Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Abstract We review the schemes which have been implemented, in order to achieve quantum non-demolition (QND) measurements in the optical domain. The simplest schemes can be obtained using the optical Kerr effect, which yields a crossed-phase modulation coupling between two light beams. Other schemes use either independently generated squeezed light, or coupled-mode parametric amplifiers. These various schemes can be characterized using three criteria, which describe, respectively, the quality of the quantum measurement, the non-destruction of the signal, and the conditional variance of the output signal beam, given the output “meter” beam (quantum-state preparation criterion). We show that quantitative limits can be defined with respect to these criteria, delimiting “classical” and “quantum” domains of operation. Then we present in more detail a new experimental implementation of QND measurements, using three-level atoms inside a doubly-resonant optical cavity.
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