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  • 1
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Ramesh, Kirti; Melzner, Frank; Griffith, Andrew W; Gobler, Christopher J; Rouger, Caroline; Tasdemir, Deniz; Nehrke, Gernot (2018): In vivo characterization of bivalve larval shells: a confocal Raman microscopy study. Journal of The Royal Society Interface, 15(141), 20170723, https://doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2017.0723
    Publication Date: 2019-04-30
    Description: In vivo confocal Raman microscopy (CRM), polarized light microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to determine if a significant amount of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) exists within larval shells of Baltic mytilid mussels (Mytilus edulis-like) and whether the amount of ACC varies during larval development. No evidence for ACC was found from the onset of shell deposition at 21 h post-fertilization (hpf) until 48 hpf. Larval Mytilus shells were crystalline from 21 hpf onwards and exhibited CRM and FTIR peaks characteristic of aragonite. Prior to shell deposition at 21 hpf, no evidence for carbonates was observed through in vivo CRM. We further analysed the composition of larval shells in three other bivalve species, Mercenaria mercenaria, Crassostrea gigas and Crassostrea virginica and observed no evidence for ACC, which is in contrast to previous work on the same species. Our findings indicate that larval bivalve shells are composed of crystalline aragonite and we demonstrate that conflicting results are related to sub-optimal measurements and misinterpretation of CRM spectra. Our results demonstrate that the common perception that ACC generally occurs as a stable and abundant precursor during larval bivalve calcification needs to be critically reviewed.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 143020 data points
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: In vivo confocal Raman microscopy (CRM), polarized light microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to determine if a significant amount of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) exists within larval shells of Baltic mytilid mussels (Mytilus edulis-like) and whether the amount of ACC varies during larval development. No evidence for ACC was found from the onset of shell deposition at 21 h post-fertilization (hpf) until 48 hpf. Larval Mytilus shells were crystalline from 21 hpf onwards and exhibited CRM and FTIR peaks characteristic of aragonite. Prior to shell deposition at 21 hpf, no evidence for carbonates was observed through in vivo CRM.We further analysed the composition of larval shells in three other bivalve species, Mercenaria mercenaria, Crassostrea gigas and Crassostrea virginica and observed no evidence for ACC, which is in contrast to previous work on the same species. Our findings indicate that larval bivalve shells are composed of crystalline aragonite and we demonstrate that conflicting results are related to sub-optimal measurements and misinterpretation of CRM spectra. Our results demonstrate that the common perception that ACC generally occurs as a stable and abundant precursor during larval bivalve calcification needs to be critically reviewed.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: text
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: An UPLC-qTOF-MS-based dereplication study led to the targeted isolation of seven bromoindole alkaloids from the sub-Arctic sponge Geodia barretti. This includes three new metabolites, namely geobarrettin A–C (1–3) and four known compounds, barettin (4), 8,9-dihydrobarettin (5), 6-bromoconicamin (6), and l-6-bromohypaphorine (7). The chemical structures of compounds 1–7 were elucidated by extensive analysis of the NMR and HRESIMS data. The absolute stereochemistry of geobarrettin A (1) was assigned by ECD analysis and Marfey’s method employing the new reagent l-Nα-(1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrophenyl)tryptophanamide (l-FDTA). The isolated compounds were screened for anti-inflammatory activity using human dendritic cells (DCs). Both 2 and 3 reduced DC secretion of IL-12p40, but 3 concomitantly increased IL-10 production. Maturing DCs treated with 2 or 3 before co-culturing with allogeneic CD4+ T cells decreased T cell secretion of IFN-γ, indicating a reduction in Th1 differentiation. Although barettin (4) reduced DC secretion of IL-12p40 and IL-10 (IC50 values 11.8 and 21.0 μM for IL-10 and IL-12p40, respectively), maturing DCs in the presence of 4 did not affect the ability of T cells to secrete IFN-γ or IL-17, but reduced their secretion of IL-10. These results indicate that 2 and 3 may be useful for the treatment of inflammation, mainly of the Th1 type.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-04-13
    Description: In vivo confocal Raman microscopy (CRM), polarized light microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to determine if a significant amount of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) exists within larval shells of Baltic mytilid mussels (Mytilus edulis-like) and whether the amount of ACC varies during larval development. No evidence for ACC was found from the onset of shell deposition at 21 h post-fertilization (hpf) until 48 hpf. Larval Mytilus shells were crystalline from 21 hpf onwards and exhibited CRM and FTIR peaks characteristic of aragonite. Prior to shell deposition at 21 hpf, no evidence for carbonates was observed through in vivo CRM.We further analysed the composition of larval shells in three other bivalve species, Mercenaria mercenaria, Crassostrea gigas and Crassostrea virginica and observed no evidence for ACC, which is in contrast to previous work on the same species. Our findings indicate that larval bivalve shells are composed of crystalline aragonite and we demonstrate that conflicting results are related to sub-optimal measurements and misinterpretation of CRM spectra. Our results demonstrate that the common perception that ACC generally occurs as a stable and abundant precursor during larval bivalve calcification needs to be critically reviewed.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-05-24
    Description: The metabolism of seaweeds depends on environmental parameters, the availability of nutrients, and biotic/abiotic stresses; therefore, their chemical composition fluctuates throughout the year. This study investigated seasonal variations in the metabolome of the Baltic Sea brown alga Fucus vesiculosus and its potential relation to the bioactivity profile. By using a definitive screening design (DSD) combined with pressurised liquid extraction (PLE), an optimised protocol was developed to extract algal biomass monthly for a full calendar year. An untargeted metabolomics approach using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MSn)-based molecular networking and manual dereplication was employed. The extracts were simultaneously screened for their in vitro antimicrobial, anticancer/apoptotic, and free radical scavenging activities. 44 compounds were putatively dereplicated in the metabolome. Many compounds were found to vary with the sampling month; phlorotannin total ion count (TIC) was highest in summer, whilst chlorophylls, lipids, and carotenoids peaked in winter and spring. The greatest radical scavenging and apoptotic activities against pancreas cancer cells observed in the summer months were attributed to high phlorotannin TIC. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) inhibitory activity was produced year-round without a clear seasonal trend. This is the first study applying DSD-based optimised PLE extraction combined with a metabolome analysis of F. vesiculosus for the identification of seasonal variations in both metabolome and bioactivity.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-10-24
    Description: Alkylresorcinols are amphiphilic metabolites, well-known for their diverse biological activities, produced by both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. A few classes of alkylresorcinol scaffolds have been reported from the photoautotrophic cyanobacteria, ranging from the relatively simple hierridins to the more intricate cylindrocyclophanes. Recently, it has emerged that cyanobacteria employ two different biosynthetic pathways to produce unique alkylresorcinol scaffolds. However, these convergent pathways intersect by sharing biosynthetic elements which lead to common structural motifs. To obtain a broader view of the biochemical diversity of these compounds in cyanobacteria, we comprehensively cover the isolation, structure, biological activity and biosynthesis of their mono- and dialkylresorcinols. Moreover, we provide an overview of the diversity and distribution of alkylresorcinol-generating biosynthetic gene clusters in this phylum and highlight opportunities for discovery of novel alkylresorcinol scaffolds. Because some of these molecules have inspired notable syntheses, different approaches used to build these molecules in the laboratory are showcased.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: text
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