ALBERT

All Library Books, journals and Electronic Records Telegrafenberg

feed icon rss

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Proceed order?

Export
  • 1
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-202-110
    In: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 110
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary: Nafe's (1957) presentation of reflection and transmission coefficients at a solid-solid interface was used to compute tables for the case of ice in contact with another solid at a plane interface. Energy ratios of all the combinations of reflected and refracted plane P and S waves were computed for 30 different cases of the second solid. A compressional velocity of 3.6 km/sec, a density of 0.9 g/cm^3, and a value of 1/3 for Poisson's ratio were assumed for the ice. For the other solid, the velocity ranged from 1.2 to 6.0 km/sec, the density from 1.5 to 3.0 g/cm^3, and Poisson's ratio from 0 to 1/3. The computations were carried out with an electronic computer, and the results are presented graphically.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 17 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory 110
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Preface Summary Introduction Definitions Computation Results
    Location: AWI Archive
    Branch Library: AWI Library
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    Publication Date: 1976-01-01
    Print ISSN: 0032-2474
    Electronic ISSN: 1475-3057
    Topics: Ethnic Sciences , Geography
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Publication Date: 1990-01-01
    Description: Freezing processes in temperate ice consisting of a mixture of pure ice with water inclusions are studied for the case that the initial amount of moisture content is uniform. By introducing a cold source at the center of the ice specimen, the cold front propagates outwards leaving behind pure cold ice with a temperature distribution dictated by the exact set-up of the cold source. The speed of the front is directly related to the water content of the temperate ice and depends essentially on the Stefan condition.Three types of initial and boundary conditions are considered and realized in uniaxial, cylindrical, and/or spherical symmetry: (1) a metallic core at a temperature below the freezing point is initially brought into contact with the ice and the system is left free to evolve; (2) the metallic core is kept at constant temperature below freezing; (3) Case (2) is repeated with an insulating air layer between the metallic core and the ice.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1430
    Electronic ISSN: 1727-5652
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Publication Date: 1972-01-01
    Description: Water flowing in tubular channels inside a glacier produces frictional heat, which causes melting of the ice walls. However the channels also have a tendency to close under the overburden pressure. Using the equilibrium equation that at every cross-section as much ice is melted as flows in, differential equations are given for steady flow in horizontal, inclined and vertical channels at variable depth and for variable discharge, ice properties and channel roughness. It is shown that the pressure decreases with increasing discharge, which proves that water must flow in main arteries. The same argument is used to show that certain glacier lakes above long flat valley glaciers must form in times of low discharge and empty when the discharge is high, i.e. when the water head in the subglacial drainage system drops below the lake level. Under the conditions of the model an ice mass of uniform thickness does not float, i.e. there is no water layer at the bottom, when the bed is inclined in the down-hill direction, but it can float on a horizontal bed if the exponentnof the law for the ice creep is small. It is further shown that basal streams (bottom conduits) and lateral streams at the hydraulic grade line (gradient conduits) can coexist. Time-dependent flow, local topography, ice motion, and sediment load are not accounted for in the theory, although they may strongly influence the actual course of the water. Computations have been carried out for the Gornergletscher where the bed topography is known and where some data are available on subglacial water pressure.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1430
    Electronic ISSN: 1727-5652
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    Publication Date: 1967-01-01
    Description: D.C. resistivity soundings have been carried out on Unteraargletscher at three places for comparison with earlier seismic reflection results. While in two cases a fair agreement was obtained, the third sounding indicated a strong inhomogeneity of the ice, making a reliable interpretation impossible. Using the seismic depths in the interpretation, more reliable values of ice resistivities were obtained. Additional apparent resistivities were measured on ice and firn on Grosser Aletschgietscher, which are discussed together with similar results from the literature. The resistivity values of temperate glaciers observed so far fall in the range from 25 to 120 MΩ.m. and are thus significantly higher than the experimentally determined ultimate value of 5 MΩ.m. reported for extremely pure ice at 0°C. by Eigen and others (1964). The necessary conditions fur successful resistivity soundings are discussed.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1430
    Electronic ISSN: 1727-5652
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    Publication Date: 1990-01-01
    Description: Freezing processes in temperate ice consisting of a mixture of pure ice with water inclusions are studied for the case that the initial amount of moisture content is uniform. By introducing a cold source at the center of the ice specimen, the cold front propagates outwards leaving behind pure cold ice with a temperature distribution dictated by the exact set-up of the cold source. The speed of the front is directly related to the water content of the temperate ice and depends essentially on the Stefan condition.Three types of initial and boundary conditions are considered and realized in uniaxial, cylindrical, and/or spherical symmetry: (1) a metallic core at a temperature below the freezing point is initially brought into contact with the ice and the system is left free to evolve; (2) the metallic core is kept at constant temperature below freezing; (3) Case (2) is repeated with an insulating air layer between the metallic core and the ice.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1430
    Electronic ISSN: 1727-5652
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    Publication Date: 1977-01-01
    Description: Our knowledge of ice avalanches is very limited in comparison to snow avalanches, for obvious reasons. Ice avalanches are restricted to remote areas with glaciers, whereas snow avalanches may occur in the middle of inhabited regions. Consequently, the economic importance of the two types of avalanches is quite different. Also the efforts and expenditure required to study them are different.Two classes of ice avalanches may be discerned (with no sharp dividing line between them). A common form occurs on steep glacierized slopes below ice cliffs, from which ice breaks off at intervals. The avalanche debris remains on the glacier and can either be reincorporated or can form a regenerated glacier tongue. This is the type of ice avalanche primarily noticed by mountaineers because of the hazards involves, although little seems to have been done in the way of glaciological studies. A second class of ice avalanches consists of events more akin to landslides where a considerable portion of a glacier falls off a steep part of the bed and moves beyond the original position of the glacier onto ice-free ground, sometimes with disastrous effects. Through such glacier catastrophes, which are fortunately very scarce, more intensive glaciological studies have been initiated. The individual case histories serve best to illustrate the various problems related to ice avalanches.The Altels avalanche of 11 September 1895, thoroughly documented by Heim (1896), can be regarded as a slab of ice sliding off a uniform inclined plane. It is remarkable for its size of 4.5 × 106 m3, its simple geometry at the origin, its equally simple trajectory involving a jump through the air, and the fact that in 1782 a similar avalanche had occurred. The slope of the bed at the origin was 30° to 32°, the mean ice thickness was 25 m (with a maximum of 40 m). No apparent signs had been noticed in the days preceding the catastrophe. The Altels avalanche provides one of the few sources of reliable empirical parameters in relation to ice stability and ice-avalanche dynamics.The Allalingletscher avalanche of 30 August 1965 hitting the Mattmark construction site was of a very different origin. It occurred when about 106 m3 of ice broke off at the snout of the glacier during a surge-like active phase of a larger mass of some 3×106 m3. Since this event, it has been established that such active phases occur periodically at Allalin once every 1-3 years, alternating with quiescent periods. During the active phase, the fast motion sometimes starts in summer or autumn and comes to a halt in November or December. The active phase seems to depend on the presence of melt water and also on mass distribution. A direct effect of high water pressure in a communicating drainage system at the bed can be excluded, however. The surge-like motion appears to have been a prerequisite for the ice avalanche of 1965, but it does not give a sufficient explanation of the event, when one considers the frequent occurrence of active phases without a concurrent major ice avalanche at Allalin and elsewhere. It is conceivable that in 1965 a large dome-shaped cavity had formed below a particular rock knob and that the collapse of the dome then triggered the avalanche, but other forms of static instability at high speed of bed slip, developing because of a specific bed morphology and mass distribution, may equally be envisaged.In the case of a hanging glacier on the Weisshorn, the village of Randa was severely damaged in 1819 by a very large avalanche approximately 13 x 106 m3 consisting mainly of snow but having been triggered by falling ice. This led to a detailed study in 1972/73 of a seemingly threatening situation. A volume of approximately 5 × 106 m3 of ice (firn) was accelerating in a characteristic way on a very steep slope of about 45°. Rough estimates showed that the acceleration was too large to be accounted for by frictional heating alone; a fracture mechanism had instead to be invoked to play the decisive role (besides possible recrystallization). A hyperbolic law has been found to fit best the data on change of velocity with time (Flotron, see the following abstract).The Huascaran catastrophes of 1962 and 1970 have been some of the most disastrous events in glaciological history. In 1962 a true ice avalanche appears to have been the cause of a giant mudflow (Morales, 1966). For the first time in at least several hundred years a large volume, estimated at 2.5 to × 106 m3, broke off simultaneously over the full length of an ice cliff, 800 m long and 50 to 60 m high. It is an open question as to how this could happen. The mudflow was formed by mixing of the ice with rock and soil picked up along the course of the avalanche, bringing the total volume ot some 13 × 106 m3. In this process part of the ice was melted. The 1970 incident was not an ice avalanche proper, but rather a giant landslide caused by an earthquake, in which the ice played an important role in the form of a source of water causing lubrication and liquefaction.The above examples constitute a diversity of problems which could be augmented further by additional cases. A certain order may nevertheless be brought to the subject of ice avalanches by looking at it from a practical point of view. The main objective is to look for means by which damage to property can be reduced and loss of life avoided.The basic question is the one of stability of a large ice mass on a steep slope. The problem seems to be simple enough, but a closer inspection shows that the time scale and the unknown factors are such that laboratory results of, for example, strength are of no avail. On an empirical basis it can be noticed that temperate glaciers have become unstable on a slope of about 30°, while the limiting slope of cold glaciers is about 45°. The distribution and development of crevasses and, more generally, the flow pattern can help to delineate an acutely unstable ice mass. A special condition is the occurrence of a surge-like active phase which should be taken as an indication that part of the fast moving ice may slide off. There is a basic rule applicable to all types of ice avalanches, that if a particular one has occurred once it will happen again in a similar way; unfortunately our records do not extend sufficiently far back to allow us to depend on this rule very often.The probable extent of the danger zone is of equal practical importance. Experience has shown that after an initial phase the ice becomes completely broken up so that snow-avalanche dynamics can be applied to estimate how far the debris will move, possibly with some modifications for large masses of landslide dimensions. The possibility that snow and loose rock and soil may be added along the path must be taken into account. Secondary effects must also be considered. Amongst these are an air blast, or the formation of destructive water waves in a lake or fjord, or the blockage of a river by a huge ice mass leading to a flood from an ice-dammed lake.A warning by the glaciologist is hardly taken seriously unless it includes a forecast of the time of final rupture. At present the most promising approach for such a prediction is the almost perfect regularity by which certain large ice masses accelerate for a very long time prior to the instant when the avalanche starts to fall (see the Weisshorn case). The limitation of the forecasts lies as much in short-term irregularities as in the extreme difficulties of obtaining sufficiently accurate data without interruptions, and further in the lack of experience on the critical velocity that is reached immediately before final breakage. The physical explanation of the observed law is another question. Using a finite-element computational model for the analysis of stress and flow in a somewhat different case, Iken (1977) has shown that a stepwise crack extension alternating with phases of flow leads to the observed form of velocity–time relationship.There are various possibilities in the way of preventive measures; none of them is completely satisfactory, however. The most certain consists in avoiding the danger zone altogether, a solution usually not acceptable to those involved. In view of the requirements necessary for withstanding an impact of exceptional magnitude, protective structures are generally not practical either. A stepwise elimination of the unstable ice mass by blasting could be considered, though the realization would be difficult and not without danger—not to speak of the legal problem encountered if the blasting should trigger the full-size avalanche. Consequently a certain calculated risk will occasionally have to be accepted whereby the dangers during an operation on the glacier and the extreme costs have to be weighed against the severity and small probability of a catastrophe. Viewed in proportion to other risks in everyday life (especially in road and air traffic, but also in relation to earthquakes), the dangers of ice avalanches should not be exaggerated.Glaciological research can obviously contribute in a variety of ways to the solution of practical problems with ice avalanches, and there are ample opportunities for future studies. Of urgent need are more and better observations on almost every aspect of the problem, extending to phenomena hitherto not observed such as frequency and intensity of seismic signals. The inherent difficulty with the more interesting large-scale events is their scarcity, precluding proper experimentation. Advances in the theoretical treatment are also to be hoped for. There is also room for new ideas, for instance on how to prevent a particular ice mass from forming.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1430
    Electronic ISSN: 1727-5652
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    Publication Date: 1977-01-01
    Description: Our knowledge of ice avalanches is very limited in comparison to snow avalanches, for obvious reasons. Ice avalanches are restricted to remote areas with glaciers, whereas snow avalanches may occur in the middle of inhabited regions. Consequently, the economic importance of the two types of avalanches is quite different. Also the efforts and expenditure required to study them are different. Two classes of ice avalanches may be discerned (with no sharp dividing line between them). A common form occurs on steep glacierized slopes below ice cliffs, from which ice breaks off at intervals. The avalanche debris remains on the glacier and can either be reincorporated or can form a regenerated glacier tongue. This is the type of ice avalanche primarily noticed by mountaineers because of the hazards involves, although little seems to have been done in the way of glaciological studies. A second class of ice avalanches consists of events more akin to landslides where a considerable portion of a glacier falls off a steep part of the bed and moves beyond the original position of the glacier onto ice-free ground, sometimes with disastrous effects. Through such glacier catastrophes, which are fortunately very scarce, more intensive glaciological studies have been initiated. The individual case histories serve best to illustrate the various problems related to ice avalanches. The Altels avalanche of 11 September 1895, thoroughly documented by Heim (1896), can be regarded as a slab of ice sliding off a uniform inclined plane. It is remarkable for its size of 4.5 × 106 m3, its simple geometry at the origin, its equally simple trajectory involving a jump through the air, and the fact that in 1782 a similar avalanche had occurred. The slope of the bed at the origin was 30° to 32°, the mean ice thickness was 25 m (with a maximum of 40 m). No apparent signs had been noticed in the days preceding the catastrophe. The Altels avalanche provides one of the few sources of reliable empirical parameters in relation to ice stability and ice-avalanche dynamics. The Allalingletscher avalanche of 30 August 1965 hitting the Mattmark construction site was of a very different origin. It occurred when about 106 m3 of ice broke off at the snout of the glacier during a surge-like active phase of a larger mass of some 3×106 m3. Since this event, it has been established that such active phases occur periodically at Allalin once every 1-3 years, alternating with quiescent periods. During the active phase, the fast motion sometimes starts in summer or autumn and comes to a halt in November or December. The active phase seems to depend on the presence of melt water and also on mass distribution. A direct effect of high water pressure in a communicating drainage system at the bed can be excluded, however. The surge-like motion appears to have been a prerequisite for the ice avalanche of 1965, but it does not give a sufficient explanation of the event, when one considers the frequent occurrence of active phases without a concurrent major ice avalanche at Allalin and elsewhere. It is conceivable that in 1965 a large dome-shaped cavity had formed below a particular rock knob and that the collapse of the dome then triggered the avalanche, but other forms of static instability at high speed of bed slip, developing because of a specific bed morphology and mass distribution, may equally be envisaged. In the case of a hanging glacier on the Weisshorn, the village of Randa was severely damaged in 1819 by a very large avalanche approximately 13 x 106 m3 consisting mainly of snow but having been triggered by falling ice. This led to a detailed study in 1972/73 of a seemingly threatening situation. A volume of approximately 5 × 106 m3 of ice (firn) was accelerating in a characteristic way on a very steep slope of about 45°. Rough estimates showed that the acceleration was too large to be accounted for by frictional heating alone; a fracture mechanism had instead to be invoked to play the decisive role (besides possible recrystallization). A hyperbolic law has been found to fit best the data on change of velocity with time (Flotron, see the following abstract). The Huascaran catastrophes of 1962 and 1970 have been some of the most disastrous events in glaciological history. In 1962 a true ice avalanche appears to have been the cause of a giant mudflow (Morales, 1966). For the first time in at least several hundred years a large volume, estimated at 2.5 to × 106 m3, broke off simultaneously over the full length of an ice cliff, 800 m long and 50 to 60 m high. It is an open question as to how this could happen. The mudflow was formed by mixing of the ice with rock and soil picked up along the course of the avalanche, bringing the total volume ot some 13 × 106 m3. In this process part of the ice was melted. The 1970 incident was not an ice avalanche proper, but rather a giant landslide caused by an earthquake, in which the ice played an important role in the form of a source of water causing lubrication and liquefaction. The above examples constitute a diversity of problems which could be augmented further by additional cases. A certain order may nevertheless be brought to the subject of ice avalanches by looking at it from a practical point of view. The main objective is to look for means by which damage to property can be reduced and loss of life avoided. The basic question is the one of stability of a large ice mass on a steep slope. The problem seems to be simple enough, but a closer inspection shows that the time scale and the unknown factors are such that laboratory results of, for example, strength are of no avail. On an empirical basis it can be noticed that temperate glaciers have become unstable on a slope of about 30°, while the limiting slope of cold glaciers is about 45°. The distribution and development of crevasses and, more generally, the flow pattern can help to delineate an acutely unstable ice mass. A special condition is the occurrence of a surge-like active phase which should be taken as an indication that part of the fast moving ice may slide off. There is a basic rule applicable to all types of ice avalanches, that if a particular one has occurred once it will happen again in a similar way; unfortunately our records do not extend sufficiently far back to allow us to depend on this rule very often. The probable extent of the danger zone is of equal practical importance. Experience has shown that after an initial phase the ice becomes completely broken up so that snow-avalanche dynamics can be applied to estimate how far the debris will move, possibly with some modifications for large masses of landslide dimensions. The possibility that snow and loose rock and soil may be added along the path must be taken into account. Secondary effects must also be considered. Amongst these are an air blast, or the formation of destructive water waves in a lake or fjord, or the blockage of a river by a huge ice mass leading to a flood from an ice-dammed lake. A warning by the glaciologist is hardly taken seriously unless it includes a forecast of the time of final rupture. At present the most promising approach for such a prediction is the almost perfect regularity by which certain large ice masses accelerate for a very long time prior to the instant when the avalanche starts to fall (see the Weisshorn case). The limitation of the forecasts lies as much in short-term irregularities as in the extreme difficulties of obtaining sufficiently accurate data without interruptions, and further in the lack of experience on the critical velocity that is reached immediately before final breakage. The physical explanation of the observed law is another question. Using a finite-element computational model for the analysis of stress and flow in a somewhat different case, Iken (1977) has shown that a stepwise crack extension alternating with phases of flow leads to the observed form of velocity–time relationship. There are various possibilities in the way of preventive measures; none of them is completely satisfactory, however. The most certain consists in avoiding the danger zone altogether, a solution usually not acceptable to those involved. In view of the requirements necessary for withstanding an impact of exceptional magnitude, protective structures are generally not practical either. A stepwise elimination of the unstable ice mass by blasting could be considered, though the realization would be difficult and not without danger—not to speak of the legal problem encountered if the blasting should trigger the full-size avalanche. Consequently a certain calculated risk will occasionally have to be accepted whereby the dangers during an operation on the glacier and the extreme costs have to be weighed against the severity and small probability of a catastrophe. Viewed in proportion to other risks in everyday life (especially in road and air traffic, but also in relation to earthquakes), the dangers of ice avalanches should not be exaggerated. Glaciological research can obviously contribute in a variety of ways to the solution of practical problems with ice avalanches, and there are ample opportunities for future studies. Of urgent need are more and better observations on almost every aspect of the problem, extending to phenomena hitherto not observed such as frequency and intensity of seismic signals. The inherent difficulty with the more interesting large-scale events is their scarcity, precluding proper experimentation. Advances in the theoretical treatment are also to be hoped for. There is also room for new ideas, for instance on how to prevent a particular ice mass from forming.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1430
    Electronic ISSN: 1727-5652
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    Publication Date: 1972-01-01
    Description: Water flowing in tubular channels inside a glacier produces frictional heat, which causes melting of the ice walls. However the channels also have a tendency to close under the overburden pressure. Using the equilibrium equation that at every cross-section as much ice is melted as flows in, differential equations are given for steady flow in horizontal, inclined and vertical channels at variable depth and for variable discharge, ice properties and channel roughness. It is shown that the pressure decreases with increasing discharge, which proves that water must flow in main arteries. The same argument is used to show that certain glacier lakes above long flat valley glaciers must form in times of low discharge and empty when the discharge is high, i.e. when the water head in the subglacial drainage system drops below the lake level. Under the conditions of the model an ice mass of uniform thickness does not float, i.e. there is no water layer at the bottom, when the bed is inclined in the down-hill direction, but it can float on a horizontal bed if the exponent n of the law for the ice creep is small. It is further shown that basal streams (bottom conduits) and lateral streams at the hydraulic grade line (gradient conduits) can coexist. Time-dependent flow, local topography, ice motion, and sediment load are not accounted for in the theory, although they may strongly influence the actual course of the water. Computations have been carried out for the Gornergletscher where the bed topography is known and where some data are available on subglacial water pressure.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1430
    Electronic ISSN: 1727-5652
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    Publication Date: 1967-01-01
    Description: A brief description of the resistivity method is given, stressing the points which are of particular importance when working on glaciers. The literature is briefly reviewed.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1430
    Electronic ISSN: 1727-5652
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. More information can be found here...