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  • 1
    In: Marine Chemistry, 3664
    Description / Table of Contents: Profiles of particulate and dissolved 234Th (t1/2=24.1 days) in seawater and particulate 234Th collected in drifting traps were analyzed in the Barents Sea at five stations during the ALV3 cruise (from June 28 to July 12, 1999) along a transect from 78°15′N–34°09′E to 73°49′N–31°43′E. 234Th/238U disequilibrium was observed at all locations. 234Th data measured in suspended and trapped particles were used to calibrate the catchment efficiency of the sediment traps. Model-derived 234Th fluxes were similar to 234Th fluxes measured in sediment traps based on a steady-state 234Th model. This suggests that the sediment traps were not subject to large trapping efficiency problems (collection efficiency ranges from 70% to 100% for four traps). The export flux of particulate organic carbon (POC) can be calculated from the model-derived export flux of 234Th and the POC/234Th ratio. POC/234Th ratios measured in suspended and trapped particles were very different (52.0±9.9 and 5.3±2.2 μmol dpm−1, respectively). The agreement between calculated and measured POC fluxes when the POC/234Th ratio of trapped particles was used confirms that the POC/234Th ratio in trap particles is representative of sinking particles. Large discrepancies were observed between calculated and measured POC fluxes when the POC/234Th ratio of suspended particles was used. In the Barents Sea, vertical POC fluxes are higher than POC fluxes estimated in the central Arctic Ocean and the Beaufort Sea and lower than those calculated in the Northeast Water Polynya and the Chukchi Sea. We suggest that the latter fluxes may have been strongly overestimated, because they were based on high POC/234Th ratios measured on suspended particles. It seems that POC fluxes cannot be reliably derived from thorium budgets without measuring the POC/234Th ratio of sediment trap material or of large filtered particles.
    Type of Medium: 13
    ISSN: 0304-4203 , 1872-7581
    Language: English
    Note: Outline Abstract Keywords 1. Introduction 2. Methods 2.1. Sample collection 2.2. 234Th analyses 2.3. Particulate organic carbon analyses 3. Results 3.1. Hydrography 3.2. Nutrients 3.3. 234Th activities and POC concentrations 3.4. Trapped material 4. Discussion 4.1. Origins of 234Th/238U disequilibrium 4.2. Determining 234Th fluxes 4.3. Calibration of sediment trap with 234Th 4.4. Vertical flux of particulate organic carbon and the POC/234Thp ratio 5. Conclusion Acknowledgements References
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  • 2
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: van Hulten, Marco M P; Middag, Rob; Dutay, Jean-Claude; de Baar, Hein J W; Roy-Barman, Matthieu; Gehlen, Marion; Tagliabue, Alessandro; Sterl, Andreas (2017): Manganese in the west Atlantic Ocean in the context of the first global ocean circulation model of manganese. Biogeosciences, 14(5), 1123-1152, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-1123-2017
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: Dissolved manganese (Mn) is a biologically essential element. Moreover, its oxidised form is involved in removing itself and several other trace elements from ocean waters. Here we report the longest thus far (17500 km length) full-depth ocean section of dissolved Mn in the west Atlantic Ocean, comprising 1320 data values of high accuracy. This is the GA02 transect that is part of the GEOTRACES programme, which aims to understand trace element distributions. The goal of this study is to combine these new observations with new, state-of-the-art, modelling to give a first assessment of the main sources and redistribution of Mn throughout the ocean. To this end, we simulate the distribution of dissolved Mn using a global-scale circulation model. This first model includes simple parameterisations to account for the sources, processes and sinks of Mn in the ocean. Oxidation and (photo)reduction, aggregation and settling, as well as biological uptake and remineralisation by plankton are included in the model. Our model provides, together with the observations, the following insights: – The high surface concentrations of manganese are caused by the combination of photoreduction and sources contributing to the upper ocean. The most important sources are sediments, dust, and, more locally, rivers. – Observations and model simulations suggest that surface Mn in the Atlantic Ocean moves downwards into the southward-flowing North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW), but because of strong removal rates there is no elevated concentration of Mn visible any more in the NADW south of 40° N. – The model predicts lower dissolved Mn in surface waters of the Pacific Ocean than the observed concentrations. The intense oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) in subsurface waters is deemed to be a major source of dissolved Mn also mixing upwards into surface waters, but the OMZ is not well represented by the model. Improved high-resolution simulation of the OMZ may solve this problem. – There is a mainly homogeneous background concentration of dissolved Mn of about 0.10–0.15 nM throughout most of the deep ocean. The model reproduces this by means of a threshold on particulate manganese oxides of 25 pM, suggesting that a minimal concentration of particulate Mn is needed before aggregation and removal become efficient. – The observed distinct hydrothermal signals are produced by assuming both a strong source and a strong removal of Mn near hydrothermal vents.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 393.0 MBytes
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  • 3
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: van Hulten, Marco M P; Dutay, Jean-Claude; Roy-Barman, Matthieu (in review): A global scavenging and circulation ocean model of thorium-230 and protactinium-231 with realistic particle dynamics (NEMO-ProThorP 0.1). Geoscientific Model Development Discussions, 1-32, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2017-274
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: This archive contains all output from the PISCES-v2 model, containing 24 carbon, nitrate, phosphate and iron tracers. The model is extended with models of lithogenic particles and thorium-230 and protactinium-231, adding eight additional tracers, namely small and big lithogenic particles, and dissolved, small and big Th-230 and Pa-231 (referred to as ProThorP). Thus the model contains 32 different tracers (ptrc) for two different simulations, as well as diagnostic data (diad). The model is executed as part of the global ocean general cirulation model NEMO in the ORCA2 configuration (2° x 2° cos(phi) x 31 layers).
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 29 data points
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-08-08
    Description: In seawater, particle reactive 231Pa and 230Th are uniformly produced by decay of soluble 235U and 234U. Due to differences in particle reactivity, 230Th tends to be removed to the sediment close to its production site, while 231Pa is more prone to lateral transport and is removed to the sediments in areas of high particle flux (i.e. boundary scavenging). Due to a combination of perennial ice cover, large shelf areas and river runoff, boundary scavenging in the Arctic Ocean strongly impacts the distribution of 231Pa and 230Th in the water column. Here, 231Pa and 230Th were analyzed in seawater and particles from the Arctic GEOTRACES section GN04 along the Barents shelf and in the Nansen basin. Key observations include lower concentrations of dissolved 231Pa and 230Th on the Barents shelf compared to the Nansen basin, indicating enhanced removal of 231Pa and 230Th near the margin. The particulate nuclide/total nuclide ratio increases from the surface (0.2% for 231Paxs and 0.7% for 230Thxs) to the seafloor (11% for 231Paxs and 71% for 230Thxs), highlighting the role of deep scavenging. The fractionation factor between 231Pa and 230Th (FTh/Pa) ranges from ~3 to 25 and generally increases with depth. Comparison between suspended particles and sediments will be provided. Further, dissolved 231Paxs and 230Thxs concentrations in the Nansen basin are lower compared to concentrations measured 20 years ago1 . This might reflect changes in particle flux and/or changes in circulation patterns. 1 Scholten, J., Rutgers van der Loeff, M., 1995. Distribution of 230Th and 231Pa in the water column in relation to the ventilation of the deep Arctic basins. Deep. Res. Part II 42, 1519–1531.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-01-30
    Description: Particles determine the residence time of many dissolved elements in seawater. Although a substantial number of field studies were conducted in the framework of major oceanographic programs as GEOSECS and JGOFS, knowledge about particle dynamics is still scarce. Moreover, the particulate trace metal behavior remains largely unknown. The GEOSECS sampling strategy during the 1970s focused on large sections across oceanic basins, where particles were collected by membrane filtration after Niskin bottle sampling, biasing the sampling toward the small particle pool. Late in this period, the first in situ pumps allowing large volume sampling were also developed. During the 1990s, JGOFS focused on the quantifi- cation of the ‘‘exported carbon flux’’ and its seasonal variability in representative biogeochemical prov- inces of the ocean, mostly using sediment trap deployments. Although scarce and discrete in time and space, these pioneering studies allowed an understanding of the basic fate of marine particles. This understanding improved considerably, especially when the analysis of oceanic tracers such as natural radionuclides allowed the first quantification of processes such as dissolved-particle exchange and par- ticle settling velocities. Because the GEOTRACES program emphasizes the importance of collecting, char- acterizing and analyzing marine particles, this paper reflects our present understanding of the sources, fate and sinks of oceanic particles at the early stages of the program.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © The Authors, 2005. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Marine Chemistry 100 (2006): 234-249, doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2005.10.014.
    Description: Over the past few decades, the radioisotope pair of 238U/234Th has been widely and increasingly used to describe particle dynamics and particle export fluxes in a variety of aquatic systems. The present paper is one of five review articles dedicated to 234Th. It is focused on the models associated with 234Th whereas the companion papers (same issue) are focused on present and future methodologies and techniques (Rutgers van der Loeff et al.), C/234Th ratios (Buesseler et al.), 234Th speciation (Santschi et al.) and present and future applications of 234Th (Waples et al.). In this paper, we review current 234Th scavenging models and discuss the relative importance of the non steady state and physical terms associated with the most commonly used model to estimate 234Th flux. Based on this discussion we recommend that for future work the use of models should be accompanied by a discussion of the effect that model and data uncertainty have on the model results. We also suggest that future field work incorporate repeat occupations of sample sites on time scales of 1-4 weeks in order to evaluate steady state versus non steady state estimates of 234Th export, especially during high flux events (〉 ca. 800 dpm m-2 d-1). Finally, knowledge of the physical oceanography of the study area is essential, particularly in ocean margins and in areas of established upwelling (e.g. Equatorial Pacific). These suggestions will greatly enhance the application of 234Th as a tracer of particle dynamics and flux in more complicated regimes.
    Description: This paper grew out of discussion held at the “Future Applications of 234Th in Aquatic Systems” workshop held at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in August, 2004 (see: http://www.geol.sc.edu/cbnelson/Thmeeting/). We are grateful to the US National Science Foundation Chemical Oceanography Program (OCE 0354757) for its support of the workshop. We thank the US National Science Foundation, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Belgian Science Policy for their support of many of the field and modeling efforts described in this paper.
    Keywords: Th-234 ; Model ; Scavenging ; Export ; Particle dynamics
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
    Format: 2096326 bytes
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2014. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Progress in Oceanography 133 (2015):6-16, doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2014.12.018.
    Description: Particles determine the residence time of many dissolved elements in seawater. Although a substantial number of field studies were conducted in the framework of major oceanographic programs as GEOSECS and JGOFS, knowledge about particle dynamics is still scarce. Moreover, the particulate trace metal behavior remains largely unknown. The GEOSECS sampling strategy during the 1970’s focused on large sections across oceanic basins, where particles were collected by membrane filtration after Niskin bottle sampling, biasing the sampling towards the small particle pool. Late in this period, the first in situ pumps allowing large volume sampling were also developed. During the 1990’s, JGOFS focused on the quantification of the “exported carbon flux” and its seasonal variability in representative biogeochemical provinces of the ocean, mostly using sediment trap deployments. Although scarce and discrete in time and space, these pioneering studies allowed an understanding of the basic fate of marine particles. This understanding improved considerably, especially when the analysis of oceanic tracers such as natural radionuclides allowed the first quantification of processes such as dissolved-particle exchange and particle settling velocities. Because the GEOTRACES program emphasizes the importance of collecting, characterizing and 39 analyzing marine particles, this paper reflects our present understanding of the sources, fate and sinks of oceanic particles at the early stages of the program.
    Description: This paper arose from a workshop that was co-sponsored by ESF COST Action ES0801, "The ocean chemistry of bioactive trace elements and paleoproxies". Additional support for that workshop came from SCOR, through support to SCOR from the U.S. National Science Foundation (Grant OCE- 0938349 and OCE-1243377). Support for PJL from U.S. NSF grant OCE-0963026.
    Keywords: Historical review ; Oceanic Particle distribution sources and sinks ; GEOSECS ; JGOFS ; GEOTRACES
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography, 2012. This article is posted here by permission of Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Limnology and Oceanography: Methods 10 (2012): 179-213, doi:10.4319/lom.2012.10.179.
    Description: Nineteen labs representing nine nations participated in the GEOTRACES intercalibration initiative that determined concentrations of 232Th, 230Th, 231Pa, or 10Be in seawater, suspended particles or sediments. Results generally demonstrated good agreement among labs that analyzed marine sediments. Two sets of seawater samples, aliquots of particulate material filtered in situ, and/or aliquots of biogenic sediments were distributed to participating labs. Internal consistency among participating labs improved substantially between the first and second set of seawater samples. Contamination was a serious problem for 232Th. Standard Niskin bottles introduced no detectable contamination, whereas sample containers, reagents, and labware were implicated as sources of contamination. No detectable differences in concentrations of dissolved 232Th, 230Th, or 231Pa were observed among samples of seawater filtered through Nuclepore, Supor, or QMA (quartz) filters with pore diameters ranging between 0.4 and 1.0 μm. Isotope yield monitors equilibrate with dissolved Th in seawater on a time scale of much less than 1 day. Samples of filtered seawater acidified to a pH between 1.7 and 1.8 experienced no detectable loss of dissolved Th or Pa during storage for up to 3 years. The Bermuda Atlantic Time Series station will serve as a GEOTRACES baseline station for future intercalibration of 232Th and 230Th concentrations in seawater. Efforts to improve blanks and standard calibration are ongoing, as is the development of methods to determine concentrations of particulate nuclides, tests of different filtration methods, and an increasing awareness of the need to define protocols for reporting uncertainties.
    Description: Funding for sample collection and for the coordination of this intercalibration of Th isotopes, 231Pa and 10Be was provided by the U.S. NSF (to Anderson, Moran, and Edwards). Funding from NSF (to R. Francois and to K. Buesseler) also supported the collection of previously unpublished data that are presented here.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © The Authors, 2006. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Marine Chemistry 100 (2006): 250-268, doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2005.10.024.
    Description: Since the 1960’s, thorium isotopes occupy a special place in the oceanographer’s toolbox as tracers for determining rates and mechanisms of oceanic scavenging, particle dynamics, and carbon fluxes. Due to their unique and constant production rates from soluble parent nuclides of uranium and radium, their disequilibrium can be used to calculate rates and time scales of sinking particles. In addition, by ratio-ing particulate 234Th (as well, in principle, other Thnuclides) to carbon (and other elements), and linking this ratio to the parent-daughter disequilibrium in the water column, it is possible to calculate fluxes of carbon and other elements. Most of these applications are possible with little knowledge of the dissolved chemical properties of thorium, other than its oxidation state (IV) and tendency to strongly sorb to surfaces, i.e., its “particle- or surface-activity”. However, the use of any tracer is hindered by a lack of knowledge of its chemical properties. Recent observations in the variability of carbon to 234Th ratios in different particle types, as well as of associations of Th(IV) with various marine organic biomolecules has led to the need for a review of current knowledge and what future endeavors should be taken to understand the marine chemistry of thorium.
    Description: The writing of this paper was supported, in parts by NSF (OCE-0351559; OCE-0350758, and OCE 0354757).
    Keywords: Thorium ; Speciation ; Seawater ; Colloids ; Exopolymeric substances ; Transparent exopolymeric particles ; Amphiphiles ; Biosurfactant ligand
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2020-02-14
    Description: This study provides dissolved and particulate 230Th and 232Th results as well as particulate 234Th data collected during expeditions to the central Arctic Ocean (GEOTRACES, an international project to identify processes and quantify fluxes that control the distributions of trace elements; sections GN04 and GIPY11). Constructing a time series of dissolved 230Th from 1991 to 2015 enables the identification of processes that control the temporal development of 230Th distributions in the Amundsen Basin. After 2007, 230Th concentrations decreased significantly over the entire water column, particularly between 300 and 1500 m. This decrease is accompanied by a circulation change, evidenced by a concomitant increase in salinity. A potentially increased inflow of water of Atlantic origin with low dissolved 230Th concentrations leads to the observed depletion in dissolved 230Th in the central Arctic. Because atmospherically derived tracers (chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)) do not reveal an increase in ventilation rate, it is suggested that these interior waters have undergone enhanced scavenging of Th during transit from Fram Strait and the Barents Sea to the central Amundsen Basin. The 230Th depletion propagates downward in the water column by settling particles and reversible scavenging.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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