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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Gene flow ; Hybridization ; Sunflowers ; Transgenes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  The development of transgenic plants has heightened concern about the possible escape of genetically engineered material into the wild. Hybridization between crops and their wild relatives provides a mechanism by which this could occur. While hybridization has been documented between several crops and wild or weedy relatives, little is known about the persistence of cultivar genes in wild populations in the generations following hybridization. Wild and weedy sunflowers occur sympatrically with cultivated sunflowers throughout much of the cultivation range, and hybridization is known to occur. We surveyed two cultivar-specific RAPD markers in 2700 progeny in a naturally occurring population of wild Helianthus annuus over five generations following a single generation of hybridization with the cultivar. Moderate levels of gene flow were detected in the first generation (42% hybrids at the crop margin) and cultivar allele frequencies did not significantly decline over four subsequent generations. These results indicate that gene flow from cultivated into wild populations of sunflowers can result in the long-term establishment of cultivar alleles in wild populations. Furthermore, we conclude that neutral or favorable transgenes have the potential to escape and persist in wild sunflower populations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words RAPD ; DNA fingerprinting ; Homology ; Statistics ; Classification
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  In order to estimate the impact of mis-coding non-homologous, co-migrating DNA bands as homologous, two sets of data were utilized. Analyses were conducted using three Helianthus species in which each co-migrating band had previously been confirmed. Comparisons of the similarities between these three Helianthus species using the original 177 RAPD bands and the corrected, homology verified, 197 RAPD band data set revealed that the triangular relationship among these three species was almost identical in both data sets. The non-homology errors in the Helianthanus data sets were found to be random. These random errors merely reduced the absolute similarities, but not the relative similarities nor the relationships among the taxa, in principal-coordinate-analysis ordination. Analyses of RAPDs for the classical Brassica U triangle were made by inserting random non-homologies for 5, 10, 15 and 20% of the original 220 RAPD bands. These analyses revealed a progressive decrease in similarities and less loading on the first two axes in principal coordinate analysis (PCO). However, the basic U triangle of relationships among these six Brassica species was maintained. It appears that if errors in homology of co-migrating DNA bands are random, this will have little effect on the relative similarities and on PCO ordination. This helps explain the successful use of RAPDs at the specific level.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Theoretical and applied genetics 89 (1994), S. 655-660 
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Hybridization ; Gene flow ; Sunflowers Transgenes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract With the development of transgenic crops, concern has been expressed regarding the possible escape of genetically-engineered genes via hybridization with wild relatives. This is a potential hazard for sunflowers because wild sunflowers occur as weeds in fields where cultivated sunflowers are grown and hybridization between them has been reported. In order to quantify the potential for gene escape, two experimental stands of sunflower cultivars were planted at two sites with different rainfall and altitude profiles. Populations of wild plants were planted at different distances from each cultivar stand. An allele homozygous in the cultivar (6Pgd-3-a), but absent in the wild populations, was used as a molecular marker to document the incidence and rate of gene escape from the cultivar into the wild populations of sunflowers. Three-thousand achenes were surveyed to determine the amount of gene flow from the cultivated to the wild populations. The marginal wild populations (3 m from the cultivar) showed the highest percentage (27%) of gene flow. Gene flow was found to decrease with distance; however, gene flow occurred up to distances of 1000 m from the source population. These data suggest that physical distance alone will be unlikely to prevent gene flow between cultivated and wild populations of sunflowers.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Sunflower ; H. annuus ; Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) ; Introgression ; Plant breeding
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Population genetic theory suggests that mating designs employing one or more generations of sib-crossing or selfing prior to backcrossing are more effective than backcrossing alone for moving alleles across linkage groups where effective recombination rates are low (e.g., chromosomally divergent linkages). To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the effects of chromosomal structural differences and mating designs on the frequency and genomic distribution of introgressed markers using the domesticated sunflower, Helianthus annuus, and one of its wild relatives, H. petiolaris, as the experimental system. We surveyed 170 progeny, representing the end products of three different mating designs (design I, P-F1-BC1-BC2-F2- F3; design II, P-F1-F2-BC1-BC2-F3; and design III, P-F1-F2-F3-BC1-BC2), for 197 parental RAPD markers of known genomic location. Comparison of observed patterns of introgression with expectations based on simulations of unrestricted introgression revealed that much of the genome was protected from introgression regardless of mating design or chromosomal structural differences. Although the simulations indicated that all markers should introgress into multiple individuals in each of the three mating designs, 20 of 58 (34%) markers from collinear linkage groups, and 112 of 139 (81%) markers from rearranged linkage groups did not introgress. In addition, the average size of introgressed fragments (12.2 cM) was less than half that predicted by theoretical models (26–33 cM). Both of these observations are consistent with strong selection against introgressed linkage blocks, particularly in chromosomally divergent linkages. Nonetheless, mating designs II and III, which employed one and two generations of sib-mating, respectively, prior to backcrossing, were significantly more effective at moving alleles across both collinear and rearranged linkages than mating design I, in which the backcross generations preceded sib-mating. Thus, breeding strategies that include sib-crossing, in combination with backcrossing, should significantly increase the effectiveness of gene transfer across complex genic or chromosomal sterility barriers.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Sunflower ; H. annuus ; Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) ; Introgression ; Plant breeding
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Population genetic theory suggests that mating designs employing one or more generations of sib-crossing or selfing prior to backcrossing are more effective than backcrossing alone for moving alleles across linkage groups where effective recombination rates are low (e.g., chromosomally divergent linkages). To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the effects of chromosomal structural differences and mating designs on the frequency and genomic distribution of introgressed markers using the domesticated sunflower, Helianthus annuus, and one of its wild relatives, H. petiolaris, as the experimental system. We surveyed 170 progeny, representing the end products of three different mating designs (design I, P-F1-BC1-BC2-F2-F3; design II, P-F1-F2-BC1-BC2-F3; and design III, P-F1-F2-F3-BC1-BC2), for 197 parental RAPD markers of known genomic location. Comparison of observed patterns of introgression with expectations based on simulations of unrestricted introgression revealed that much of the genome was protected from introgression regardless of mating design or chromosomal structural differences. Although the simulations indicated that all markers should introgress into multiple individuals in each of the three mating designs, 20 of 58 (34%) markers from collinear linkage groups, and 112 of 139 (81%) markers from rearranged linkage groups did not introgress. In addition, the average size of introgressed fragments (12.2 cM) was less than half that predicted by theoretical models (26–33 cM). Both of these observations are consistent with strong selection against introgressed linkage blocks, particularly in chromosomally divergent linkages. Nonetheless, mating designs II and III, which employed one and two generations of sib-mating, respectively, prior to backcrossing, were significantly more effective at moving alleles across both collinear and rearranged linkages than mating design I, in which the backcross generations preceded sib-mating. Thus, breeding strategies that include sib-crossing, in combination with backcrossing, should significantly increase the effectiveness of gene transfer across complex genic or chromosomal sterility barriers.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1615-6110
    Keywords: Angiosperms ; Datiscaceae ; Datisca ; Chloroplast DNA ; polymerase chain reaction ; restriction-site variation ; interspecific variation ; disjunct distributions ; biogeography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Datisca (Datiscaceae) is a ditypic genus with an intercontinentally disjunct distribution. Chloroplast DNA restriction site data was obtained from 23 populations and four 10–20 year old herbarium specimens ofD. glomerata and three populations ofD. cannabina from throughout their geographic ranges in western North America and southwest-central Asia, respectively. InD. glomerata, plastome diversity is partitioned geographically. All populations from southern California have a common plastome, while most populations north of this region share a relatively divergent plastome (0.49% sequence divergence). Likewise, these plastomes are highly divergent (0.87% mean sequence divergence) from those found inD. cannabina. Biogeographic processes dating to the Pleistocene and Late Miocene may be responsible for these intra- and interspecific patterns of chloroplast DNA divergence.
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2015-11-22
    Description: Polyploidy is a common mode of speciation and evolution in angiosperms (flowering plants). In contrast, there is little evidence to date that whole genome duplication (WGD) has played a significant role in the evolution of their putative extant sister lineage, the gymnosperms. Recent analyses of the spruce genome, the first published conifer genome, failed to detect evidence of WGDs in gene age distributions and attributed many aspects of conifer biology to a lack of WGDs. We present evidence for three ancient genome duplications during the evolution of gymnosperms, based on phylogenomic analyses of transcriptomes from 24 gymnosperms and 3 outgroups. We use a new algorithm to place these WGD events in phylogenetic context: two in the ancestry of major conifer clades (Pinaceae and cupressophyte conifers) and one in Welwitschia (Gnetales). We also confirm that a WGD hypothesized to be restricted to seed plants is indeed not shared with ferns and relatives (monilophytes), a result that was unclear in earlier studies. Contrary to previous genomic research that reported an absence of polyploidy in the ancestry of contemporary gymnosperms, our analyses indicate that polyploidy has contributed to the evolution of conifers and other gymnosperms. As in the flowering plants, the evolution of the large genome sizes of gymnosperms involved both polyploidy and repetitive element activity.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-03-19
    Description: The narrowing of diversity in crop species contributing to the world’s food supplies has been considered a potential threat to food security. However, changes in this diversity have not been quantified globally. We assess trends over the past 50 y in the richness, abundance, and composition of crop species in...
    Keywords: Sustainability Science
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-07-14
    Description: Hybridization is a prominent process among natural plant populations that can result in phenotypic novelty, heterosis, and changes in gene expression. The effects of intraspecific hybridization on F 1 hybrid gene expression were investigated using parents from divergent, natural populations of Cirsium arvense , an invasive Compositae weed. Using an RNA-seq approach, the expression of 68,746 unigenes was quantified in parents and hybrids. The expression levels of 51% of transcripts differed between parents, a majority of which had less than 1.25 x fold-changes. More unigenes had higher expression in the invasive parent ( P 1 ) than the noninvasive parent ( P 2 ). Of those that were divergently expressed between parents, 10% showed additive and 81% showed nonadditive (transgressive or dominant) modes of gene action in the hybrids. A majority of the dominant cases had P 2 -like expression patterns in the hybrids. Comparisons of allele-specific expression also enabled a survey of cis - and trans -regulatory effects. Cis - and trans -regulatory divergence was found at 70% and 68% of 62,281 informative single-nucleotide polymorphism sites, respectively. Of the 17% of sites exhibiting both cis - and trans -effects, a majority (70%) had antagonistic regulatory interactions ( cis x trans ); trans -divergence tended to drive higher expression of the P 1 allele, whereas cis -divergence tended to increase P 2 transcript abundance. Trans -effects correlated more highly than cis with parental expression divergence and accounted for a greater proportion of the regulatory divergence at sites with additive compared with nonadditive inheritance patterns. This study explores the nature of, and types of mechanisms underlying, expression changes that occur in upon intraspecific hybridization in natural populations.
    Electronic ISSN: 1759-6653
    Topics: Biology
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-05-17
    Description: The evolutionary and genomic determinants of sequence evolution in conifers are poorly understood, and previous studies have found only limited evidence for positive selection. Using RNAseq data, we compared gene expression profiles to patterns of divergence and polymorphism in 44 seedlings of lodgepole pine ( Pinus contorta ) and 39 seedlings of interior spruce ( Picea glauca x engelmannii ) to elucidate the evolutionary forces that shape their genomes and their plastic responses to abiotic stress. We found that rapidly diverging genes tend to have greater expression divergence, lower expression levels, reduced levels of synonymous site diversity, and longer proteins than slowly diverging genes. Similar patterns were identified for the untranslated regions, but with some exceptions. We found evidence that genes with low expression levels had a larger fraction of nearly neutral sites, suggesting a primary role for negative selection in determining the association between evolutionary rate and expression level. There was limited evidence for differences in the rate of positive selection among genes with divergent versus conserved expression profiles and some evidence supporting relaxed selection in genes diverging in expression between the species. Finally, we identified a small number of genes that showed evidence of site-specific positive selection using divergence data alone. However, estimates of the proportion of sites fixed by positive selection (α) were in the range of other plant species with large effective population sizes suggesting relatively high rates of adaptive divergence among conifers.
    Print ISSN: 0737-4038
    Electronic ISSN: 1537-1719
    Topics: Biology
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