the 26 December 2004 event have been used for modeling the resulting ground motions in the nearby affected regions. Results give an insight on the importance of ground shaking in the total destruction of places like Banda Aceh, northern Sumatra, Indonesia. The modeling is performed for a multiasperity finite fault using a hybrid procedure combining deterministic modeling at low frequencies and semistochastic modeling at high frequencies. Results show that strong shaking was distributed over a large area including northwestern Sumatra and its offshore islands. In Banda Aceh, which experienced significant damage, bedrock velocities reached 60 cm/sec with duration of the shaking of ca. 150 sec. The largest ground motions occurred near the strongest asperities of the fault plane, where velocities of 200 cm/sec are modeled for bedrock conditions.
    Print ISSN: 0037-1106
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-3573
    Topics: Geosciences
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