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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0991
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A chemically defined medium (BGDM) has been developed specifically forBacteroides gingivalis. The medium contains 4 amino acids, 5 mineral salts, cysteine hydrochloride as a reducing agent, and the growth factors hemin and menadione. Eight strains ofB. gingivalis have been subcultured repeatedly in this medium with no apparent changes in colonial or cellular morphology. The metabolic end products of strains grown in this medium were reproducible and yielded patterns similar to those produced by cells cultured in complex media. The growth rates were about 50% slower than those of cells grown in a complex medium, and the growth rate constants ranged between 0.013 and 0.067 H−1. When the defined medium was supplemented with protein hydrolysates such as trypticase, proteose peptone, bactocasitone, or yeast extract, at concentrations up to 1.0%, growth increased. No such growth increase was observed in the medium supplemented with casamino acids. Thus a minimal medium can be formulated by adding one of the growth-enhancing protein hydrolysates to the defined medium at varying concentrations depending upon the growth yield required.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Molecular and cellular biochemistry 107 (1991), S. 33-44 
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A discontinuous preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system has been developed and used to purify both the nicked and unnicked forms of tetanus toxin. The system was also used to prepare purified H and L chain peptides from the nicked toxin. The results show that the endogenous protease(s), which convert unnicked toxin to the nicked form, produce multiple species of nicked toxin, and heterogeneity in the H and L chains. The major amino termini of the toxins and their peptide components are: extract toxin, proline; filtrate toxin, proline, serine and asparagine; L chain, proline; and H chain, serine and asparagine. The L chain is located in the amino terminal position of the toxin molecule and the H chain the carboxy terminal end. A model is proposed to explain these results. Using the analytical ultracentrifuge, we have determined the molecular weights of extract and filtrate toxins to be 140 000 ± 5 000 and 128 000 ± 3 000, respectively. Using S DS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis we estimate the molecular weights of the H and L chains to be 87 000 and 48 000 daltons, respectively. Circular dichroic spectra of the toxins and their peptide components indicate that: the major tryptophanyl band in the toxin is contributed almost entirely by the H chain, the microenvironments of all the aromatics and disulfides in the two toxins appear to have small if any differences, the two toxins show little difference in their ordered secondary structure, and the two peptides when separated from one another still retain 80% of the helical structure that is present in the intact toxin but show a considerable loss of β-structure. The crystalline form of the nicked toxin has a hexagonal symmetry with two dimensional reciprocal lattice constants of 1/150 Å−1 and 1/150 Å−1. The crystals appear to belong to the two dimensional plane group P6 suggesting that each unit cell contains 6 or a multiple of 6 toxin molecules.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Purified filtrate tetanus toxin was subjected to limited digestion with papain and the resulting fragments were separated by gel exclusion chromatography and characterized. One atoxic fragment was shown to react with antiserum against tetanus toxoid and was capable of inducing antibodies in rabbits that neutralized native tetanus toxin. The fragment had an estimated molecular weight of 56,000 by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and 62,000 by sedimentation equilibrium. In the presence of a reducing agent, the fragment yielded two components with approximatec molecular weights of 23,000 and 32,000. Thus, it appears that the atoxic, immunogenic fragment is composed of two peptides joined by at least one disulfide bond. The fragment was examined by circular dichroism and data analysis indicated the presence of considerable β-structure, but little, if any, α-helicity. This is significantly different from the estimates for filtrate toxin, 29% α-helicity and 23% β-structure. Above 250 nm, the circular dichroic spectrum of the fragment was also distinct from that of intact toxin.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Peripheral white blood cells have been shown to bind serum immunoglobins when prepared in low ionic strength sucrose solutions. The presence and distribution of Ig on neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes was described using an immunoferritin probe and the electron microscope. It appears that this approach reveals immunoglobulins associated with peripheral white blood cells that are not observed by the usual methods of examining these cell surfaces after preparation at physiological ionic strength.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0603
    Keywords: Flow cytometry ; Muscle cell ; Porcine ; Transfection
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A detailed methodology is described for fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) of porcine muscle cells that have been transfected to express green fluorescent protein (GFP). Cells are liberated from porcine skeletal muscle and primary cultures are transfected with DNA encoding GFP. Primary cultures are subjected to immunocytochemistry using a primary muscle-specific monoclonal antibody followed by incubation with a phycoerythrin-conjugated second antibody. Transfected myoblasts aresorted from fibroblasts using forward angle light scatter and ninety degree light scatter, phycoerythrin fluorescence, and GFP fluorescence. These procedures allow for isolation of genetically-engineered porcine muscle cells more rapidly than traditional clonal selection procedures. Consequently, FACS provides porcine myoblast populations that retain the majority of their replicative capacity and are not contaminated with non-myogenic cells.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0727
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Methanobacterium formicicum ; Chemostat ; Growth parameters ; Hydrogenase ; Formate dehydrogenase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Growth of Methanobacterium formicicum strain MF was studied in pH-stat batch cultures and formatelimited chemostat cultures. The maxium rate of methanogenesis from formate occurred at pH 7.6 and 43°C and the maximum specific growth rate constant (μm) was 0.08 h-1. The K s and maximum growth yield (Y s max ) were 3.5 mM formate and 1.4 (g dry wt) mol01 formate respectively, and the maintenance coefficient (m) was calculated as 6.8 mmol formate (g dry wt)-1 h-1. The efficiency of electron transport phosphorylation during formate metabolism assuming Y ATP of 10.5 g mol-1 was about 20%. The specific activities of hydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase increased slightly with dilution rate.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: Fault-tolerant multiprocessor (FTMP) operation is discussed. Fault-modeling in the bus guardian units (BGUs) is covered. Testing the BGU is discussed. A testing algorithm is proposed.
    Keywords: COMPUTER OPERATIONS AND HARDWARE
    Type: NASA-CR-169863 , NAS 1.26:169863
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 10
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: The fraction of faults detected for a digital network is frequently high for the first few input combinations applied out of a set of test vectors. When the particular ordering of test patterns does not appreciably change the shape of the coverage curve, there appears to be an advantage to splitting the test into segments which are applied at different times. It is shown that the expected time to error detection and the probability of an undetected double error can be reduced. The amount of reduction is dependent on the shape of the fault coverage curve. It is conjectured that such a reduction can be obtained for VLSI networks.
    Keywords: COMPUTER OPERATIONS AND HARDWARE
    Type: IEEE Transactions on Computers (ISSN 0018-9340); C-34; 467-471
    Format: text
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