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  • 1
    ISSN: 0360-6376
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Measurements of saturated liquid densities and ethylene solubilities in ethylene - polyethylene systems up to 26.1 MPa and 493.1 K were obtained using a new variable-volume static cell after a careful investigation of the influence of inhibitors of polymerization of ethylene under experimental conditions.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1572-8927
    Keywords: Copper ; chloride solutions ; stability constants ; activity coefficients ; liquid-liquid extraction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract A model combining formation of cupric chlorocomplexes and deviations to ideality in electrolyte solutions is proposed for the representation of ther-modynamic properties of concentrated cupric chloride solutions at 25°C in the presence of other ions (Na+, Li+, Mg2+, H+ or SO 4 2− ). A set of equilibrium constants for the formation of cupric chlorocomplexes is obtained. The equation for the calculation of activity coefficients, using a modified Pitzer expression, yields not only the composition of CuCl2 solutions at various experimental conditions, but also the activities for each species. The model represents, with a mean accuracy of 1.2%, a large number of spectrophotometric, as well as osmotic data. It was applied to the extraction of Copper (II) from chloride aqueous solutions by LIX 65N in ESCAID 100 solvent. In this case, the accuracy of the representation (4%) is consistent with the estimated experimental error.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 35 (1990), S. 123-131 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A carrier-mediated counter transport process is proposed to separate and to purify an amino acid produced by microbial fermentation. The case of L-valine permeation through a liquid membrane, constituted by a solution of Aliquat 336 in decanol and supported by a hydrophobic microporous membrane, is reported. A mathematical model was developed to estimate distribution coefficients and permeabilities and to predict the influence of hydrodynamic and pH conditions on supported liquid membrane (SLM) performances. Optimum conditions for the transport and the concentration of valine were achieved with synthetic aqueous valine solutions. Series of experiments on fermentation broths, where molasses and biomass contents were varied, permitted pointing out the role of the broth composition on the kinetics and yields of separation. The selectivity of transport of valine by an Aliquat 336/decanol liquid membrane was about 10 toward molasses dyes, 100 toward glucose, and beyond 1000 toward sucrose. This allowed us to achieve the recovery and one step of purification of the product in a single operation. The stability of the Aliquat 336/decanol liquid membrane was sufficient to ensure a selective transport of valine during a continuous run lasting 18 days.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A new apparatus to measure partition coefficients Ks∞ at infinite dilution up to 200 105 Pa and 423 K is described. Measurements of the systems: (1) methane-ethane-n-decane and methane-propane-n-decane at 294.25 K; and (2) methane-n-butane-n-decane at 344.25 K illustrate the reproducibility and good agreement with literature data. In addition, new data were obtained for the system methane-n-pentane-n-decane at 344.25 K up to 101 105 Pa.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A new method of representation of electrolyte solution nonideality is derived, on the basis of similar assumptions, from a model applied by Cruz and Renon (1978) to binary electrolyte solutions. In order to test the validity of the model for representation of strong electrolyte properties, parameters were fitted to osmotic coefficient data for single, completely dissociated salts in aqueous solutions and were used to calculate osmotic coefficients of mixed aqueous electrolytes. Results are compared with those given by Chen's local composition model (Chen et al., 1982; Aspen, 1983) and Pitzer's truncated model (Pitzer, 1973, 1979; Pitzer and Mayorga, 1973; Pitzer and Kim, 1974), the same number of adjustable parameters being used in each case.The average standard deviations for single electrolytes are within 1% in the case of 1-1 salts for the three models, and within 2% in the other cases, except for Chen's model (5%). As for predicted results, both local-composition models yield standard deviations of less than 2%, while the accuracy given by the Pitzer model is better than 1.5%.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 39 (1993), S. 335-343 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A new equation of state for electrolyte solutions has been developed from an expression of the Helmholtz free energy containing a nonelectrolyte part and a part relative to ions. The nonelectrolyte part is taken from the equations of state (EOS) of Schwartzentruber et al. (1989). The ionic part is composed of an MSA long-range term to account for electrostatic interactions and a short-range interaction term specific to ions. Using correlations between parameters and experimental ionic diameters, the model reduce to a one-parameter model. It has been applied to numerous strong electrolyte systems and extended to ternary systems to test its predictability without mixing parameters for ions. Its results compare well to the results reported for other one-parameter models (electrolyte EOS). Furthermore, it was found that the cation-anion interaction parameter could also be correlated to experimental ionic diameters. Then, the osmotic coefficients of 28 alkaline and alkaline-earth halide systems may be represented with a root mean square relative deviation of 2.9% using only six correlation parameters. This result has been extended to other systems, with the conclusion that the model with all parameters correlated may also be applied to systems other than halide solutions. The resulting model is predictive. The quality of the prediction was tested by determining osmotic coefficients relative to six systems without any parameter adjustment. The deviations of the predicted values range from 2.0 to 5.4%. The quality of the representation of mixed salts systems without mixing parameters was evaluated using experimental osmotic coefficients of 30 ternary systems.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 27 (1981), S. 203-207 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A new static cell for vapor-liquid equilibria up to 100 MPa between 233 and 433 K is presented. A detachable sampling microcell and a special chromatographic injector are used in a new sampling system suitable for gas chromatographic analysis of mixtures with high boiling components. The test system is N2 - n-Heptane at 305.45 K.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 36 (1990), S. 116-123 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A supported liquid membrane system was developed for the extraction of ethanol during semicontinuous fermentation of Saccharomyces bayanus. it consisted of a porous Teflon sheet as support, soaked with isotridecanol. This assembly permitted combining biocompatibility, permeation efficiency, and stability. The removal of ethanol from the cultures led to decreased inhibition and, thus, to a gain in conversion of 452 g/L glucose versus 293 g/L glucose without extraction. At the same time, the ethanol volumetric productivity was enhanced 2.5 times, due to an improvement of yeast viability, while the substrate conversion yield was maintained above 95% of its theoretical value. Besides these improvements in fermentation performances, the process resulted in ethanol purification, since the separation was selective towards microbial cells and carbon substrate, and likely selective to mineral ions present in the fermentation broth. For pervaporation, a concentration of ethanol four times greater was obtained in the collected permeate.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 33 (1987), S. 926-939 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Various numerical approaches have been adopted to solve the single-stage isothermal flash problem. These approaches result in two classes of methods. The first includes equation-solving methods that try to solve a nonlinear equation system; the second is based on a minimization of the total Gibbs free energy. Most of these methods may fail to find a solution or may lead to erroneous solutions near critical conditions when an equation of state is applied to both the vapor and liquid phases.New methods for solving the problem are proposed. Combining the simplicity in structure of the conventional successive-substitution method and the efficiency of some unconstrained minimization algorithms, they all ensure convergence to local minima of the Gibbs free energy. The new methods are compared from the standpoints of computer storage and calculational effort requirements. The performance of these methods is tested on four multicomponent systems taken from literature, and a comparison is made with other published methods.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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