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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2020-11-25
    Description: Highlights: • NW Pacific ice-rafted debris found further south than previously thought. • Largest iceberg events were comparable in magnitude to N Atlantic Heinrich Events. • Iceberg flux to ODP Site 1207 was episodic throughout the late Quaternary. • Kamchatka-Koryak bergs frequently reached south of the N Pacific Subarctic Front. • Ice-rafting and climate contrast sharply between the last two glacial periods. Abstract: The ice-rafted-debris (IRD) record of the open Northwest Pacific points towards the existence of substantial glacial ice on the Northeast Siberian coast during the late Quaternary. However, the scale and timing of glaciation and de-glaciation remains controversial due to the dearth of both onshore and offshore records. Existing IRD data suggests at least one event of dynamic and abrupt change during mid-late Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 3) which mimics the massive collapse of the Laurentide ice sheet during Heinrich Events. It is uncertain whether other events of this magnitude occurred during the late Quaternary. Here we present a ∼160,000 yr IRD series, planktic foraminiferal counts and an age model, derived from a benthic O curve, radiocarbon dates and tephrochronology, from core ODP 1207A (37.79°N, 162.75°E), revealing the presence of low but episodic flux of IRD. We conclude that glacial Northwest Pacific icebergs spread further south than previously thought, with icebergs emanating from Northeast Siberia being transported to the transition region between the subpolar and subtropical waters, south of the subarctic front during at least the Quaternary's last two glacial periods. The episodic nature of the 1207A IRD record during the last glacial, combined with coupled climate-iceberg modelling, suggests occasional times of much enhanced ice flux from the Kamchatka-Koryak coast, with other potential sources on the Sea of Okhotsk coast. These findings support the hypothesis of a variable but extensive ice mass during the last glacial over Northeast Siberia, particularly early in the last glacial period, behaving independently of North American and Eurasian ice masses. In strong contrast, IRD was absent during much of the penultimate glacial Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6 suggesting the possibility of very different Northeast Siberian ice coverage between the last two glacial periods.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: archive
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2020-04-24
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-1723
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-01-25
    Description: Tree ring Δ14C data (Reimer et al., 2004; McCormac et al., 2004) indicate that atmospheric Δ14C varied on multi-decadal to centennial timescales, in both hemispheres, over the pre-industrial period AD 950–1830. Although the Northern and Southern Hemispheric Δ14C records display similar variability, it is difficult from these data alone to distinguish between variations driven by 14CO2 production in the upper atmosphere (Stuiver, 1980) and exchanges between carbon reservoirs (Siegenthaler, 1980). Here we consider rather the Interhemispheric Gradient in atmospheric Δ14C as revealing of the background pre-bomb air-sea Disequilbrium Flux between 14CO2 and CO2. As the global maximum of the Disequilibrium Flux is squarely centered in the open ocean regions of the Southern Ocean, relatively modest perturbations to the winds over this region drive significant perturbations to the Interhemispheric Gradient. The analysis presented here implies that changes to Southern Ocean windspeeds are likely a main driver of the observed variability in the Interhemispheric Gradient over 950–1830, and further, that this variability may be larger than the Southern Ocean wind trends that have been reported for recent decades (notably 1980–2004). This interpretation also implies a significant weakening of the winds over the Southern Ocean within a few decades of AD 1375, associated with the transition between the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age. The driving forces that could have produced such a shift in the winds remain unkown.
    Print ISSN: 1814-9340
    Electronic ISSN: 1814-9359
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union.
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2010-12-03
    Print ISSN: 0091-7613
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-2682
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-10-15
    Description: Holocene vegetation records are presented from palaeochannels in the southern Kelabit Highlands, at Pa’Dalih (PDH 212) and at Pa’Buda (BPG), and from a peat bog in the northern Kelabit Highlands, at Bario (Ba). Results are based on changes in the sediment lithology, loss-on-ignition, magnetic susceptibility, pollen, phytoliths and other palynomorphs. At Pa’Buda, possible clearance occurred ~6500 cal. BP, perhaps for arboriculture. More pronounced signatures of clearance are at PDH 212 by ~3100 cal. BP, and at Ba by 1300 cal. BP. Propagation/cultivation of the sago palm, Eugeissona , may have been taking place by ~2800 cal. BP at site PDH 212 and was probably taking place by at least 1300 cal. BP at Ba. Rice cultivation may have been taking place between 2800 and 1200 cal. BP at PDH 212, but this remains speculative, due to the morphological features of the Oryza bulliforms, but it was likely taking place at Pa’Dalih by 530–490 cal. BP, where Oryza bulliforms, with characteristics similar to domesticated types are present, and there was a sharp rise in sedimentation, caused by intense burning. At Ba, within the last 600 years, an increase in Palmae phytoliths may signify increasingly intense human impact. In more recent times, both rice and banana cultivation are represented in the phytolith record at Pa’Buda.
    Print ISSN: 0959-6836
    Electronic ISSN: 1477-0911
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Sage
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2014-01-21
    Description: Hundsalm ice cave located at 1520 m altitude in a karst region of western Austria contains up to 7-m-thick deposits of snow, firn and congelation ice. Wood fragments exposed in the lower parts of an ice and firn wall were radiocarbon accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dated. Although the local stratigraphy is complex, the 19 individual dates – the largest currently available radiocarbon dataset for an Alpine ice cave – allow to place constraints on the accumulation and ablation history of the cave ice. Most of the cave was either ice free or contained only a small firn and ice body during the ‘Roman Warm Period’; dates of three wood fragments mark the onset of firn and ice build-up in the 6th and 7th century ad . In the central part of the cave, the oldest samples date back to the 13th century and record ice growth coeval with the onset of the ‘Little Ice Age’. The majority of the ice and firn deposit, albeit compromised by a disturbed stratigraphy, appears to have been formed during the subsequent centuries, supported by wood samples from the 15th to the 17th century. The oldest wood remains found so far inside the ice is from the end of the Bronze Age and implies that local relics of prehistoric ice may be preserved in this cave. The wood record from Hundsalm ice cave shows parallels to the Alpine glacier history of the last three millennia, for example, the lack of preserved wood remains during periods of known glacier minima, and underscores the potential of firn and ice in karst cavities as a long-term palaeoclimate archive, which has been degrading at an alarming rate in recent years.
    Print ISSN: 0959-6836
    Electronic ISSN: 1477-0911
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Sage
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2012-11-23
    Description: In order to calibrate radiocarbon ages based on samples with a marine carbon component it is important to know the marine carbon reservoir correction or R value. This study measured the R on both known-age pre-bomb marine shells and paired marine and terrestrial samples from two regions on the west coast of South Africa: the southwestern Cape and Namaqualand. Pooling the data by region produces R values that are similar enough to use a west coast weighted mean R of 146 ± 85 14 C years to correctly calibrate marine shell or mixed marine and terrestrial 14 C ages. There are however temporal differences in R throughout the Holocene, which we compare with proxy data for upwelling and sea surface temperatures.
    Print ISSN: 0959-6836
    Electronic ISSN: 1477-0911
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Sage
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-12-10
    Description: Despite the extensive geographical range of palaeolimnological studies designed to assess the extent of surface water acidification in the United Kingdom during the 1980s, little attention was paid to the status of surface waters in the North York Moors (NYM). In this paper, we present sediment core data from a moorland pool in the NYM that provide a record of air pollution contamination and surface water acidification. The 41-cm-long core was divided into three lithostratigraphic units. The lower two comprise peaty soils and peats, respectively, that date to between approximately 8080 and 6740 cal. BP. The uppermost unit comprises peaty lake muds dating from between approximately ad 1790 and the present day ( ad 2006). The lower two units contain pollen dominated by forest taxa, whereas the uppermost unit contains pollen indicative of open landscape conditions similar to those of the present. Heavy metal, spheroidal carbonaceous particle, mineral magnetics and stable isotope analysis of the upper sediments show clear evidence of contamination by air pollutants derived from fossil-fuel combustion over the last c . 150 years, and diatom analysis indicates that the naturally acidic pool became more acidic during the 20th century. We conclude that the exceptionally acidic surface waters of the pool at present (pH = c . 4.1) are the result of a long history of air pollution and not because of naturally acidic local conditions. We argue that the highly acidic surface waters elsewhere in the NYM are similarly acidified and that the lack of evidence of significant recovery from acidification, despite major reductions in the emissions of acidic gases that have taken place over the last c . 30 years, indicates the continuing influence of pollutant sulphur stored in catchment peats, a legacy of over 150 years of acid deposition.
    Print ISSN: 0959-6836
    Electronic ISSN: 1477-0911
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Sage
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2015-01-21
    Description: Relative sea-level rise has been a major factor driving the evolution of reef systems during the Holocene. Most models of reef evolution suggest that reefs preferentially grow vertically during rising sea level then laterally from windward to leeward, once the reef flat reaches sea level. Continuous lagoonal sedimentation ("bucket fill") and sand apron progradation eventually lead to reef systems with totally filled lagoons. Lagoonal infilling of One Tree Reef (southern Great Barrier Reef) through sand apron accretion was examined in the context of late Holocene relative sea-level change. This analysis was conducted using sedimentological and digital terrain data supported by 50 radiocarbon ages from fossil microatolls, buried patch reefs, foraminifera and shells in sediment cores, and recalibrated previously published radiocarbon ages. This data set challenges the conceptual model of geologically continuous sediment infill during the Holocene through sand apron accretion. Rapid sand apron accretion occurred between 6000 and 3000 calibrated yr before present B.P. (cal. yr B.P.); followed by only small amounts of sedimentation between 3000 cal. yr B.P. and present, with no significant sand apron accretion in the past 2 k.y. This hiatus in sediment infill coincides with a sea-level fall of ~1–1.3 m during the late Holocene (ca. 2000 cal. yr B.P.), which would have caused the turn-off of highly productive live coral growth on the reef flats currently dominated by less productive rubble and algal flats, resulting in a reduced sediment input to back-reef environments and the cessation in sand apron accretion. Given that relative sea-level variations of ~1 m were common throughout the Holocene, we suggest that this mode of sand apron development and carbonate production is applicable to most reef systems.
    Print ISSN: 0091-7613
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-2682
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-03-22
    Description: Kumphawapi, which is Thailand’s largest natural freshwater lake, contains a 〉10,000-year-long climatic and environmental archive. New data sets (stratigraphy, chronology, hydrogen isotopes, plant macrofossil and charcoal records) for two sedimentary sequences are here combined with earlier multi-proxy studies to provide a comprehensive reconstruction of past climatic and environmental changes for Northeast Thailand. Gradually higher moisture availability due to a strengthening of the summer monsoon led to the formation of a large shallow lake in the Kumphawapi basin between 〉10,700 and c. 7000 cal. BP. The marked increase in moisture availability and lower evaporation between c. 7000 and 6400 cal. BP favoured the growth and expansion of vegetation in and around the shallow lake. The increase in biomass led to gradual overgrowing and infilling, to an apparent lake level lowering and to the development of a wetland. Multiple hiatuses are apparent in all investigated sequences between c. 6500 and 1400 cal. BP and are explained by periodic desiccation events of the wetland and erosion due to the subsequent lake level rise. The rise in lake level, which started c. 2000 cal. BP and reached shallower parts c. 1400 cal. BP, is attributed to an increase in effective moisture availability. The timing of hydroclimatic conditions during the past 2000 years cannot be resolved because of chronological limitations.
    Print ISSN: 0959-6836
    Electronic ISSN: 1477-0911
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Sage
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