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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2017-03-27
    Description: The Antarctic Roadmap Challenges (ARC) project identified critical requirements to deliver high priority Antarctic research in the 21st century. The ARC project addressed the challenges of enabling technologies, facilitating access, providing logistics and infrastructure, and capitalizing on international co-operation. Technological requirements include: i) innovative automated in situ observing systems, sensors and interoperable platforms (including power demands), ii) realistic and holistic numerical models, iii) enhanced remote sensing and sensors, iv) expanded sample collection and retrieval technologies, and v) greater cyber-infrastructure to process ‘big data’ collection, transmission and analyses while promoting data accessibility. These technologies must be widely available, performance and reliability must be improved and technologies used elsewhere must be applied to the Antarctic. Considerable Antarctic research is field-based, making access to vital geographical targets essential. Future research will require continent- and ocean-wide environmentally responsible access to coastal and interior Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. Year-round access is indispensable. The cost of future Antarctic science is great but there are opportunities for all to participate commensurate with national resources, expertise and interests. The scope of future Antarctic research will necessitate enhanced and inventive interdisciplinary and international collaborations. The full promise of Antarctic science will only be realized if nations act together.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 2
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    In:  [Talk] In: AGU Fall Meeting, 14.12.2008, San Francisco, California, USA .
    Publication Date: 2013-12-13
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The underway current profiling system which consists of a microprocessor controlled data logger that collects and formats data from a four beam Ametek-Straza 300 kHz acoustic Doppler current profiler, heading from the ship's gyrocompass, and navigation information from a Loran-C receiver and a satellite navigation unit is discussed. Data are recorded on magnetic tape and real time is calculated. Time averaging is required to remove effects of ship motion. An intercomparison is made with a moored vector measuring current meter (VMCM). The mean difference in hourly averaged APOC and VMCM currents over the four hour intercomparison is a few mm s minus including: two Gulf Stream crossings, a warm core ring survey, and shallow water in a frontal zone to the east of Nantucket Shoals.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
    Type: WHOI-82-48 , NASA-CR-169529 , NAS 1.26:169529
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  • 4
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    In:  [Talk] In: National Center for Atmospheric research, 06.10.2008, Princeton, USA .
    Publication Date: 2013-12-13
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2014-04-15
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Inbook , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
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    In:  [Talk] In: AGU Fall Meeting 2008, 15.-19.12.2008, San Francisco, USA .
    Publication Date: 2013-12-13
    Description: Observations indicate a significant intensification of the Southern Hemisphere westerlies during the last decades. A continuation of this trend is projected by climate scenarios for the 21st century. The response of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and Southern Ocean carbon sink to changes in wind stress and surface buoyancy fluxes is under debate. Here we utilize the Argo network of profiling floats and historical data to assess the changes in temperature, salinity and density across the ACC during the last four decades. We find coherent hemispheric-scale warming and freshening trends extending to depths of more than 1000m. The trends are partly related to changes in water mass properties, consistent with the effect of anthropogenic changes in heat and freshwater fluxes suggested by climate models. However, there is no increase in the tilt of density surfaces across the ACC, in contrast to coarse-resolution model studies. The result implies ACC transport and meridional overturning - and therefore the Southern Ocean carbon sink - are insensitive to decadal changes in wind stress, suggesting wind-driven Ekman transport is compensated by eddy fluxes, as simulated by models with explicit eddies.
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
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    OceanObs'09
    In:  In: Proceedings of the "OceanObs'09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society" Conference. , ed. by Hall, J., Harrison, D. E. and Stammer, D. ESA Publication, WPP-306 . OceanObs'09, Venice, Italy.
    Publication Date: 2012-07-06
    Description: of the global combined atmosphere-ocean heat flux and so is important for the mean climate of the Atlantic sector of the Northern Hemisphere. This meridional heat flux is accomplished by both the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and by basin-wide horizontal gyre circulations. In the North Atlantic subtropical latitudes the AMOC dominates the meridional heat flux, while in subpolar latitudes and in the subtropical South Atlantic the gyre circulations are also important. Climate models suggest the AMOC will slow over the coming decades as the earth warms, causing widespread cooling in the Northern hemisphere and additional sea-level rise. Monitoring systems for selected components of the AMOC have been in place in some areas for decades, nevertheless the present observational network provides only a partial view of the AMOC, and does not unambiguously resolve the full variability of the circulation. Additional observations, building on existing measurements, are required to more completely quantify the Atlantic meridional heat transport. A basin-wide monitoring array along 26.5°N has been continuously measuring the strength and vertical structure of the AMOC and meridional heat transport since March 31, 2004. The array has demonstrated its ability to observe the AMOC variability at that latitude and also a variety of surprising variability that will require substantially longer time series to understand fully. Here we propose monitoring the Atlantic meridional heat transport throughout the Atlantic at selected critical latitudes that have already been identified as regions of interest for the study of deep water formation and the strength of the subpolar gyre, transport variability of the Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC) as well as the upper limb of the AMOC, and inter-ocean and intrabasin exchanges with the ultimate goal of determining regional and global controls for the AMOC in the North and South Atlantic Oceans. These new arrays will continuously measure the full depth, basin-wide or choke-point circulation and heat transport at a number of latitudes, to establish the dynamics and variability at each latitude and then their meridional connectivity. Modeling studies indicate that adaptations of the 26.5°N type of array may provide successful AMOC monitoring at other latitudes. However, further analysis and the development of new technologies will be needed to optimize cost effective systems for providing long term monitoring and data recovery at climate time scales. These arrays will provide benchmark observations of the AMOC that are fundamental for assimilation, initialization, and the verification of coupled hindcast/forecast climate models.
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-02-22
    Description: Observations show a significant intensification of the Southern Hemisphere westerlies, the prevailing winds between the latitudes of 30° and 60° S, over the past decades. A continuation of this intensification trend is projected by climate scenarios for the twenty-first century. The response of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the carbon sink in the Southern Ocean to changes in wind stress and surface buoyancy fluxes is under debate. Here we analyse the Argo network of profiling floats and historical oceanographic data to detect coherent hemispheric-scale warming and freshening trends that extend to depths of more than 1,000 m. The warming and freshening is partly related to changes in the properties of the water masses that make up the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, which are consistent with the anthropogenic changes in heat and freshwater fluxes suggested by climate models. However, we detect no increase in the tilt of the surfaces of equal density across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, in contrast to coarse-resolution model studies. Our results imply that the transport in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and meridional overturning in the Southern Ocean are insensitive to decadal changes in wind stress.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-02-28
    Description: Changes in iron supply to oceanic plankton are thought to have a significant effect on concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide by altering rates of carbon sequestration, a theory known as the 'iron hypothesis'. For this reason, it is important to understand the response of pelagic biota to increased iron supply. Here we report the results of a mesoscale iron fertilization experiment in the polar Southern Ocean, where the potential to sequester iron-elevated algal carbon is probably greatest. Increased iron supply led to elevated phytoplankton biomass and rates of photosynthesis in surface waters, causing a large drawdown of carbon dioxide and macronutrients, and elevated dimethyl sulphide levels after 13 days. This drawdown was mostly due to the proliferation of diatom stocks. But downward export of biogenic carbon was not increased. Moreover, satellite observations of this massive bloom 30 days later, suggest that a sufficient proportion of the added iron was retained in surface waters. Our findings demonstrate that iron supply controls phytoplankton growth and community composition during summer in these polar Southern Ocean waters, but the fate of algal carbon remains unknown and depends on the interplay between the processes controlling export, remineralisation and timescales of water mass subduction.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 10
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    In:  [Talk] In: Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, 24.09.2008, Princeton, USA .
    Publication Date: 2013-12-13
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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