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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The nitrogenase activity (measured by reduction of C2H2 to C2H4) of nodules of Trifolium subterraneum grown at root temperatures from 7°C–19°C was broadly correlated with nitrogen fixation. Root temperature did not affect enzyme activity per se but did affect the amount of enzyme formed. Exposure of nodules to 7°C for 24 h did not decrease activity cf. 19°C. Activity was greatest when nodules were about 4 days old, before swollen bacteroid forms were produced, and then declined. The effectiveness of a bacterial strain at a given temperature was related to the amount of enzyme produced and to its persistence. Nitrogenase activity should be measured throughout the plant growth cycle for valid comparisons of strain effectiveness.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: Bradyrhizobium japonicum ; ecology ; N2-fixation ; nodulation ; rice ; soybean
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract The effect of rice culture on changes in the number of a strain of soybean root-nodule bacteria, (Bradyrhizobium japonicum CB1809), already established in the soil by growing inoculated soybean crops, was investigated in transitional red-brown earth soils at two sites in south-western New South Wales. At the first site, 5.5 years elapsed between the harvest of the last of four successive crops of soybean and the sowing of the next. In this period three crops of rice and one crop of triticale were sown and in the intervals between these crops, and after the crop of triticale, the land was fallowed. Before sowing the first rice crop, the number of Bradyrhizobium japonicum was 1.32×105 g−1 soil. The respective numbers of bradyrhizobia after the first, second and third rice crops were 4.52 ×104, 1.26×104 and 6.40×102 g−1 soil. In the following two years the population remained constant. Thus sufficient bradyrhizobia survived in soil to nodulate and allow N2-fixation by the succeeding soybean crop. At the second site, numbers of bradyrhizobia declined during a rice crop, but the decline was less than when the soil was fallowed (400-fold cf. 2200-fold). Multiplication of bradyrhizobia was rapid in the rhizosphere of soybean seedlings sown without inoculation in the rice bays. At 16 days after sowing, their numbers were not significantly different (p〈0.05) from those in plots where rice had not been sown. Nodulation of soybeans was greatest in plots where rice had not been grown, but yield and grain nitrogen were not significantly different (p〈0.05). Our results indicate that flooding soil has a deleterious effect on the survival of bradyrhizobia but, under the conditions of the experiments, sufficient B. japonicum strain CB 1809 survived to provide good nodulation after three crops of rice covering a total period of 5.5 years between crops of soybean.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary The infection of root hairs and nodulation ofT. subterraneum L. cv. Cranmore byRhizobium trifolii strain TA1 was extremely sensitive to root temperature. Within the range 11°–19°C infection was progressively delayed as root temperature decreased but at 7°C no root hairs were infected by 40 days. At 7°C lateral root formation was stimulated in the root zone where nodules formed at 19°C.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary The infection of root hairs and nodulation ofT. subterraneum L. cv. Cranmore byRhizobium trifolii strain TA1 was extremely sensitive to root temperature. Within the range 11°–19°C infection was progressively delayed as root temperature decreased but at 7°C no root hairs were infected by 40 days. At 7°C lateral root formation was stimulated in the root zone where nodules formed at 19°C.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Plant and soil 32 (1970), S. 675-701 
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Plant and soil 40 (1974), S. 441-444 
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Pelleting inoculated seed of Vigna sinensis, Glycine wightii cv. Clarence, Lupinus albus, Desmodium uncinatum cv. Silverleaf and Glycine max with neutral rock phosphate rather than lime did not improve the survival of their non-acid producing rhizobia. The rhizobia survived equally well when applied in a 15% w/v gum arabic slurry and not pelleted. re]19730706
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Plant and soil 32 (1970), S. 675-701 
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Holding 24-h seedlings ofTrifolium spp. at 3°C increased the number of root hairs infected byRhizobium when the plants were subsequently inoculated and grown at 19°C. This effect was transitory, disappearing on plants more than 7 days old.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Five Rhizobium strains were tested in the field with six Trifolium hosts. In order to examine criteria of evaluation of effectiveness under a range of sowing methods, all inoculant strains, plus controls, were sown with the six hosts in swards, with three of the hosts in rows and the other three as spaced plants. Swards and rows were assessed in terms of percentage plants nodulated, dry matter yield per unit area, visual rating of yield and mean dry weight of individually collected plants. Spaced plants were examined using the same criteria except that visual rating was replaced by area measurement. Harvested dry matter yield per unit area was accepted as the most reliable estimate for each of the sowing methods and served as a basis for comparison of other criteria. Percentage nodulation was generally not related to dry matter production in rows or swards, partly because of cross-infection between plants. Although the relationship was not good with spaced plants it was concluded that the prevention of root contact provided the only opportunity for a reliable measurement of the proportion of plants nodulated. Mean weights of individual plants removed from swards or rows did not provide a useful basis for strain comparison. The coefficients of variation of these plants commonly exceeded 100%. Although a calculated yield (mean plant weight × no. of plants) ranked strains similarly to the full harvest, the time and labour requirement was higher. Visual rating of yield was most reliable with rows where the observer could successfully scan all treatments. It was less reliable with swards. Area measurement of spaced plants was not related to yield. In spite of some anomalies between swards and rows, there was generally good agreement in ranking of strains in terms of harvested yield between all sowing methods. re]19730821
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Holding 24-h seedlings ofTrifolium spp. at 3°C increased the number of root hairs infected byRhizobium when the plants were subsequently inoculated and grown at 19°C. This effect was transitory, disappearing on plants more than 7 days old.
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