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• 1
Monograph available for loan
Washington, D.C. : Mineralogical Society of America
Associated volumes
Call number: 11/M 94.0164 ; 11/M 02.0105
In: Reviews in mineralogy
Description / Table of Contents: Although it includes some discussion of chemically complex reactions and the chemographic relationships among amphiboles and other rockforming minerals, most of Volume 9A of Reviews in Mineralogy treats amphiboles and other hydrous pyriboles as isolated systems. In contrast, Volume 9B is dedicated more to an exploration of the social life of amphiboles and the amphibole personality in real rocks and in the experimental petrology laboratory. The chemical complexity of amphibole, which Robinson et al., refer to as "a mineralogical shark in a sea of unsuspecting elements," permits amphiboles to occur in a very wide variety of rock types, under a large range of pressure and temperature conditions, and in association with an impressive number of other minerals. The description of amphibole petrology and of petrologists' attempts to understand amphibole phase relations are therefore not simple matters, as the length of this volume suggests. Although they do not cover every type of amphibole occurrence, it is hoped that the papers in this volume will provide the amphibole student and researcher with an up-to-date summary of the most important aspects of amphibole petrology. Volume 9B, Amphiboles: Petrology and Experimental Phase Relations, was begun in 1981 in preparation for the Short Course on Amphiboles and Other Hydrous Pyriboles presented at Erlanger, Kentucky, October 29 - November 1, 1981, prior to the annual meetings of the Geological Society of America and associated societies. Unfortunately, only the first chapter was in manuscript form at the time of the short course, and publication was delayed by one year.
Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
Pages: ix, 390 S.
ISBN: 0-939950-11-1 , 978-0-939950-11-9
ISSN: 1529-6466
Series Statement: Reviews in mineralogy 9B
Classification: A.3.6.
Language: English
Note: Chapter 1. Phase Relations of Metamorphic Amphiboles: Natural Occurrence and Theory by Peter Robinson, Frank S. Spear, John C. Schumacher, Jo Laird, Cornelis Klein, Bern ardW. Evans, and Barry L. Doolan, p. 1 - 228 Chapter 2. Experimental Studies of Amphibole Stability by M. Charles Gilbert, Rosalind T. Helz, Robert K. Popp, and Frank S. Spear, p. 229 - 354 Chapter 3. Amphiboles in the Igneous Environment by David R. Wones and M. Charles Gilbert, p. 355 - 390
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• 2
Monograph available for loan
Washington, D.C. : Mineralogical Society of America
Associated volumes
Call number: 11/M 94.0160
In: Reviews in mineralogy
Description / Table of Contents: In 1978 the Short Course Committee decided to forego activities because the annual meeting of the M.S.A. was held together with the Mineralogical Association of Canada, who sponsored a Short Course in Uranium Deposits and published a book by the same title. A number of mineralogists expressed regret at the potential loss of momentum in MSA's production of this series and encouraged several authors of this book to press on with their idea of publishing Volume 5 -- Orthosilicates. Work was begun in 1978; however, without the pressure of a deadline associated with presenting the material to students of a short course at the annual meeting, procrastination set in and the first edition of this volume was not completed until September 1980 (with the exception of Chapters 1 and 2 which were submitted in their present form in 1978). In the meantime Volume 6, Marine Minerals, appeared in time for the annual meeting of the Society and a Short Course in San Diego in November 1979. In 1980 the Council of the MSA changed the name of the published volumes from SHORT COURSE NOTES to REVIEWS in MINERALOGY in order to more aptly describe the material contained in this now highly successful series. The First Edition of Orthosilicates was the first volume to appear under the REVIEWS banner. This is the Second Edition of Orthosilicates. It contains an updating and minor revisions of Chapters 3 through 10 (only) and two new chapters originally intended for the First Edition. The intent of this volume is to emphasize the crystal chemistry and related physical properties of the major rock-forming orthosilicates. Though in some chapters more attention is given to phase equilibria and paragenesis than in others, these are for the most part cursorily treated with references to the more important papers and to review articles (also see Deer, Howie and Zussman, 1962, Rock-forming Minerals, Vol. 1, Ortho- and Ring Silicates). Some confusion will inevitably result from the definition of the term used as the title for this volume. In Chapter 1 Liebau (p. 14) says that "silicates containing (SiO4) groups should be called monosilicates rather than orthosilicates or nesosilicates." The editor chose not to adopt Liebau's terminology for the title, because monosilicate is not yet widely accepted (although it might well be). To set manageable boundaries for the scope of the First Edition of Orthosilicates, an editorial option was exercised in rejecting as "orthosilicates" those minerals with both (SiO4) tetrahedra and (Si2O7) groups (zoisite, epidote, vesuvianite, etc.), as well as those with (SiO4) tetrahedra that are polymerized to other tetrahedra by sharing corners with (BeO4), (BO4), (A1O4), (ZnO4), etc. However, as mentioned in the Foreword, Chapter 13 has been added to the Second Edition to correct for the latter omission. Chapter 12 contains very brief descriptions of the paragenesis and crystal chemistry of many orthosilicates that fit the description stated in the Preface (p. iv). It may be used as an index, because all orthosilicates are listed alphabetically, including those discussed in Chapters 2 through 11.
Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
Pages: xi, 450 S.
Edition: 2nd ed.
ISBN: 0-939950-13-8 , 978-0-939950-13-3
ISSN: 1529-6466
Series Statement: Reviews in mineralogy 5
Classification: A.3.6.
Language: English
Note: Chapter 1. Classification of Silicates by Friedrich Liebau, p. 1 - 24 Chapter 2. Silicate Garnets by R. Patrick Meagher, p. 25 - 66 Chapter 3. Zircon by J. Alexander Speer, p. 67 - 112 Chapter 4. The Actinide Orthosilicates by J. Alexander Speer, p. 113 - 136 Chapter 5. Titanite (Sphene) by Paul H. Ribbe, p. 137 - 154 Chapter 6. Chloritoid by Paul H. Ribbe. p. 155 - 170 Chapter 7. Staurolite by Paul H. Ribbe, p. 171 - 188 Chapter 8. Kyanite, Andalusite and Other Aluminum Silicates by Paul H. Ribbe, p. 189 - 214 Chapter 9. Topaz by Paul H. Ribbe, p. 215 - 230 Chapter 10. The Humite Series and Mn-Analogs by Paul H. Ribbe, p. 231 - 274 Chapter 11. Olivines and Silicate Spinels by Gordon E. Brown, Jr., p. 275 - 382 Chapter 12. Miscellaneous Orthosilicates by J. Alexander Speer and Paul H. Ribbe, p. 383 - 428 Chapter 13. Orthosilicates with SiO4 Polymerized to Other Tetrahedral Polyanions by J. Alexander Speer and Paul H. Ribbe, 429 - 450
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• 3
Monograph available for loan
Washington, D.C. : Mineralogical Society of America
Associated volumes
Call number: 11/M 19.92815
In: Reviews in mineralogy, 1
Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
Pages: vi, diverse Seitenangaben , Illustrationen, Diagramme
Edition: fourth printing
ISBN: 0-939950-01-4
Series Statement: Reviews in mineralogy 1
Language: English
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• 4
Monograph available for loan
Washington, D.C. : Mineralogical Society of America
Associated volumes
Call number: 11/M 92.0613
In: Reviews in mineralogy
Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
Pages: xii, 362 S.
Edition: 2nd ed.
ISBN: 0-939950-14-6 , 978-0-939950-14-0
ISSN: 1529-6466
Series Statement: Reviews in mineralogy 2
Classification: A.3.6.
Language: English
Note: Chapter 1. Chemistry, Structure, and Nomenclature of Feldspars by Paul H. Ribbe, p. 1 - 20. Chapter 2. Aluminum-Silicon Order in Feldspars: Domain Textures and Diffraction Patterns by Paul H. Ribbe, p. 21 - 56. Chapter 3. Lattice Parameters, Composition, and Al/Si Order in Alkali Feldspars by Herbert Kroll and Paul H. Ribbe, p. 57 - 100. Chapter 4. Lattice Parameters and Determinative Methods for Plagioclase and Alkali Feldspars by Herbert Kroll, p. 101 - 120. Chapter 5. Optical Properties of Feldspars by David B. Stewart and Paul H. Ribbe, p. 121 - 140. CHapter 6. Subsolidus Phase Relations in the Alkali Feldspars with Emphasis on Coherent Phases by Richard A. Yund and Jan Tullis, p. 141 - 176. Chapter 7. Microstructure, Kinetics and Mechanisms of Alkali Feldspar Exsolution by Richard A. Yund, p. 177 - 202. Chapter 8. Diffusion in Feldspars by Richard A. Yund, p. 203 - 222. Chapter 9. Phase Equilibria of Plagioclase by Joeseph V. Smith, p. 223 - 240. Chapter 10. Exsolution Textures in Ternary and Plagioclase Feldspars; Interference Colors by Paul H. Ribbe, p. 241 - 270. Chapter 11. Color in Feldspars by Anne M. Hofmeister and George R. Rossman, p. 271 - 280. Chapter 12. Some Chemical Properties of Feldspars by Joseph V. Smith, p. 281 - 296. Chapter 13. Deformation of Feldspars by Jan Tullis, p. 297 - 324. Appendix. Guides to indexing Feldspar Powder Patterns p. 325 - 342.
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• 5
Electronic Resource
Springer
ISSN: 1432-0967
Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Topics: Geosciences
Notes: Abstract In a metamorphosed gabbro from Hokkaido, Japan, augite containing exsolved orthohypersthene and minor pigeonite has been altered to a variety of biopyriboles. High resolution transmission electron microscopy of slightly altered augite shows only narrow (010) lamellae of clinoamphibole which always contain even numbers of double chains. In more highly altered regions, all three pyroxenes are changed to double-, triple- and more highly polymerized multiple-chain biopyriboles, with chlorite d 001∼ 14.5 Å) found only in orthopyroxene. Several (010) lamellae containing only one double chain have been observed, and their textural relationship to the surrounding single-chain host may explain how the rotated domains of biopyribole initially attain their orientation in the host pyroxene. A structural model is proposed for the polymerization of single chains in the tetrahedral layers of pyroxene which involves small movements of oxygens and tetrahedral atoms (Si, Al) with a minimum of bond breaking and re-forming, concommitant with hydroxylization of certain oxygens and the diffusion of Mg, Fe and/or Ca along the rift in the octahedral layer.
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• 6
Electronic Resource
Springer
ISSN: 1432-0967
Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Topics: Geosciences
Notes: Abstract Multiple linear regression analysis has been applied to the geometric and chemical variables in sodic plagioclases in order to determine their relative effects on individual T-O bond lengths in the Al1+xSi3−xO8 tetrahedral framework. Using data from crystal structure analyses of low and high albite, An16 and An28, and assuming that low albite is completely ordered, 1 $$\begin{gathered} {\text{T}} - {\text{O = 1}}{\text{.568}} + {\text{[(0}}{\text{.122) x (Al content of the T site)]}} \hfill \\ {\text{ }} - {\text{[(0}}{\text{.037) x (}}\Delta {\text{{\rm A}l}}_{{\text{br}}} )] + [0.063){\text{ x }}(\Sigma {\text{[}}q{\text{/(Na,Ca}} - {\text{O)}}^{\text{2}} ])] \hfill \\ {\text{ }} + {\text{[(0}}{\text{.029) x (}} - {\text{1/cosT}} - {\text{O}} - {\text{T)]}} \hfill \\ \end{gathered}$$ where the Al content of a particular tetrahedral (T) site can be estimated from empirically-derived determinative curves, where Δ Albr is a linkage factor to account for the Al content of adjacent tetrahedral sites, where the formal charge on the (Na1−xCax) atom is q=1+x, and where T-O-T is the inter-tetrahedral angle involving the T-O bond. For sodic plagioclases it is essential to know only the anorthite content and the 2Θ131-2Θ1¯31 spacing (CuK α radiation) in order to determine the independent variables in this equation and thus to evaluate the individual T-O distances. The 64 individual T-O distances predicted for the four sodic plagioclases by this equation agree well with the observed T-O bond lengths (σ=0.004 Å; r=0.994), and the method has been used by way of example to rationalize the T-O bond lengths in analcime (cf. Ferraris, Jones and Yerkess, 1972).
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• 7
Electronic Resource
Springer
ISSN: 1432-0967
Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Topics: Geosciences
Notes: Abstract The crystal structure of aP21/a polymorph of sapphirine (a=11.286(3),b=14.438(2),c=9.957(2) Å, β=125.4(2) °) of composition [Mg3.7Fe 0.1 2+ Al4.1- Fe 0.1 3+ ]IV[Si1.8Al4.2]IVO20 was refined using structure factors determined by both neutron and x-ray diffraction methods to conventionalR factors of 0.067 and 0.031. respectively, forF obs〉2σ. The results of the two refinements agree reasonably well, but a half-normal probability plot (Abrahams, 1974) comparing the two data sets indicates that the pooled standard deviations of the atomic coordinates have been underestimated by a factor of two. The structure of sapphirine, solved initially by Moore (1969), consists of cubic closest packed oxygens with octahedral and predominantly tetrahedral layers alternately stacked along [100]. The layer in which 70% of the octahedral sites are occupied has an Mg-Al distribution characterized by Mg-rich octahedra sharing edges mainly with Al-rich octahedra. Mean octahedral bond lengths correlate well with Al occupancy determined by neutron site refinement if the relative number of shared octahedral edges is taken into account (see Table 1). The predominantly tetrahedral layer has 10% of the octahedral sites occupied by Al and 30% of the tetrahedral sites occupied by Al-Si in the ratio 2.33∶1. There are single chains of Al-Si tetrahedra parallel toz with corner-sharing wing tetrahedra (T5 andT6) on either side in the (100) plane. The meanT-O distance is highly correlated with Al occupancy, XAl, as determined from the neutron site refinement: $$\langle T - O\rangle = 1.656 + 0.105X_{Al} (r^2 = 0.995).$$ Details of the neutron refinement are summarized below.
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• 8
Electronic Resource
Springer
ISSN: 1432-0967
Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Topics: Geosciences
Notes: Abstract Microprobe analyses of 26 natural sapphirines from 17 localities indicate that the predominant chemical substitutions in this mineral occur along the solid solution joinVI(Mg,Fe)2++IVSi4+=VI(Al, Fe)3++IVAl3+. Chromium and manganese are minor substituents. Evidence for the substitution Si⇄Al+1/2Mg+1/2 vacancy is absent within the limits of analytical error. A partitioning scheme based on electrostatic charge balance considerations has been devised permitting calculation of Fe2+ and Fe3+ from total iron content. Results are in good agreement with previous Mössbauer studies which indicate Fe3+ is sometimes in octahedral and/or tetrahedral coordination. Distribution coefficients for Fe2+-Mg exchange equilibria between sapphirine-spinel and sapphirine-orthopyroxene are similar for most mineral pairs and suggest that most of the assemblages equilibrated at about the same temperature or that the exchange reactions are insensitive to temperature. Compositions of synthetic sapphirines as a function of temperature and pressure are qualitatively predictable from crystal chemical considerations. Changes in sapphirine composition along the MgSi= AlAl solid solution join toward more aluminous compositions stabilize the sapphirine structure at high temperatures and low pressures. The limited extent of MgSi=AlAl solid solution observed in natural sapphirines appears to be related to the requirements of geometrical fit among octahedra and tetrahedra in the almost idealized cubic closest-packed anion framework.
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• 9
Electronic Resource
Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
ISSN: 1752-1688
Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
Notes: : The potentially toxic components in coal ash (ash particles, heavy metals) were evaluated in laboratory static, acute (96 hr) bioassays, both separately and in various combinations with extreme pH (5.0 and 8.5), using rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and bluegifi sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus). Ash particle morphology and metal distribution anlaysis, using electron microscopy and surface-subsurface analysis by ion microscopy, showed that metals could be either clumped or evenly distributed on the surface of fly ash. Surface enrichment on fly ash particles from electrostatic precipitators, as measured by ion microscopy, was found for cadmium, copper, chromium, nickel, lead, mercury, titanium, arsenic, and selenium.Bottom (heavy) ash was not acutely toxic to either fish species at concentrations of up to 1500 mg/l total suspended solids (TSS) at pH 5.0, 7.5, or 8.5. Fly ash particles were not acutely toxic to blue-gill at levels up to 1360 mg/l TSS. Rainbow trout were highly sensitive to fly ash (25 to 60 percent mortality) at concentrations of 4.3 to 20.5 mg/I TSS when dissolved metal availability was high but were not sensitive at higher particulate concentrations (58 to 638 mg/I TSS) when dissolved metals were low. When metals were acid-leached from fly ash prior to testing, no rainbow trout mortality occurred at TSS concentrations of up to 2,350 mg/l TSS. When the percent of dissolved metal was high (e.g., 50–90 percent of the total), fish mortality was increased. Rainbow trout were nearly two orders of magnitude more sensitive than bluegill when subjected to a blend of cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc. The two species were similar in their acute sensitivity to acidic pH at levels at or below 4.0 and alkaline pH of 9.1.If the pH of coal ash effluent is contained within the range 6.0 to 9.0, acute toxicity to fish can be attributed to trace element availability from fly ash but not heavy ash. Control of holding pond and effluent pH and maximizing pond residence time are important strategies for minimizing effects of ash pond discharges on fish.
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• 10
Electronic Resource
Springer
Physics and chemistry of minerals 3 (1978), S. 145-162
ISSN: 1432-2021
Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
Notes: Abstract Energy gaps and electrical conductivities in the ferrous silicates, Fe2SiO4 and FeSiO3, depend primarily on Fe-O bonding and may be studied by ultraviolet and soft X-ray spectroscopy. We have measured FeLII–III X-ray band spectra under conditions of “minimal” (I4, at 4.0 keV) and “high” (I10, at 10.0 keV) self absorption to determine 3d orbital energy levels, to delineate d states in the valence band, and to construct band gap models. Absorption spectra, I4/I10, were computed to determine vacant orbital levels in the gap. A difference function (I4–I10) has been proposed to identify X-radiation at photon energies above the measured LIII absorption edge, including high-energy, double-vacancy satellites and radiative transitions involving the anti-parallel (spin-down) d 6 electron in the ground state. The proposed band gap model for Fe2SiO4 is consistent with that of Nitsan and Shankland (1976), including an intrinsic transition of 6.5 eV and an energy gap of 7.8 eV. The 3d orbital energy level electronic structures are in general agreement with levels computed by Tossell et al. (1974) for [FeO6]10− in FeO using an SCF Xα cluster MO method. A high-energy, double-vacancy satellite was found at ∼710.7 eV, and is presumed to originate from an LIIIMII,III initial state. The intensity of these satellites for the ferrous silicates and other iron compounds, and corresponding Fe LII/LIII intensity ratios are correlated with differences in band gap magnitudes and gap structure. Fe LII/LIII intensity ratios are not well correlated with iron oxidation state.
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