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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-07-17
    Description: We present the first evidence that international emigrant selection on education and earnings materializes through occupational skills. Combining novel data from a representative Mexican task survey with rich individual-level worker data, we find that Mexican migrants to the United States have higher manual skills and lower cognitive skills than non-migrants. Conditional on occupational skills, education and earnings no longer predict migration decisions. Differential labor-market returns to occupational skills explain the observed selection pattern and significantly outperform previously used returns-to-skills measures in predicting migration. Results are persistent over time and hold within narrowly defined regional, sectoral, and occupational labor markets.
    Keywords: F22 ; O15 ; J61 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; selection ; international migration ; skills ; occupations
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-07-18
    Description: This paper studies the effect of the long-term relatedness between countries, measured by their genetic distance, on educational migrant selection. Analyzing bilateral migrant stocks of the 15 main destination countries and 85 sending countries for the year 2000, we find that migrant selection and genetic distance follow a nonlinear J-shaped pattern: at low levels of genetic distance, increases in genetic distance reduce the positive selection of migration. However, at higher levels of genetic distance, this pattern is reversed and migration becomes more positively selected. We complement this finding by showing that the net benefits of genetic distance are strongly decreasing for low-skilled migrants with increasing genetic distance, while high-skilled migrants are less responsive to genetic distance in general. Results are robust to conditioning on bilateral control variables, including various destination- and sending-country-specific fixed effects and applying an instrumental-variables approach that exploits exogenous variation in genetic distances in the year 1500.
    Keywords: F22 ; J61 ; Z1 ; ddc:330 ; long-term relatedness ; genetic distance ; culture ; international migration ; selection
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 3
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: Der Beitrag diskutiert anhand eines Literaturüberblicks mögliche Determinanten des Schulerfolgs von Kindern mit Migrationshintergrund. Während im ersten Teil (ifo Schnelldienst 9/2013) der Vorschulbereich thematisiert wurde, befasst sich dieser zweite Teil mit den späteren Bildungsstufen. Zunächst werden länderübergreifende Studien im Primar- bzw. Sekundarbereich vorgestellt. Anschließend erfolgt ein Überblick über Studien im Hochschulbereich.
    Keywords: I21 ; I28 ; ddc:330 ; Bildung ; Bildungsniveau ; Bildungspolitik ; Landespolitik ; Weiterführende Schule ; Hochschule ; Migranten ; Integration
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-11-27
    Description: We propose a regression-adjusted matched difference-in-differences framework to estimate non-pecuniary returns to adult education. This approach combines kernel matching with entropy balancing to account for selection bias and sorting on gains. Using data from the German SOEP, we evaluate the effect of work-related training, which represents the largest portion of adult education in OECD countries, on individual social capital. Training increases participation in civic, political, and cultural activities while not crowding out social participation. Results are robust against a variety of potentially confounding explanations. These findings imply positive externalities from work-related training over and above the well-documented labor market effects.
    Keywords: J24 ; I21 ; M53 ; ddc:330 ; non-pecuniary returns ; social capital ; work-related training ; matched difference-in-differences approach ; entropy balancing
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-11-27
    Description: We study the labor market outcomes of a deregulation reform in Germany that removed licensing requirements to become self-employed in some occupations. Using longitudinal social security data, we implement a matched difference-in-differences design with entropy balancing to account for observable characteristics and unobserved individual heterogeneity. The reform tripled the number of businesses within ten years and led to slower earnings growth and higher unemployment for incumbent workers in deregulated occupations. However, the reform effect seems rather small, which we attribute to the relatively low competitiveness of new businesses. Supporting this view, the reform did not lead to overall employment growth.
    Keywords: J31 ; J24 ; L11 ; ddc:330 ; deregulation ; entry barriers ; self-employment ; labor market outcomes ; entropy balancing ; matched difference-in-differences
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: Der vorliegende Forschungsüberblick zeigt den Bildungserfolg von Migranten in Deutschland auf und bietet einen detaillierteren Einblick in die Bildungsleistungen von Migranten im Vorschulbereich. Im nächsten ifo Schnelldienst (Nr. 10/2013) werden die Leistungen von Migranten im Primar-, Sekundar- und Tertiärbereich beleuchtet.
    Keywords: I21 ; I28 ; ddc:330 ; Bildung ; Bildungsniveau ; Frühkindliche Bildung ; Kinderbetreuungseinrichtung ; Migranten ; Integration
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 7
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: This volume was prepared by Jens Ruhose while he was working at the Ifo Institute. It was completed in December 2014 and accepted as a doctoral thesis by the Department of Economics at the University of Munich. It includes four self-contained chapters that contribute to the understanding of the performance of migrants in the host society and the impact of migrants on the citizens of these societies. Given a large increase in the migrant population of many developed countries in recent decades, it is important to know both how migrants integrate into the destination countries and how immigration affects natives. Beside the motivation of the topic, the introduction in Chapter 1 of the volume summarizes three studies of the author that deal with explanations for migrant selection and the importance of migrant selection to labor force quality. Chapter 2 quantifies non-pecuniary migration costs that are incurred due to selective migration along cultural traits. Chapter 3 discusses whether early performance-based tracking of children into different school types impede migrant integration. Chapters 4 and 5 cover the effect of immigration on the host societies by showing that growing up in high immigration area increases intergenerational income mobility among natives and by showing that immigration may, under specific circumstances, increase crime.
    Keywords: D51 ; F22 ; I21 ; I28 ; J15 ; J31 ; J61 ; J62 ; K42 ; O15 ; R23 ; ddc:330 ; Einwanderung ; Migranten ; Auswahl ; Kosten ; Kulturelle Identität ; Internationale Migration ; Lohnstruktur ; Frühkindliche Bildung ; Bildungschancen ; Kriminalität ; Regionaler Arbeitsmarkt ; Soziale Mobilität ; Schätzung ; Deutschland ; USA ; Einwanderung ; Migranten ; Kulturelle Identität ; Lohnstruktur ; Frühkindliche Bildung ; Bildungschancen ; Kriminalität ; Regionaler Arbeitsmarkt ; Schätzung ; Deutschland ; Einwanderung ; Migranten ; Soziale Mobilität ; Schätzung ; USA
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 8
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    Kiel und Hamburg: ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft
    Publication Date: 2017-01-27
    Description: Although many U.S. state policies presume that human capital is important for state economic development, there is little research linking better education to state incomes. We develop detailed measures of skills of workers in each state based on school attainment from census micro data and on cognitive skills from state- and country-of-origin achievement tests. These new measures of knowledge capital permit development accounting analyses calibrated with standard production parameters. We find that differences in knowledge capital account for 20-35 percent of the current variation in per-capita GDP among states, with roughly even contributions by school attainment and cognitive skills. Similar results emerge from growth accounting analyses, emphasizing the importance of appropriately measuring worker skills. These estimates support emphasis on school improvement as a strategy for state economic development.
    Keywords: O47 ; I25 ; J24 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Kiel und Hamburg: ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft
    Publication Date: 2017-01-27
    Description: The current literature that investigates the selection of Mexican migrants to the United States focuses on selectivity in educational attainment and earnings. Notably absent from the literature is evidence on occupational selection, because it is unclear how to measure the skill content of Mexican occupations. However, any such research would yield important insights regarding the selection on labor-market skills that Mexicans carry with them to the United States. We use data from a representative Mexican worker survey—equivalent to the U.S. O*NET—to develop novel measures of cognitive and manual skills for migrants based on their pre-migration occupational history, and compare them to the skills of Mexicans who do not migrate. Using detailed longitudinal micro-level data from two Mexican labor surveys, the Mexican Migration Project, and the Mexican Family Life Survey, our analysis consistently shows that migrants have lower cognitive and higher manual skills than non-migrants. This finding is robust to controlling for age, gender, and educational attainment and also holds within broader occupational groups. Despite substantial changes in emigration rates over time, we also document that occupational selection is highly persistent.
    Keywords: F22 ; O15 ; J61 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft
    Publication Date: 2016-01-29
    Description: We investigate international migration choices of high-skilled individuals and measure migrant selection using predicted earnings. High-skilled migrants select to destinations as predicted by Borjas' (1987) model of migration choices. Migrants to less equal countries are positively selected, while migrants to more equal countries are negatively selected, relative to non-migrants. For our analysis, we use a survey of university graduates, including detailed information on background characteristics, university studies, and labor market choices, combined with measures of earnings inequality for high-skilled individuals in destination countries. Our rich data allow us to decompose the observed selection patterns. Positive selection to less equal countries is driven by university quality and grades. Negative selection to more equal countries is driven by university subject and gender. Our results highlight the relevance of the Roy/Borjas model for high-skilled individuals in a setting where credit constraints and other barriers to migration are unlikely to be binding.
    Keywords: F22 ; J24 ; J61 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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