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  • 1
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Peroxisomes ; Catalase A ; ADR1 ; Peroxisome proliferation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcriptional activator ADR1, which controls ADH2 gene expression, was shown to be involved in the regulation of peroxisome proliferation. To study the mode of action of ADR1, we compared strains carrying the adr1-1 mutation, high or low copy numbers of the ADR1 gene, the constitutive allele ADR1-5 c, and 3′-deletions of ADR1. High ADR1 gene dosage increased the transcription of genes encoding peroxisomal proteins as compared to one copy of the ADR1 gene. Furthermore, overexpression of ADR1 under ethanol growth conditions induced the proliferation of peroxisomal structures. The organelles were observed to be localized in clusters, a typical feature of peroxisomes induced by oleic acid. In contrast, the ADR1-5 c allele, which induces ADH2 expression to a level comparable to that of high ADR1 gene dosage was found to have only a small effect. An analysis of functional domains of the ADR1 protein revealed that the N-terminal 220 amino acids of ADR1 were sufficient for wild-type levels of transcription of the FOX2, FOX3, and PAS1 genes, but the entire ADR1 protein was required for complete induction of the CTA1 gene and for growth oleic acid medium. Our data suggest that a functional domain of the ADR1 protein localized between residues 643 and 1323 is required for the induction of peroxisomal structures and for the utilization of oleic acid.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: peroxisome ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; ADR1 ; SNF1 ; CAT1 ; CCR1 ; SNF4 ; CAT3 ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The Saccharomyces cerevisiae ADR1 gene has recently been demonstrated to control transcription of several genes encoding peroxisomal proteins or proteins necessary for peroxisome formation. Therefore, the effect of two other genes (SNF1 (CAT1, CCR1) and SNF4 (CAT3)) known to control derepression of glucose-repressible genes was studied. Levels of transcripts of genes encoding catalase A, fatty acid β-oxidation enzymes and of the PAS1 gene are reduced in snf1 and snf4 mutants of ethanol as well as on oleic acid medium. By immunogold labelling with an antibody directed against peroxisomal thiolase, clusters of peroxisomes were detected in wild-types cells, whereas smaller single peroxisomes were observed in adr1 mutant cells. Results of immunofluorescence experiments are consistent with these observations. No peroxisomes were detected in snf1 and snf4 mutants by immunogold labelling as well as by imunofluorescence.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Catalase T ; CTT1 ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Yeast ; Heme control
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The 5′-flanking region of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae catalase T gene (CTT1) and the part of the gene coding for the N-terminus of catalase T were sequenced. 5′-Ends of transcripts of the region were located by S1 nuclease mapping and primer extension. To analyse control elements in the upstream region, a CTT1-lacZ gene fusion was constructed. Deletion analysis was carried out within a part of the 5′-flanking region showing homology to the upstream region of the yeast CYC1 gene. Like the CTT1 gene, this gene is controlled by heme, oxygen and glucose. The results obtained show that the CTT1 gene is positively controlled by heme. Tentative evidence has been obtained for the involvement of upstream sequences homologous to USA1 and USA2 of the CYC1 gene in heme control. Further, a negative site has been located between the upstream activator sites and the transcription start. Within this negative region a ten base-pair sequence was detected that shows high homology to a sequence located within a negative control region of the CYC1 gene and some homology to the negative control elements of the S. cerevisiae CAR1 and CAR2 genes.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary As a first step in an analysis of the DNA regions involved in the control of the catalase A gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by glucose, heme, and oxygen this gene has been cloned. Catalase A-deficient mutants were obtained by UV mutagenesis of a ctt1 mutant strain specifically lacking catalase T. All the catalase A-deficient mutants obtained fall into one complementation group. The single recessive mutation causing specific lack of catalase A was designated cta1. Several overlapping DNA fragments complementing the cta1 mutation were obtained by transforming ctt1 cta1 double mutants with a yeast gene library in vector YEp13. Hybrid selection of RNA with the help of one of the cloned DNAs followed by in vitro translation of this RNA and identification of the protein synthesized with catalase A-specific antibodies showed that the catalase A structural gene has been cloned. A single copy of this gene is present in the yeast genome. Transcription of the catalase A gene cloned into vector YEp13 is repressed by glucose. The DNA isolated hybridizes to a 1.6 kb polyA+−RNA virtually absent from heme-deficient cells, presumably catalase A mRNA.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    BioEssays 17 (1995), S. 959-965 
    ISSN: 0265-9247
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae three positive transcriptional control elements are activated by stress conditions: heat shock elements (HSEs), stress response elements (STREs) and AP-1 responsive elements (AREs). HSEs bind heat shock transcription factor (HSF), which is activated by stress conditions causing accumulation of abnormal proteins. STREs mediate transcriptional activation by multiple stress conditions. They are controlled by high osmolarity via the HOG signal pathway, which comprises a MAP kinase module and a two-component system homologous to prokaryotic signal transducers. AREs bind the transcription factor Yap1p. The three types of control elements seem to have overlapping, but distinct functions. Some stress proteins encoded by HSE-regulated genes are necessary for growth of yeast under moderate stress, products of STRE-activated genes appear to be important for survival under severe stress and ARE-controlled genes may mainly function during oxidative stress and in the response to toxic conditions, such as caused by heavy metal ions.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Sporulation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a meiotic developmental process that occurs in MAT a/MATα heterozygotes in response to nutrient deprivation. Here, the fate and role of peroxisomes during sporulation and germination has been examined by a combination of immunoelectron microscopy and the use of pex mutants defective in peroxisomal functions. Using a green fluorescent protein probe targeted to peroxisomes we show that peroxisomes are inherited through meiosis and that they do not increase in number either during sporulation or spore germination. In addition, there is no requirement for peroxisome degradation prior to spore packaging. Unlike the situation in filamentous fungi, peroxisomes do not proliferate during the yeast life cycle. Functional peroxisomes are dispensable for efficient meiotic development on acetate medium since homozygous Δpex6 diploids sporulated well and produced mature spores that were resistant to diethyl ether. Like haploids, diploid cells can proliferate their peroxisomes in response to oleate as sole carbon source in liquid medium, but under these conditions they do not sporulate. On solid oleate medium, homozygous pex5,Δpex6, and pex7 cells were unable to sporulate efficiently, whereas the wild type was. The results presented here are discussed in terms of the transmission of organelles to progeny cells.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Iso-1-cytochrome c ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Heme ; Transcription
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant (hem1 cycl-1) was transformed with plasmids bearing a chromosomal centromer (CEN3) and a 2 μm DNA replication origin. In one of the plasmids a functional CYC1 gene was present, in a second plasmid an XhoI fragment located between bases -245 and -678 upstream from the translation initiation codon had been deleted, in a third plasmid this region had been inverted. Results of hybridization experiments carried out with mRNA isolated from heme-deficient and heme-containing transformants indicated that heme controls transcription of the CYC1 gene and that DNA sequences located within the upstream XhoI fragment are involved in activation of the gene by heme.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    The @journal of organic chemistry 32 (1967), S. 2010-2012 
    ISSN: 1520-6904
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Catalase ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Heme ; Posttranscriptional control
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Compared to wild type cells, strains bearing the pleiotropic regulatory mutations cgr4 or cas1 synthesize apocatalase T at a high rate when grown on high glucose. Like heme-deficient ole3 single mutants, ole3 cgr4 and ole3 cas1 double mutants accumulate no catalase T protein in vivo. This defect introduced by the ole3 mutation is cured by the addition of ALA. By use of the inhibitor actinomycin D we confirm previous findings that ole3 mutants lack catalase T mRNA and show that (i) the ole3 cgr4 and ole3 cas1 double mutants do accumulate catalase T mRNA or mRNA precursor, and (ii) the processing or translation of this RNA or the accumulation of apocatalase T depends on the presence of home.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Copper ; Catalase ; Metallothionein ; ACE1
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Treatment of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells with copper induces the activity of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. To understand the level at which Cu regulates catalase, the expression of the S. cerevisiae CTA1 (encoding the peroxisomal catalase A) and CTT1 (encoding the cytosolic catalase T) genes was monitored as a function of Cu treatment. Copper was found to specifically induce transcription of CTT1, but not CTA1, mRNA. Moreover, genetic and biochemical studies demonstrate that this induction is independent of the ACE1 Cu trans-activator controlling the expression of yeast Cu/Zn SOD and metallothionein genes. Copper regulation of CTT1 thus appears to represent a novel metal regulatory pathway in S. cerevisiae cells.
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