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  • 1
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Air-sea exchange ; Mixed layer ; Radon-222 ; Wind speed
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Equipment has been developed for automatic measurement of the radon dissolved in sea water, with the aim of determining gas exchange rates at sea on the basis of the radon-222 deficiency in the mixed layer with respect to its parent nuclide radium-226. The equipment will be employed to obtain, over an extended period at fixed position, repeated measurements of the vertically integrated radon deficiency. The repetition period will be 2 hours, and sampling will be by a winch-operated submersible pumping system which will continuously scan the radon-deficient layer. The repeated measurements will allow to derive gas exchange rates even under transient meteorological conditions. As opposed to this, radon work carried out to date relied on isolated deficiency measurements and stationary conditions were commonly assumed (the deficiency relaxation time is about 5 days), which, under transient conditions, may lead to considerable errors. Equipment tests have been made at sea and the first integrated-deficiency measurements were obtained on the RSSChallenger in July 1977. Field programs are in preparation for JASIn (Joint Air-Sea Interaction, July–September 1978) and FGGE (First GARP Global Experiment, January–July 1979). The ultimate goal is a parameterization of the gas exchange rate in terms of external parameters, primarily wind speed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
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    American Geophysical Union
    In:  In: The Mediterranean Sea. , ed. by Borzelli, G. L. E., Gačić, M., Lionello, P. and Malanotte‐Rizzoli, P. Geophysical Monographie Series, 202 . American Geophysical Union, Washington, pp. 75-83.
    Publication Date: 2018-03-28
    Description: The eastern Mediterranean transient (EMT) was caused by a combination of high‐salinity waters intruding into the Aegean Sea and the two particularly strong winters of 1991–1992 and 1992–1993. The approach in this chapter is to search for specific signatures in the historic hydrographic observations, which date back to 1910. To deal with the problem that up into the 1950s the data not only are of limited precision but also have gaps of about 20 years, it is advantageous to consider the fact that the evolution of the actual EMT is rather well documented over a similar time span. The chapter begins by outlining the characteristics of the current EMT. Thereafter, a selection of suitable hydrographic observations among the available historic data is provided to compare these with signatures expected from the evolution of the actual EMT.
    Type: Book chapter , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-09-28
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 15 data points
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  • 4
  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cellular and molecular life sciences 36 (1980), S. 1017-1025 
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The fate of fossil fuel CO2 in the ocean is discussed and a comparison is made with the natural oceanic cycle of carbon. The oceanic share of fossil fuel carbon, pressently about 40%, will decrease in the future. Much of the fossil fuel carbon will remain in the atmosphere, and will stay there for many centuries. In the long run, however, the ocean will bring to an end the fossil fuel excursion of atmospheric CO2-firstly by dissolution as bicarbonate and ultimately by burial in ocean sediments.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 302 (1983), S. 380-380 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] CHLOROFLUOROMETHANES (CFMs), the gases used in refrigerators and aerosol cans, have recently acquired a bad reputation for the effect they may have on the ozone layer of the upper atmosphere. Harmful or not, their use does provide a scientific bonus; they make it possible to trace quantitatively ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The oceanic overturning circulation has a central role in the Earth’s climate system and in biogeochemical cycling, as it transports heat, carbon and nutrients around the globe and regulates their storage in the deep ocean. Mixing processes in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current are key ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Boundary layer meteorology 27 (1983), S. 97-103 
    ISSN: 1573-1472
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract In order to obtain field data of ocean-atmosphere gas transfer coefficients, it is preferable to measure the interfacial gas flux in the air rather than in the water. This approach has been reported in the literature for CO2. However, it is shown here that 222Rn and methyliodide, CH3I, may be more suitable gases for air-side flux measurements.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
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    AGU / Wiley
    In:  Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 101 (C7). pp. 16455-16464.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-30
    Description: We study the temporal evolution of concentrations of the chlorofluorocarbons CFC 11 and CFC 12 in the ocean, under the assumption of circulation and mixing being invariant in time. This allows us to define a time‐invariant age distribution for a given point in the ocean, where the age is defined as time since the last contact with the atmosphere occurred. This concept is evaluated for a number of fundamental situations. We deduce a tendency for low CFC 11 and CFC 12 concentrations in advective regimes to increase exponentially in time and for concentrations near to a solubility equilibrium with atmospheric concentrations to increase rather more linearly. The apparent saturations, i.e., the ratios of interior to mixed‐layer CFC concentrations, increase monotonically in time, typical rates being 5–10% per decade. The theoretical results are compatible with time trends found in repeated CFC observations in the ocean. Diagrams on the temporal evolution for different age distributions are presented for the period 1970–2000, which can serve as a general orientation. The diagrams furthermore can provide time corrections for quasi‐synoptic evaluation of CFC observations taken over an extended period of time and assist in constructing time‐dependent CFC boundary conditions for numerical models of ocean circulation.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 10
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 16 (5). pp. 814-826.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-04
    Description: Simulated transient-tracer distributions (tritium, 3H3, freons) on the isopycnal horizons σ0=26.5 and 26.8 kg m−3 are presented for the East Atlantic, 10° −40°N. Tracer transport is modeled by employing a baroclinic flow field based on empirical data in a kinematic isopycnal advection-diffusion numerical model, in which winter convection is taken as the mechanism of communication with the ocean surface layer, and the isopycnal diffusivity is a free parameter. Diapucnic transport is ignored. The simulations employ time-dependent tracer boundary conditions, which are constructed on the basis of available observations. Simulations are compared to data obtained on a meridional section in 1981 (F/S Meteor, cruise 56/5). Best simulations were obtained by means of a subjective optimization procedure. On both levels, the observed distributions and the best simulated distributions agree well. The fact that the surface boundary conditions and interior distributions of the tracers are distinctly different leads us to the conclusion that our model provides a consistent description of upper main-thermocline ventilation and interior transport Surface-water densities in February are found to represent adequately the winter outcrop boundaries with an uncertainty of about ±300 km across. The required isopycnal diffusivity south of 29°N is 1700 m2 s−1, and 2900 m2 s−1 further north (+70/−40%). Interior transport is found to be predominantly advective. Advective ventilation across 30.5°N east of 33°W amounts to only 12% and 40% for the 26.5 and 26.8 horizons of the total ventilation rates reported by Sarmiento. The North Atlantic/South Atlantic Central Water boundary near 15°N is found to be predominantly determined by advection.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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