ALBERT

All Library Books, journals and Electronic Records Telegrafenberg

feed icon rss

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Nicotiana (transformed with antisense DNA) ; Photosynthesis ; Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase ; Transgenic plant (antisense)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Experiments were carried out to determine how decreased expression of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco) affects photosynthetic metabolism in ambient growth conditions. In a series of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants containing progressively smaller amounts of Rubisco the rate of photosynthesis was measured under conditions similar to those in which the plants had been grown (310 μmol photons · m−2 · s−1, 350 μbar CO2, 22° C). (i) There was only a marginal inhibition (6%) of photosynthesis when Rubisco was decreased to about 60% of the amount in the wildtype. The reduced amount of Rubisco was compensated for by an increase in Rubisco activation (rising from 60 to 100%), with minor contributions from an increase of its substrates (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate and the internal CO2 concentration) and a decrease of its product (glycerate-3-phosphate). (ii) The decreased amount of Rubisco was accompanied by an increased ATP/ADP ratio that may be causally linked to the increased activation of Rubisco. An increase of highenergy-state chlorophyll fluorescence shows that thylakoid membrane energisation and high-energy-state-dependent energy dissipation at photosystem two had also increased. (iii) A further decrease of Rubisco (in the range of 50–20% of the wildtype level) resulted in a strong and proportional inhibition of CO2 assimilation. This was accompanied by a decrease of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activity, coupling-factor 1 (CF1)-ATP-synthase protein, NADP-malate dehydrogenase protein, and chlorophyll. The chlorophyll a/b ratio did not change, and enolase and sucrose-phosphate synthase activity did not decrease. It is argued that other photosynthetic enzymes are also decreased once Rubisco decreases to the point at which it becomes strongly limiting for photosynthesis. (iv) It is proposed that the amount of Rubisco in the wildtype represents a balance between the demands of light, water and nitrogen utilisation. The wildtype overinvests about 15% more protein in Rubisco than is needed to avoid a strict Rubisco limitation of photosynthesis. However, this “excess” Rubisco allows the wildtype to operate with lower thylakoid energisation, and decreased high-energy-state-dependent energy dissipation, hence increasing light-use efficiency by about 6%. It also allows the wildtype to operate with a lower internal CO2 concentration in the leaf and a lower stomatal conductance at a given rate of photosynthesis, so that instantaneous water-use efficiency is marginally (8%) increased.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Flux control (photosynthesis) ; Nicotiana (transformed with antisense DNA) ; Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (control of photosynthesis) ; Transgenic plant (antisense)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants transformed with ‘antisense’ rbcS to produce a series of plants with a progressive decrease in the amount of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) have been used to investigate the contribution of Rubsico to the control of photosynthesis at different irradiance, CO2 concentrations and vapour-pressure deficits. Assimilation rates, transpiration, the internal CO2 concentration and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured in each plant. (i) The flux-control coefficient of Rubisco was estimated from the slope of the plot of Rubisco content versus assimilation rate. The flux-control coefficient had a value of 0.8 or more in high irradiance, (1050 μmol·m−2·s−1), low-vapour pressure deficit (4 mbar) and ambient CO2 (350 μbar). Control was marginal in enhanced CO2 (450 μbar) or low light (310 μmol·m−2·s−1) and was also decreased at high vapour-pressure deficit (17 mbar). No control was exerted in 5% CO2. (ii) The flux-control coefficients of Rubisco were compared with the fractional demand placed on the calculated available Rubisco capacity. Only a marginal control on photosynthetic flux is exerted by Rubisco until over 50% of the available capacity is being used. Control increases as utilisation rises to 80%, and approaches unity (i.e. strict limitation) when more than 80% of the available capacity is being used. (iii) In low light, plants with reduced Rubisco have very high energy-dependent quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence (qE) and a decreased apparent quantum yield. It is argued that Rubisco still exerts marginal control in these conditions because decreased Rubisco leads to increased thylakoid energisation and high-energy dependent dissipation of light energy, and lower light-harvesting efficiency. (iv) The flux-control coefficient of stomata for photosynthesis was calculated from the flux-control coefficient of Rubisco and the internal CO2 concentration, by applying the connectivity theorem. Control by the stomata varies between zero and about 0.25. It is increased by increased irradiance, decreased CO2 or decreased vapour-pressure deficit. (v) Photosynthetic oscillations in saturating irradiance and CO2 are suppressed in decreased-activity transformants before the steady-state rate of photosynthesis is affected. This provides direct evidence that these oscillations reveal the presence of “excess” Rubisco. (vi) Comparison of the flux-control coefficients of Rubisco with mechanistic models of photosynthesis provides direct support for the reliability of these models in conditions where Rubisco has a flux-control coefficient approach unity (i.e. “limits” photosynthesis), but also indicates that these models are less useful in conditions where control is shared between Rubisco and other components of the photosynthetic apparatus.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Nicotiana (photosynthesis) ; Nitrogen ; Photosynthesis (control analysis) ; Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase ; Transgenic plant
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The effect of nitrogen supply during growth on the contribution of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco; EC 4.1.1.39) to the control of photosynthesis was examined in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). Transgenic plants transformed with antisense rbcS to produce a series of plants with a progressive decrease in the amount of Rubisco were used to allow the calculation of the flux-control coefficient of Rubisco for photosynthesis (CR). Several points emerged from the data: (i) The strength of Rubisco control of photosynthesis, as measured by CR, was altered by changes in the short-term environmental conditions. Generally, CR was increased in conditions of increased irradiance or decreased CO2. (ii) The amount of Rubisco in wild-type plants was reduced as the nitrogen supply during growth was reduced and this was associated with an increase in CR. This implied that there was a specific reduction in the amount of Rubisco compared with other components of the photosynthetic machinery. (iii) Plants grown with low nitrogen and which had genetically reduced levels of Rubisco had a higher chlorophyll content and a lower chlorophyll a/b ratio than wild-type plants. This indicated that the nitrogen made available by genetically reducing the amount of Rubisco had been re-allocated to other cellular components including light-harvesting and electron-transport proteins. It is argued that there is a “luxury” additional investment of nitrogen into Rubisco in tobacco plants grown in high nitrogen, and that Rubisco can also be considered a nitrogen-store, all be it one where the opportunity cost of the nitrogen storage is higher than in a non-functional storage protein (i.e. it allows for a slightly higher water-use efficiency and for photosynthesis to respond to temporarily high irradiance).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Light climate ; Nicotiana (photosynthesis) ; Photosynthesis ; Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase ; Transgenic plant (tobacco, antisense DNA)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants transformed with ‘antisense’ rbcS to decrease the expression of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco) have been used to investigate the contribution of Rubisco to the control of photosynthesis in plants growing at different irradiances. Tobacco plants were grown in controlled-climate chambers under ambient CO2 at 20°C at 100, 300 and 750 μmol·m−2·s−1 irradiance, and at 28°C at 100, 300 and 1000 μmol·m−2·s−1 irradiance. (i) Measurement of photosynthesis under ambient conditions showed that the flux control coefficient of Rubisco (C infRubisco supA ) was very low (0.01–0.03) at low growth irradiance, and still fairly low (0.24–0.27) at higher irradiance. (ii) Short-term changes in the irradiance used to measure photosynthesis showed that C infRubisco supA increases as incident irradiance rises, (iii) When low-light (100 μmol·m−2·s−1)-grown plants are exposed to high (750–1000 μmol·m−2·s−1) irradiance, Rubisco is almost totally limiting for photosynthesis in wild types. However, when high-light-grown leaves (750–1000 μmol·m−2·s−1) are suddenly exposed to high and saturating irradiance (1500–2000 μmol·m−2·s−1), C infRubisco supA remained relatively low (0.23–0.33), showing that in saturating light Rubisco only exerts partial control over the light-saturated rate of photosynthesis in “sun” leaves; apparently additional factors are co-limiting photosynthetic performance, (iv) Growth of plants at high irradiance led to a small decrease in the percentage of total protein found in the insoluble (thylakoid fraction), and a decrease of chlorophyll, relative to protein or structural leaf dry weight. As a consequence of this change, high-irradiance-grown leaves illuminated at growth irradiance avoided an inbalance between the “light” reactions and Rubisco; this was shown by the low value of C infRubisco supA (see above) and by measurements showing that non-photochemical quenching was low, photochemical quenching high, and NADP-malate dehydrogenase activation was low at the growth irradiance. In contrast, when a leaf adapted to low irradiance was illuminated at a higher irradiance, Rubisco exerted more control, non-photochemical quenching was higher, photochemical quenching was lower, and NADP-malate dehydrogenase activation was higher than in a leaf which had grown at that irradiance. We conclude that changes in leaf composition allow the leaf to avoid a one-sided limitation by Rubisco and, hence, overexcitation and overreduction of the thylakoids in high-irradiance growth conditions, (v) ‘Antisense’ plants with less Rubisco contained a higher content of insoluble (thylakoid) protein and chlorophyll, compared to total protein or structural leaf dry weight. They also showed a higher rate of photosynthesis than the wild type, when measured at an irradiance below that at which the plant had grown. We propose that N-allocation in low light is not optimal in tobacco and that genetic manipulation to decrease Rubisco may, in some circumstances, increase photosynthetic performance in low light.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Biomass allocation ; Nicotiana ; Nitrogen nutrition ; Photosynthesis ; Relative growth rate ; Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco) ; Transgenic plant (tobacco antisense DNA)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Wild-type tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants and transgenic tobacco transformed with antisense rbcS to decrease expression of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco; EC 4.1.1.39) were grown at 300 mol-m−2 · s−1 irradiance and 20° C at either 0.1, 0.7 or 5 mM NH4NO3. In high nitrogen (N), growth was reduced in parallel with the inhibition of photosynthesis when Rubisco was decreased by genetic manipulation. In limiting N, photosynthesis was reduced strongly when Rubisco was decreased by genetic manipulation, but growth was hardly affected. At all N levels, decreased expression of Rubisco led to a decrease in the amount of starch accumulated in the leaves. There was a large increase of the specific leaf area (SLA; leaf area maintained per unit dry weight in the leaf) in plants with decreased Rubisco. Increased SLA was associated with an increased inorganic and a decreased carbon contribution to leaf structural dry weight. The increased SLA represents a more efficient investment of photosynthate with respect to maximisation of leaf area and light interception, and partly compensates for the decreased rate of photosynthesis in plants with decreased expression of Rubisco. The changes of starch content and SLA were particularly large in limiting N, when growth rate was effectively independent of the rate of photosynthesis. Increased N availability led to a large increase of the shoot/ root ratio, but only a small increase in SLA. It is argued that N availability and the availability of photosynthate both regulate storage and allocation of biomass to optimize resource utilization, but achieve this via different mechanisms.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: maize (Zea mays) ; chloroplast operon ; chloroplast transcription ; ribosomal protein genes ; thylakoid ATP synthase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Several examples of the introduction of a gene from one gene complex into another (introgression) are found when chloroplast RP gene clusters are compared to those in Escherichia coli or cyanobacteria. Here we describe the transcript pattern of one such cluster from maize (Zea mays) that includes the genes for 4 subunits of the thylakoid ATP synthase (atpI, H, F, A) and the rps2 gene. Twelve transcript species covering the size range from 7 000 to 800 nt were identified in RNA isolated from dark-grown and greening maize seedlings, and several of them were characterized by reverse transcription analysis. A major species of 6 200 nt, with its 5′ end at 181 nt upstream of the initiating ATG of rps2, contained the transcripts of all the 5 genes. Two further sets of transcripts having their 5′ ends ca. 120 and 50 nt upstream of the initiation codons of the atpI and atpH genes were also identified. Thus, this plastid gene cluster in maize is functionally organized as an operon with additional regulatory features to allow for increased accumulation of mRNAs for the thylakoid components.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. More information can be found here...