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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-07-17
    Description: We present the first evidence that international emigrant selection on education and earnings materializes through occupational skills. Combining novel data from a representative Mexican task survey with rich individual-level worker data, we find that Mexican migrants to the United States have higher manual skills and lower cognitive skills than non-migrants. Conditional on occupational skills, education and earnings no longer predict migration decisions. Differential labor-market returns to occupational skills explain the observed selection pattern and significantly outperform previously used returns-to-skills measures in predicting migration. Results are persistent over time and hold within narrowly defined regional, sectoral, and occupational labor markets.
    Keywords: F22 ; O15 ; J61 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; selection ; international migration ; skills ; occupations
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-07-18
    Description: This paper studies the effect of the long-term relatedness between countries, measured by their genetic distance, on educational migrant selection. Analyzing bilateral migrant stocks of the 15 main destination countries and 85 sending countries for the year 2000, we find that migrant selection and genetic distance follow a nonlinear J-shaped pattern: at low levels of genetic distance, increases in genetic distance reduce the positive selection of migration. However, at higher levels of genetic distance, this pattern is reversed and migration becomes more positively selected. We complement this finding by showing that the net benefits of genetic distance are strongly decreasing for low-skilled migrants with increasing genetic distance, while high-skilled migrants are less responsive to genetic distance in general. Results are robust to conditioning on bilateral control variables, including various destination- and sending-country-specific fixed effects and applying an instrumental-variables approach that exploits exogenous variation in genetic distances in the year 1500.
    Keywords: F22 ; J61 ; Z1 ; ddc:330 ; long-term relatedness ; genetic distance ; culture ; international migration ; selection
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 3
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: Der Beitrag diskutiert anhand eines Literaturüberblicks mögliche Determinanten des Schulerfolgs von Kindern mit Migrationshintergrund. Während im ersten Teil (ifo Schnelldienst 9/2013) der Vorschulbereich thematisiert wurde, befasst sich dieser zweite Teil mit den späteren Bildungsstufen. Zunächst werden länderübergreifende Studien im Primar- bzw. Sekundarbereich vorgestellt. Anschließend erfolgt ein Überblick über Studien im Hochschulbereich.
    Keywords: I21 ; I28 ; ddc:330 ; Bildung ; Bildungsniveau ; Bildungspolitik ; Landespolitik ; Weiterführende Schule ; Hochschule ; Migranten ; Integration
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-11-27
    Description: We propose a regression-adjusted matched difference-in-differences framework to estimate non-pecuniary returns to adult education. This approach combines kernel matching with entropy balancing to account for selection bias and sorting on gains. Using data from the German SOEP, we evaluate the effect of work-related training, which represents the largest portion of adult education in OECD countries, on individual social capital. Training increases participation in civic, political, and cultural activities while not crowding out social participation. Results are robust against a variety of potentially confounding explanations. These findings imply positive externalities from work-related training over and above the well-documented labor market effects.
    Keywords: J24 ; I21 ; M53 ; ddc:330 ; non-pecuniary returns ; social capital ; work-related training ; matched difference-in-differences approach ; entropy balancing
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-27
    Description: We propose a regression-adjusted matched difference-in-differences framework to estimate non-pecuniary returns to adult education. This approach combines kernel matching with entropy balancing to account for selection bias and sorting on gains. Using data from the German SOEP, we evaluate the effect of work-related training, which represents the largest portion of adult education in OECD countries, on individual social capital. Training increases participation in civic, political, and cultural activities while not crowding out social participation. Results are robust against a variety of potentially confounding explanations. These findings imply positive externalities from work-related training over and above the well documented labor market effects.
    Keywords: J24 ; I21 ; M53 ; ddc:330 ; non-pecuniary returns ; social capital ; work-related training ; matched difference-in-differences approach ; entropy balancing
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-11-27
    Description: We study the labor market outcomes of a deregulation reform in Germany that removed licensing requirements to become self-employed in some occupations. Using longitudinal social security data, we implement a matched difference-in-differences design with entropy balancing to account for observable characteristics and unobserved individual heterogeneity. The reform tripled the number of businesses within ten years and led to slower earnings growth and higher unemployment for incumbent workers in deregulated occupations. However, the reform effect seems rather small, which we attribute to the relatively low competitiveness of new businesses. Supporting this view, the reform did not lead to overall employment growth.
    Keywords: J31 ; J24 ; L11 ; ddc:330 ; deregulation ; entry barriers ; self-employment ; labor market outcomes ; entropy balancing ; matched difference-in-differences
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: Der vorliegende Forschungsüberblick zeigt den Bildungserfolg von Migranten in Deutschland auf und bietet einen detaillierteren Einblick in die Bildungsleistungen von Migranten im Vorschulbereich. Im nächsten ifo Schnelldienst (Nr. 10/2013) werden die Leistungen von Migranten im Primar-, Sekundar- und Tertiärbereich beleuchtet.
    Keywords: I21 ; I28 ; ddc:330 ; Bildung ; Bildungsniveau ; Frühkindliche Bildung ; Kinderbetreuungseinrichtung ; Migranten ; Integration
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 8
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: This volume was prepared by Jens Ruhose while he was working at the Ifo Institute. It was completed in December 2014 and accepted as a doctoral thesis by the Department of Economics at the University of Munich. It includes four self-contained chapters that contribute to the understanding of the performance of migrants in the host society and the impact of migrants on the citizens of these societies. Given a large increase in the migrant population of many developed countries in recent decades, it is important to know both how migrants integrate into the destination countries and how immigration affects natives. Beside the motivation of the topic, the introduction in Chapter 1 of the volume summarizes three studies of the author that deal with explanations for migrant selection and the importance of migrant selection to labor force quality. Chapter 2 quantifies non-pecuniary migration costs that are incurred due to selective migration along cultural traits. Chapter 3 discusses whether early performance-based tracking of children into different school types impede migrant integration. Chapters 4 and 5 cover the effect of immigration on the host societies by showing that growing up in high immigration area increases intergenerational income mobility among natives and by showing that immigration may, under specific circumstances, increase crime.
    Keywords: D51 ; F22 ; I21 ; I28 ; J15 ; J31 ; J61 ; J62 ; K42 ; O15 ; R23 ; ddc:330 ; Einwanderung ; Migranten ; Auswahl ; Kosten ; Kulturelle Identität ; Internationale Migration ; Lohnstruktur ; Frühkindliche Bildung ; Bildungschancen ; Kriminalität ; Regionaler Arbeitsmarkt ; Soziale Mobilität ; Schätzung ; Deutschland ; USA ; Einwanderung ; Migranten ; Kulturelle Identität ; Lohnstruktur ; Frühkindliche Bildung ; Bildungschancen ; Kriminalität ; Regionaler Arbeitsmarkt ; Schätzung ; Deutschland ; Einwanderung ; Migranten ; Soziale Mobilität ; Schätzung ; USA
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-09-20
    Description: We propose a regression-adjusted matched difference-in-differences framework to estimate non-pecuniary returns to adult education. This approach combines kernel matching with entropy balancing to account for selection bias and sorting on gains. Using data from the German SOEP, we evaluate the effect of work-related training, which represents the largest portion of adult education in OECD countries, on individual social capital. Training increases participation in civic, political, and cultural activities while not crowding out social participation. Results are robust against a variety of potentially confounding explanations. These findings imply positive externalities from work-related training over and above the well-documented labor market effects.
    Keywords: J24 ; I21 ; M53 ; ddc:330 ; non-pecuniary returns ; social capital ; work-related training ; matched difference-in-differences approach ; entropy balancing
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    Kiel und Hamburg: ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft
    Publication Date: 2017-01-27
    Description: Although many U.S. state policies presume that human capital is important for state economic development, there is little research linking better education to state incomes. We develop detailed measures of skills of workers in each state based on school attainment from census micro data and on cognitive skills from state- and country-of-origin achievement tests. These new measures of knowledge capital permit development accounting analyses calibrated with standard production parameters. We find that differences in knowledge capital account for 20-35 percent of the current variation in per-capita GDP among states, with roughly even contributions by school attainment and cognitive skills. Similar results emerge from growth accounting analyses, emphasizing the importance of appropriately measuring worker skills. These estimates support emphasis on school improvement as a strategy for state economic development.
    Keywords: O47 ; I25 ; J24 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:conferenceObject
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