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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-06-05
    Description: The Mt. Washington Icing Sensors Project (MWISP) was an intensive multiagency field test of remote-sensing technologies and methods for in-flight icing detection. This field test was the first comprehensive examination of multiple remote-sensing technologies, and it included ground and airborne in situ measurements for comparison. The data gathered will allow the assessment of icing remote-sensing technologies leading toward the development of ground-based and airborne systems. These systems will provide flight crews with the information required for avoiding or exiting hazardous icing conditions.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: Research and Technology 1999; NASA/TM-2000-209639
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: In the winter of 1989-90, an icing research flight project was conducted to obtain swept wing ice accretion data. Utilizing the NASA Lewis Research Center's DHC-6 DeHavilland Twin Otter aircraft, research flights were made into known icing conditions in Northeastern Ohio. The icing cloud environment and aircraft flight data were measured and recorded by an onboard data acquisition system. Upon entry into the icing environment, a 24 inch span, 15 inch chord NACA 0012 airfoil was extended from the aircraft and set to the desired sweep angle. After the growth of a well defined ice shape, the airfoil was retracted into the aircraft cabin for ice shape documentation. The ice accretions were recorded by ice tracings and photographs. Ice accretions were mostly of the glaze type and exhibited scalloping. The ice was accreted at sweep angles of 0, 30, and 45 degrees. A 3-D ice accretion prediction code was used to predict ice profiles for five selected flight test runs, which include sweep angle of zero, 30, and 45 degrees. The code's roughness input parameter was adjusted for best agreement. A simple procedure was added to the code to account for 3-D ice scalloping effects. The predicted ice profiles are compared to their respective flight test counterparts. This is the first attempt to predict ice profiles on swept wings with significant scalloped ice formations.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-0043
    Format: text
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: This study was designed to find improved materials and techniques for molding and casting natural or simulated ice shapes that could replace the wax and plaster method. By utilizing modern molding and casting materials and techniques, a new methodology was developed that provides excellent reproduction, low-temperature capability, and reasonable turnaround time. The resulting casts are accurate and tough.
    Keywords: AIR TRANSPORTATION AND SAFETY
    Type: NAS 1.15:100126 , E-3673 , NASA-TM-100126
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Patterns of roughness evolution have been studied analysis of high magnification video observations of accreting ice surfaces provided by the NASA Lewis Research Center. Three distinct patterns of surface roughness generation have been identified within the parametric regions studied. They include: Rime, Multi-Zone Glaze, and Uniform Glaze. Under most icing conditions, a brief period of transient rime ice growth was observed caused by heat conduction into the body. The resulting thin rime layer explains previously observed insensitivity of some ice accretions to substrate insensitivity of some ice accretions to substrate surface chemistry and may provide justification for simplifying assumptions in ice accretion sailing and modeling effects.
    Keywords: FLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-0298
    Format: text
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A flight test was performed with the NASA Lewis Research Center's DH-6 icing research aircraft. The purpose was to employ a flight test procedure and data analysis method, to determine the accuracy with which the effects of ice on aircraft stability and control could be measured. For simplicity, flight testing was restricted to the short period longitudinal mode. Two flights were flown in a clean (baseline) configuration, and two flights were flown with simulated horizontal tail ice. Forty-five repeat doublet maneuvers were performed in each of four test configurations, at a given trim speed, to determine the ensemble variation of the estimated stability and control derivatives. Additional maneuvers were also performed in each configuration, to determine the variation in the longitudinal derivative estimates over a wide range of trim speeds. Stability and control derivatives were estimated by a Modified Stepwise Regression (MSR) technique. A measure of the confidence in the derivative estimates was obtained by comparing the standard error for the ensemble of repeat maneuvers, to the average of the estimated standard errors predicted by the MSR program. A multiplicative relationship was determined between the ensemble standard error, and the averaged program standard errors. In addition, a 95 percent confidence interval analysis was performed for the elevator effectiveness estimates, C sub m sub delta e. This analysis identified the speed range where changes in C sub m sub delta e could be attributed to icing effects. The magnitude of icing effects on the derivative estimates were strongly dependent on flight speed and aircraft wing flap configuration. With wing flaps up, the estimated derivatives were degraded most at lower speeds corresponding to that configuration. With wing flaps extended to 10 degrees, the estimated derivatives were degraded most at the higher corresponding speeds. The effects of icing on the changes in longitudinal stability and control derivat
    Keywords: AIRCRAFT STABILITY AND CONTROL
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-0754
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The NASA Lewis Research Center is presently conducting an aircraft icing research program, the major thrust of which is to advance technologies that improve our ability to model the icing phenomenon and its effect on aircraft. The approach employs three interrelated elements: analysis; wind tunnel experiments; and, considerable flight testing in natural icing clouds. This paper presents a brief overview of this program with emphasis on recent accomplishments.
    Keywords: AIR TRANSPORTATION AND SAFETY
    Type: SAE PAPER 881386
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The effects of airframe icing on the performance and stability and control of a twin-engine commuter-class aircraft were measured by the NASA Lewis Research Center. This work consisted of clear air tests with artificial ice shapes attached to the horizontal tail, and natural icing flight tests in measured icing clouds. The clear air tests employed static longitudinal flight test methods to determine degradation in stability margins for four simulated ice shapes. The natural icing flight tests employed a data acquisition system, which was provided under contract to NASA by Kohlman Systems Research Incorporated. This system used a performance modeling method and modified maximum likelihood estimation (MMLE) technique to determine aircraft performance degradation and stability and control. Flight test results with artificial ice shapes showed that longitudinal, stick-fixed, static margins are reduced on the order of 5 percent with flaps up. Natural icing tests with the KSR system corroborated these results and showed degradation in the elevator control derivatives on the order of 8 to 16 percent depending on wing flap configuration. Performance analyses showed the individual contributions of major airframe components to the overall degradation in lift and drag.
    Keywords: AIRCRAFT STABILITY AND CONTROL
    Type: AIAA PAPER 86-9758
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-06-02
    Description: The main purpose of this investigation was for NASA to help the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) gain better understanding of the events that led to the loss of Comair Flight 3272 over Monroe, Michigan, on January 9, 1997. In-flight icing was suspected as being the primary cause of this accident. Of particular interest to the Safety Board was what NASA could learn about the potential performance degradation of the wing of the Embraer EMB-120 twin-turboprop commuter aircraft with various levels of ice contamination. NASA agreed to undertake (1) ice-accretion prediction computations with NASA s LEWICE program to bound the kind of contaminations that the vehicle may have developed, (2) testing in the NASA Lewis Research Center's Icing Research Tunnel to verify and refine the ice shapes developed by LEWICE, (3) a two-dimensional Navier- Stokes analysis to determine the performance degradation that those ice shapes could have caused, and (4) an examination using three-dimensional Navier-Stokes codes to study the three-dimensional effects of ice contamination.
    Keywords: Air Transportation and Safety
    Type: Research and Technology 1998; NASA/TM-1999-208815
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Keywords: AIRCRAFT STABILITY AND CONTROL
    Type: Journal of Aircraft (ISSN 0021-8669); 28; 193-199
    Format: text
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: NASA and the National Center for Atmospheric Research have developed an icing remote sensing technology that has demonstrated skill at detecting and classifying icing hazards in a vertical column above an instrumented ground station. This technology has recently been extended to provide volumetric coverage surrounding an airport. Building on the existing vertical pointing system, the new method for providing volumetric coverage will utilize a vertical pointing cloud radar, a multifrequency microwave radiometer with azimuth and elevation pointing, and a NEXRAD radar. The new terminal area icing remote sensing system processes the data streams from these instruments to derive temperature, liquid water content, and cloud droplet size for each examined point in space. These data are then combined to ultimately provide icing hazard classification along defined approach paths into an airport.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing; Air Transportation and Safety
    Type: GRC-E-DAA-TN23292 , 2015 SAE International Conference on Icing of Aircraft, Engines, and Structures; 22-25 Jun. 2015; Prague; Czechoslovakia
    Format: application/pdf
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