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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A preliminary design of a spacecraft shield system to defeat meteoroids and orbital debris during a Mars mission is presented. The mission scenario is first defined in terms of stage times which include LEO, transit, low-Mars orbit, and Mars surface periods. The environment definitions for earth-orbital space debris, planetary meteoroids, and interplanetary meteoroids are next introduced. Shield system design approaches incorporate stochastic simulation, hydrocode analyses, hypervelocity impact testing, and optimization techniques. Structural design trades presented include spacecraft configuration, mission schedule, penetration risk, and total standoff distance between the bumper and wall.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT DESIGN, TESTING AND PERFORMANCE
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-1406
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: CVD coatings of boron-oxygen-silicon and aluminum-boron-oxygen and silicon compositions were applied to alpha 2 and gamma titanium-aluminide alloys, and tested under simulated earth reentry conditions to evaluate oxidation protection, recombination effifiency and total emittance under cyclic exposures between temperatures of 300 and 1255 K. The degree of oxidation protection afforded to the alloys was evaluated from the amount of specimen weight gain after a 100 hour exposure to air at atmospheric pressure and at a temperature of 1255 K. Data are presented for two types of coatings, a monolithic and a multilayer, which have recombination efficiencies from 0.005 to 0.020 after ten one-half hour long simulated reentry cycles. Total normal emittance was 0.80 or greater and weight gain was less than 10 g/sq m both coating types. Compositional and morphological changes resulting from the exposures are discussed in relation to time-dependent variations in recombination efficiency.
    Keywords: CHEMISTRY AND MATERIALS (GENERAL)
    Type: AIAA PAPER 90-1742
    Format: text
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Statically oxidized Inconel 617 and MA 956 superalloys were prepared with vapor deposited aluminosilicate layers and exposed to temperatures which simulated reentry conditions. The aluminosilicate layers were 1-2 microns thick. The trials consisted of exposures to 1500-2300 F heat while surface temperatures were monitored with pyrometers. Analyses were then performed of the catalytic activity, oxidation phenomena, and radiative properties after thermal cycling the specimens for 8 hr. Both alloys were found to be catalytic to the recombination processes of dissociated species in the reentry environment. The coatings reduced the catalytic activity by 40 percent for both alloys but did not change the emittance. An enhanced Cr depletion zone was detected in the Inconel samples, implying that the coating did not prevent diffusion loss of Cr. The coated MA 956, on the other hand, gained weight over the course of the trials.
    Keywords: INORGANIC AND PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY
    Type: AIAA PAPER 85-0403
    Format: text
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The effect of acoustic coupling on random and harmonic plate vibrations is studied using two numerical models. In the coupled model, the plate response is obtained by integration of the nonlinear plate equation coupled with the nonlinear Euler equations for the surrounding acoustic fluid. In the uncoupled model, the nonlinear plate equation with an equivalent linear viscous damping term is integrated to obtain the response of the plate subject to the same excitation field. For a low-level, narrow-band excitation, the two models predict the same plate response spectra. As the excitation level is increased, the response power spectrum predicted by the uncoupled model becomes broader and more shifted towards the high frequencies than that obtained by the coupled model. In addition, the difference in response between the coupled and uncoupled models at high frequencies becomes larger. When a high intensity harmonic excitation is used, causing a nonlinear plate response, both models predict the same frequency content of the response. However, the level of the harmonics and subharmonics are higher for the uncoupled model. Comparisons to earlier experimental and numerical results show that acoustic coupling has a significant effect on the plate response at high excitation levels. Its absence in previous models may explain the discrepancy between predicted and measured responses.
    Keywords: ACOUSTICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:107740 , NASA-TM-107740
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Five single plate penetration equations are compared for accuracy and effectiveness. These five equations are two well-known equations (Fish-Summers and Schmidt-Holsapple), two equations developed by the Apollo project (Rockwell and Johnson Space Center (JSC), and one recently revised from JSC (Cour-Palais). They were derived from test results, with velocities ranging up to 8 km/s. Microsoft Excel software was used to construct a spreadsheet to calculate the diameters and masses of projectiles for various velocities, varying the material properties of both projectile and target for the five single plate penetration equations. The results were plotted on diameter versus velocity graphs for ballistic and spallation limits using Cricket Graph software, for velocities ranging from 2 to 15 km/s defined for the orbital debris. First, these equations were compared to each other, then each equation was compared with various aluminum projectile densities. Finally, these equations were compared with test results performed at JSC for the Marshall Space Flight Center. These equations predict a wide variety of projectile diameters at a given velocity. Thus, it is very difficult to choose the 'right' prediction equation. The thickness of a single plate could have a large variation by choosing a different penetration equation. Even though all five equations are empirically developed with various materials, especially for aluminum alloys, one cannot be confident in the shield design with the predictions obtained by the penetration equations without verifying by tests.
    Keywords: NUMERICAL ANALYSIS
    Type: NAS 1.15:103565 , NASA-TM-103565
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The feasibility of using a gyroklystron power tube as the final amplifier in a 400 kW CW 34 GHz transmitter on the Goldstone Antenna is investigated. A conceptual design of the gyroklystron and the transmission line connecting it with the antenna feed horn is presented. The performance characteristics of the tube and transmission line are compared to the transmitter requirements for a deep space radar system. Areas of technical risk for a follow-on hardware development program for the gyroklystron amplifier and overmoded transmission line components are discussed.
    Keywords: ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
    Type: NAS 1.26:174439 , NASA-CR-174439 , JPL-9950-961
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Gasdynamic environments applied to the turbine blades and nozzles of the HPFTP and HPOTP were analyzed. Centrifugal loads were applied to blades to account for the pump rotation of FPL and 115 percent RPL. The computer models used in the blade analysis with results presented in the form of temperature and stress contour plots are described. Similar information is given for the nozzles.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT PROPULSION AND POWER
    Type: LMSC-HREC-TR-D867333-III , NAS 1.26:171001 , NASA-CR-171001
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A complete modeling of faults at gate level for a fault tolerant computer is both infeasible and uneconomical. Functional fault modeling is an approach where units are characterized at an intermediate level and then combined to determine fault behavior. The applicability of functional fault modeling to the FTMP is studied. Using this model a forecast of error latency is made for some functional blocks. This approach is useful in representing larger sections of the hardware and aids in uncovering system level deficiencies.
    Keywords: NUMERICAL ANALYSIS
    Type: NASA-CR-173207 , NAS 1.26:173207
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Interfaces between dielectric films and grounded metallic boundaries were exposed, in vacuum, to monoenergic electron fluxes having energies up to 22 keV. Two principal concerns were the measuring of the charge distributions on dielectrics and the determining of causes of flashovers, events where dielectric surface charges abruptly transfer to the metallic structures. Surface charges are perturbed within 10 mm of interfaces. Perturbations are relatively small except within about 3 mm of the interface. The probability of flashover was found to be related to microscopic imperfections in the interfaces. As flashovers occur in an exposed metal substrate, points become burned into the dielectric along the slit. As these points develop, the probability of flashover increases greatly. An interface which is highly immune to flashover was formed by covering a dielectric film with a 1.5-mm-thick aperture plate which exposes the film through a machined opening.
    Keywords: ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
    Type: NASA-CR-155195
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Aerodynamic heating and structural analyses for radiatively cooled delta wing of hypersonic aircraft
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: L-6666 , NASA-TN-D-6138
    Format: application/pdf
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