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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Sampling was done using 90 post larvae which were produced by reproduction of some broodstocks of Fenneropenaeus indicus in one day and reared in the same situation for 4 months. Samples were divided into 3 groups: high, medium and low growth (based on weight and length). Genomic DNA was extracted from muscle tissue using the phenol-chloroform method. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out using 21 RAPD loci and PCR products were separated on 3% Agarose gel. From 21 loci studied, 12 produced polymorphic bands. The most polymorphic produced bands using OPAQ 9 and the least by OPAQ 7. Search for specific markers in F. indicus one specific band was observed in the low growth group using OPAQ4. The highest genetic distance (0.457) was between the low growth group and the medium and the lowest (0.091) between high growth and medium groups, therefore the highest genetic identity (0.912) was between high growth and medium groups and the lowest (0.633) between low growth group and the medium. Neighbor-joining resulted in two groups, the first including high and medium growth groups and the second low growth group. It appears that low growth group depended on separated population. Considering the mean weight of F1 (mean weight of 90 specimens) (16.25±1.5 g), parental generation mean weight of 15 ±1.2 and mean weight of parent 31.6 g, response to selection (R) and heritability for growth in this species were estimated to be 1.2±0.2 and 0.07±0.01 respectively.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-04-09
    Description: Genetic relationships among 96 specimens of ship sturgeon, Acipenser nudiventris, collected from six locations along the Iranian coastline as well as 8 specimens from northern population (Ural River) were analysed by the restricted maximum likelihood method, as well as two distance analysis method (Nei's and Cavalli-Sforza's distance) of gene frequencies. We have used four SSR markers that produced three polymorphic and two monomorphic loci. Overall results showed that Iranian coastline samples form a monophyletic group (clade) which was different from the northern (Ural) samples. Iranian coastline samples are divided into two groups (clades): Anzali-Kiashahr clade and Sefidrud-Babolsar-Noushahr-Gorgan clade. Bootstrapping test showed monophyleticity of Sefidrud, Babolsar, Noushahr, Gorgan with high (Bootstrap support=93) and Anzali-Kiashahr with middle (Bootstrap support=65) confirmation. Topology of reconstructed trees was in correspondence with geographical distributions of samples.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-07-18
    Description: Considering the importance of genetic studies to manifest inter population differences in species, samples of Artemia partenogenetica were collected from seven inland lakes including Shoor and Inche-Borun lakes in Golestan Province, Hoze-Soltan and Namak lakes in Qom Province, Maharloo and Bakhteghan lakes in Fars Province and Mighan pool in Markazi Province. A total of 210 samples were subjected to DNA extraction by phenol-chloroform method. Primers were designed on a ribosomal fragment (16SrRNA) of the species' mtDNA sequence and the PCR was conducted on the samples. Digestion of the PCR product with approximately 1584bp lengths by 10 restriction endonuclease (AluI, EcoRI, Eco47I, HaeIII, HindIII, HinfI, MboI, MspI, RsaI, TaqI) showed 12 different haplotypes: 4 haplotypes in Shoor and Inche-Borun, 1 in Namak and Hoze-Soltan, 3 in Mighan pool, 1 in Bakhtegan and Maharloo and 3 in Maharloo. Haplotype diversity values within collected samples varied from zero in Hoze-Soltan, Namak and Bakhteghan samples to 0.7425 in Inche-Borun and Shoor while nucleotide diversity varied from zero in Hoze-Soltan, Namak and Bakhteghan, to 0.0077 in Mighan. The minimum nucleotide diversity among samples was zero between Hoze-Soltan vs. Namak and the maximum was 0.1700 between Inche-Borun and Shoor vs. Mighan. Nucleotide divergences among samples were least in Inche-Borun vs. Shoor (%-0.02) and most in Inche-Borun and Shoor vs. Mighan (%16.18), averaging to %3.40. The evolutionary distances between 12 haplotype showed that the maximum value belonged to Mighan haplotypes vs. Inche-Borun and Shoor haplotypes. Regarding the digestive patterns produced by each enzyme in the studied region, Eco47I is introduced as the population-specific marker of A. partenogenetica in Iran. Test of population differentiation based on haplotype frequencies were statistically significant (P≤0.001) with the exception of Hoze-Soltan vs. Namak and Inche-Borun vs. Shoor. We conclude that there are enough evidences in haplotypic level for dividing A. partenogenetica in Iran into five populations: Hoze-Soltan and Namak, Mighan, Maharloo, Bakhtegan, Incheh-Borun and Shoor.
    Keywords: Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-07-18
    Description: Population structure of Ship sturgeon, Acipenser nudiventris, from the south coast of Caspian Sea and Ural River was investigated using Microsatellite method. For this reason, 73 specimens of the sturgeon were collected from five locations in two sampling regions the first consisted of Bandar Anzali, SefidRud River, Babolsar, and Gorgan, and the second was Ural River. Four SSR markers were used in this investigation, of which 5 loci produced DNA band, with three of them being polymorph. One primer showed two loci with one of them being polymorph and another was monomorphic). Average expected and observed heterozygosity was 0.86 and 0.75 respectively. Genetic variation was assessed through analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) that indicated almost all of the variance in data namely %94 (P less than or equal to 0.03) was within locations.
    Keywords: Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-07-20
    Description: During the decade 1991-2001, culture of Indian White Shrimp grew rapidly in Iran due to high profitability, but afterwards suffered a decreasing trend with many farms still being idle after Construction. The trend occurred mainly due to (1) increase in production costs with simultaneous decrease in international shrimp market price, (2) Agro-climatic conditions that favored only one crop a year, which is not profitable, and (3) fear about spread of disease as already experienced in the case of white spot disease in Khouzestan and Bushehr provinces. Based on these facts, we aimed in our study to increase production of the shrimp per year, to reduce days of culture (DOC) in second crop through nursery system, to control food conversion ratio (FCR), and to manage shrimp production in Gwatar shrimp farming complex. Six farms were selected, and in three we applied two crops a year production system using nursery for the second crop. In other three farms one crop was harvested. Shrimps in two-crop farms were kept 52 days of the second crop in nursery and then transferred to grow-out ponds. All farms harvested before DOC 128. Mean productions per hectare in the first and second crop were 1794 and 1691kg, respectively. The FCR dropped from 1.6 in the first to 1.27 in the second crop. Total production per hectare per year reached 3485kg in two-crop farms. Shrimps in one-crop farms were harvested mainly at DOC 145. The mean production per ha/year and FCR of one-crop farms reached 2089kg and 1.65 respectively. We harvested around 47114kg of shrimps in each two-crop farm which was 17 tons more than one-crop farms. The results of this study showed that production of shrimps in two crops a year system could be continued with pre-designed schedules. We presented a time table for two crops a year culture system.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-07-20
    Description: The population genetic structure of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was examined on 260 specimens from Tajan and Gorgan Rivers, Gorgan Gulf, Anzali Lagoon and other regions in east, middle and west of south Caspian Sea. DNA was extracted from fin tissue by phenol-chlorophorm method with a concentration of 50-100 nanograms. PCR was performed using ND-3/4 and ND-5/6 genes. The PCR products of samples were digested by 15 restriction endonuclease enzymes. The digested products accompanied with standard marker (50 pb). To measure fragment size, samples were run on a 6% vertical poyacrylamide gel. The fragments were visualized by silver staining of the polyacrylamide gel. Statistical analysis of data was performed by Reap software. We detected 14 and 12 different haplotypes in ND-3/4 and ND-5/6 genes of common carp. The mean values of haplotype diversity among populations were 0.59 and 0.48 and the average nucleotide diversity was 0.06 and 0.03 for ND3/4 and ND5/6 genes. Also, the mean values of nucleotide divergence among populations were 0.05% and 0.02%, respectively. The haplotype distribution was not significantly different between Mazandaran and Guilan coasts, Mazandaran and Golestan coasts, Golestan coast and Gorgan Gulf and Gorgan River (P〈0.05), but this divergence was significantly different between Guilan region and Anzali Lagoon, Guilan and Golestan coasts, Tajan and Gorgan Rivers (P〈0.05). We found a significant genetic divergence between some of the samples such that three genetic groups of common carp were identified in the southern part of the Caspian Sea.
    Keywords: Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-07-25
    Description: A total of 162 specimens of Silver Pomfret (Pampus argenteus) including 38 samples from Kuwait and 124 samples from Iran (24 from Khouzestan, 24 from Chabahar and 38 from Bushehr) were examined for their DNA structure. DNA from all specimens was extracted using the Phenol-chloroform and amplified using PCR method with a pair of primers with ND sub(2) gene sequence. The PCR products were about 1300 (bp) for all samples. For RFLP analysis 16 restriction enzymes Bcl I, Pst I, Acc II, BseN I, Tru I, Dra I, Alw26 I, Hin6 I, Tas I, Alu I, EcoR I ,Hae III, Hinc II, Hind III, Hinf I and Hpa II were used. DNA bands were visualized by Gel electrophoresis (polyacrylamid) and staining with silver nitrate. Out of 16 enzymes, four showed polymorphism that includedg Hinf I, Alu I, Acc II, and Hpa II. Of the total 162 samples, 13 showed polymorphic patterns. Six haplotypes were rare occurring only once, but others which were only four different kinds occurred more than once. The REAP test gave no significant result for the examined regions (P〉0.05). Therefore, our results revealed that the Pampus argenteus stocks in the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea of Iranian and Kuwaiti waters constitute a unique population.
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-09-23
    Description: In order to have a sustainable management on Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) as a highly commercial species in the South Caspian Sea, we need to identify its population structure and the level as well as its conservation status in their natural habitat. To develop a conservation program for this all Caspian Sea' sturgeon species it requires knowledge of its genetic diversity using reliable molecular marker to study population genetic structure. For these purposes, an enriched library was prepared based on a modified biotin-capture method. Approximately 1800 positive clones were screened for microsatellites in an Acipenser persicus genomic library. Of these 350 positively hybridizing clones were sequenced, and 81 clones were identified as having microsatellites with adequate flanking regions. We developed and tested 68 microsatellite primer pairs for Persian sturgeon. Out of 68 primer pairs developed, 11 pairs resulted in poor or no amplification, 13 were ambiguous, 6 were monomorphic, 20 were tetrasomic and 18 were octosomic in Persian sturgeon. While none of the markers showed disomic inheritance in Persian sturgeon and Russian sturgeon (A. gueldenstaedtii). Several of the markers appeared useful for studies stellate sturgeon (A. stellatus), ship sturgeon (A.nudiventris) and beluga (Huso huso). Nearly all the polymorphic pattern for ship, stellate and beluga displayed the simple banding patterns characteristic of disomic loci, while those for Russian sturgeon displayed banding patterns characteristic of tetraploid or higher polyploid levels. These markers may prove useful in a variety of future sturgeon population genetic studies in the Caspian Sea.
    Keywords: Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-02-24
    Description: PCR-based mtDNA analysis (RFLP) was used for the study of population differentiation in the Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedti). The mtDNA ND5/6 gene regions were amplified using PCR techniques followed by RFLP analysis. 39 different composite haplotypes were detected among 62 specimens. 29 haplotypes were rare occuring only once in two regions (west and east areas of the Southern Caspian Sea). The average nucleotide and haplotype diversity within populations were estimated to be 0.028727 0.00 and 0.9645 00042 respectively and divergence between populations to be 0.052%. A highly significant differences were observed in the distribution of haplotypes between the west and east areas.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Identification of different species of oceanic and neritic squids in Iranian waters of Oman Sea was carried out from December 1996 to February 1997. The trawl surveys were conducted during a 12-months period. Fishing was also undertaken by Mid-water and bottom trawl for species confirmation purposes in deep (200-350m) and shallow (0-100m) waters to collect enough specimens that could be used for later species identification. The RN Ferdows-I was used for sampling with an approximate hauling speed of 3.0 knots. Three oegopsid species including Ancistrocheirus lesueuri, Liocranchia reinhardti, Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis and neritic squid, Loligo duvauceli were identified. Another loliginid squid different from Loligo duvauceli was also observed. A. lesueuri (Enoploteuthidae Family) and Liocranchia reinhardti (Cranchiidae Family) are here reported from this area for the first time. Neither was any report about these two families of oegopsid squids in Oman Sea nor Persian Gulf.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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