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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Temporally and spatially-resolved, two-component measurements of velocity in a supersonic hydrogen-air combustor are reported. The combustor had a single unswept ramp fuel injector and operated with an inlet Mach number of 2 and a flow total temperature approaching 1200 K. The experiment simulated the mixing and combustion processes of a dual-mode scramjet operating at a flight Mach number near 5. The velocity measurements were obtained by seeding the fuel with alumina particles and performing Particle Image Velocimetry on the mixing and combustion wake of the ramp injector. To assess the effects of combustion on the fuel air-mixing process, the distribution of time-averaged velocity and relative turbulence intensity was determined for the cases of fuel-air mixing and fuel-air reacting. Relative to the mixing case, the near field core velocity of the reacting fuel jet had a slower streamwise decay. In the far field, downstream of 4 to 6 ramp heights from the ramp base, the heat release of combustion resulted in decreased flow velocity and increased turbulence levels. The reacting measurements were also compared with a computational fluid dynamics solution of the flow field. Numerically predicted velocity magnitudes were higher than that measured and the jet penetration was lower.
    Keywords: Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics
    Type: AIAA Paper 2001-1761 , AIAA/NAL-NASDA-ISAS 10th International Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference; 24-27 Apr. 2001; Kyoto; Japan
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Results of an experimental and numerical study of a dual-mode scramjet combustor are reported. The experiment consisted of a direct-connect test of a Mach 2 hydrogen-air combustor with a single unswept-ramp fuel injector. The flow stagnation enthalpy simulated a flight Mach number of 5. Measurements were obtained using conventional wall instrumentation and a particle-imaging laser diagnostic technique. The particle imaging was enabled through the development of a new apparatus for seeding fine silicon dioxide particles into the combustor fuel stream. Numerical simulations of the combustor were performed using the GASP code. The modeling, and much of the experimental work, focused on the supersonic combustion mode. Reasonable agreement was observed between experimental and numerical wall pressure distributions. However, the numerical model was unable to predict accurately the effects of combustion on the fuel plume size, penetration, shape, and axial growth.
    Keywords: Inorganic, Organic and Physical Chemistry
    Type: Journal of Propulsion and Power; 17; 6; 1313-1318
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A NASA Langley investigation was conducted in the 16-foot Transonic Tunnel to survey the flow field around a model of a Supersonic cruise fighter configuration. In this investigation, a model of a supersonic cruise fighter configuration formerly utilized in afterbody-nozzle performance investigations was surveyed with a single, multiholed probe to determine local values of angle of attack, side flow, and Mach number. The investigation was conducted at Mach numbers of 0.6, 0.9, and 1.2 at angles of attack from 0 to 10 deg. The purpose of the investigation was to provide a data base of experimental data for use in verification of theoretical methods, and to compare the experimental data with predictions from currently available theoretical techniques. Results from this investigation show that local angles of attack were generally greater than free stream above the wing and generally less than free stream below the wing. Also there were large spanwise gradients above the wing at the higher angles of attack. The comparisons of experimental data with theoretical predictions show that the theoretical techniques give a qualitative estimate of the flow-field but will require much work to give good quantitative results.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-1331
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to survey the flow field around a model of a supersonic cruise fighter configuration. Local values of angle of attack, side flow, Mach number, and total pressure ratio were measured with a single multi-holed probe in three survey areas on a model previously used for nacelle/nozzle integration investigations. The investigation was conducted at Mach numbers of 0.6, 0.9, and 1.2, and at angles of attack from 0 deg to 10 deg. The purpose of the investigation was to provide a base of experimental data with which theoretically determined data can be compared. To that end the data are presented in tables as well as graphically, and a complete description of the model geometry is included as fuselage cross sections and wing span stations. Measured local angles of attack were generally greater than free stream angle of attack above the wing and generally smaller below. There were large spanwise local angle-of-attack and side flow gradients above the wing at the higher free stream angles of attack.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: L-15884 , NASA-TM-86361 , NAS 1.15:86361
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The aeropropulsive characteristics of an advanced fighter designed for supersonic cruise were determined in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. The objectives of this investigation were to evaluate the interactive effects of thrust vectoring and wing maneuver devices on lift and drag and to determine trim characteristics. The wing maneuver devices consisted of a drooped leading edge and a trailing-edge flap. Thrust vectoring was accomplished with two dimensional (nonaxisymmetric) convergent-divergent nozzles located below the wing in two single-engine podded nacelles. A canard was utilized for trim. Thrust vector angles of 0 deg, 15 deg, and 30 deg were tested in combination with a drooped wing leading edge and with wing trailing-edge flap deflections up to 30 deg. This investigation was conducted at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.20, at angles of attack from 0 deg to 20 deg, and at nozzle pressure ratios from about 1 (jet off) to 10. Reynolds number based on mean aerodynamic chord varied from 9.24 x 10 to the 6th to 10.56 x 10 to the 6th.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: L-15526 , NASA-TP-2119 , NAS 1.60:2119
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Described are the modifications currently under way to the Langley 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel to produce a new, unique national resource for testing hypersonic air-breathing propulsion systems. The current tunnel, which has been used for aerothermal loads and structures research since its inception, is being modified with the addition of a LOX system to bring the oxygen content of the test medium up to that of air, the addition of alternate Mach number capability (4 and 5) to augment the current M=7 capability, improvements to the tunnel hardware to reduce maintenance downtime, the addition of a hydrogen system to allow the testing of hydrogen powered engines, and a new data system to increase both the quantity and quality of the data obtained.
    Keywords: FLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER
    Type: NASA-TM-100486 , NAS 1.15:100486 , AIAA PAPER 87-1887
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A wind-tunnel investigation was conducted to determine the effects of F101 DFE (derivative fighter engine) nozzle axial positioning on the afterbody-nozzle longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of the F-14 airplane. The model was tested in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.7 to 1.25 and angles of attack from about -2 to 6 degrees. Compressed air was used to simulate nozzle exhaust flow at jet total-pressure ratios from 1 (jet off) to about 8. The results of the investigation show that for subsonic Mach numbers the intermediate cruise nozzle position of the three positions tested resulted in the lowest drag.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: L-14895 , NASA-TM-83250
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An investigation at an angle of attack of 0 deg was conducted in a 16 foot transonic tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.05 to determine the limits in Mach number at which valid boattail pressure drag data may be obtained with very low blockage ratio bodies. Extreme care was exercised when examining any data taken at subsonic Mach numbers very near 1.0 and lower than the supersonic Mach number at which shock reflections miss the model. Boattail pressure coefficient distributions did not indicate any error, but when integrated boattail pressure drag data was plotted as a function of Mach number, data which were in error were identified.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: L-11063 , NASA-TN-D-8335
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A wind-tunnel investigation has been made to determine the effects of nozzle interfairing modifications on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a twin-jet, variable-wing-sweep fighter model. The model was tested in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel at Mach numbers of 0.6 to 1.3 and angles of attack from about minus 2 deg to 6 deg and in the Langley 4-foot supersonic presure tunnel at a Mach number of 2.2 and an angle of attack of 0 deg. Compressed air was used to simulate nozzle exhaust flow at jet total-pressure ratios from 1 (jet off) to about 21. The results of this investigation show that the aircraft drag can be significantly reduced by replacing the basic interfairing with a modified interfairing.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: L-9802 , NASA-TN-D-7817
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The aeropropulsive characteristics of an advanced twin engine fighter designed for supersonic cruise was investigated in the 16 foot Transonic Tunnel. The performance characteristics of advanced nonaxisymmetric nozzles installed in various nacelle locations, the effects of thrust induced forces on overall aircraft aerodynamics, the trim characteristics, and the thrust reverser performance were evaluated. The major model variables included nozzle power setting; nozzle duct aspect ratio; forward, mid, and aft nacelle axial locations; inboard and outboard underwing nacelle locations; and underwing and overwing nacelle locations. Thrust vectoring exhaust nozzle configurations included a wedge nozzle, a two dimensional convergent divergent nozzle, and a single expansion ramp nozzle, each with deflection angles up to 30 deg. In addition to the nonaxisymmetric nozzles, an axisymmetric nozzle installation was also tested. The use of a canard for trim was also assessed.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.60:2120 , NASA-TP-2120 , L-15525
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