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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: tissue uptake ; extraction efficiency ; blood flow-limited models ; 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Incorporation of First-Order Uptake Rate Constants from Simple Mammillary Models into Blood-Flow Limited Physiological Pharmacokinetic Models via Extraction Efficiencies. W. L. Roth, L. W. D. Weber, and K. Rozman (1995). Pharm. Res. 263–269. First-order rate constants obtained from classical pharmacokinetic models correspond to mammillary systems in which all of the blood (or plasma) is assumed to be located in a central compartment. In such models the rate at which chemicals are transported out of this pool and into another compartment is the product of the mass of chemical in the central compartment multiplied by a rate constant, which is not limited in magnitude by the blood flow, or the rate at which chemicals from the blood are delivered to the peripheral compartment. Most of the physiologically-based models published to date dispense with some of the information available from mammillary models by assuming that all of the chemical delivered by the flow of blood rapidly equilibrates and can be taken up by the tissue under the control of a “partition coefficient” (Rij = Cj/Ci). We show that the partition coefficient alone does not retain the uptake rate (kji) information available from a classical mammillary model, but that the uptake rate information can be incorporated via unitless extraction efficiency parameters, εj.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1539-6924
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Pharmacokinetic models which incorporate independently measured anatomical characteristics and physiological flows have been widely used to predict the pharmacokinetic behavior of drugs, anesthetics, and other chemicals. Models appearing in the literature have included as many as 18,(1) or as few as 5 tissue compartments.(2) With the exception of the multiple-compartment delay trains used by Bischoff(3) to model the delays inherent to the appearance of drug metabolites in bile and segments of the intestinal lumen, very little effort has been made to incorporate the available information on gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology into more accurate gastrointestinal absorption/enterohepatic recirculation submodels. Since several authors have shown that the lymphatic system is the most significant route of absorption for highly lipophilic chemicals, we have constructed a model of gastrointestinal absorption that emphasizes chylomicron production and transport as the most significant route of absorption for nonvolatile, lipophilic chemicals. The absorption and distribution of hexachlorobenzene after intravenous vs. oral dosing are used to demonstrate features of this model.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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