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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Description: Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is present ubiquitously in marine surface waters where it is a reactive intermediate in the cycling of many trace elements. Photochemical processes are considered the dominant natural H2O2 source, yet cannot explain nanomolar H2O2 concentrations below the photic zone. Here, we determined the concentration of H2O2 in full depth profiles across three ocean basins (Mediterranean Sea, South Atlantic and South Pacific Oceans). To determine the accuracy of H2O2 measurements in the deep ocean we also re-assessed the contribution of interfering species to ‘apparent H2O2’, as analysed by the luminol based chemiluminescence technique. Within the vicinity of coastal oxygen minimum zones, accurate measurement of H2O2 was not possible due to interference from Fe(II). Offshore, in deep (〉1000 m) waters H2O2 concentrations ranged from 0.25 ± 0.27 nM (Mediterranean, Balearics-Algeria) to 2.9 ± 2.2 nM (Mediterranean, Corsica-France). Our results indicate that a dark, pelagic H2O2 production mechanism must occur throughout the deep ocean. A bacterial source of H2O2 is the most likely origin and we show that this source is likely sufficient to account for all of the observed H2O2 in the deep ocean.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Description: In certain regions of the predominantly nitrogen limited ocean, microbes can become co-limited by phosphorus. Within such regions, a proportion of the dissolved organic phosphorus pool can be accessed by microbes employing a variety of alkaline phosphatase (APase) enzymes. In contrast to the PhoA family of APases that utilize zinc as a cofactor, the recent discovery of iron as a cofactor in the more widespread PhoX and PhoD implies the potential for a biochemically dependant interplay between oceanic zinc, iron and phosphorus cycles. Here we demonstrate enhanced natural community APase activity following iron amendment within the low zinc and moderately low iron Western North Atlantic. In contrast we find no evidence for trace metal limitation of APase activity beneath the Saharan dust plume in the Eastern Atlantic. Such intermittent iron limitation of microbial phosphorus acquisition provides an additional facet in the argument for iron controlling the coupling between oceanic nitrogen and phosphorus cycles.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Description: The availability of the micronutrient iron (Fe) in surface waters determines primary production, N2 fixation, and microbial community structure in large parts of the world's ocean, and thus it plays an important role in ocean carbon and nitrogen cycles. Eastern boundary upwelling systems and the connected oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are typically associated with elevated concentrations of redox-sensitive trace metals (e.g., Fe, manganese (Mn), and cobalt (Co)), with shelf sediments typically forming a key source. Over the last 5 decades, an expansion and intensification of OMZs has been observed and this trend is likely to proceed. However, it is unclear how trace-metal (TM) distributions and transport are influenced by decreasing oxygen (O2) concentrations. Here we present dissolved (d; 〈0.2 µm) and leachable particulate (Lp; 〉0.2 µm) TM data collected at seven stations along a 50 km transect in the Mauritanian shelf region. We observed enhanced concentrations of Fe, Co, and Mn corresponding with low O2 concentrations (〈50 µmol kg−1), which were decoupled from major nutrients and nutrient-like and scavenged TMs (cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and copper (Cu)). Additionally, data from repeated station occupations indicated a direct link between dissolved and leachable particulate Fe, Co, Mn, and O2. An observed dFe (dissolved iron) decrease from 10 to 5 nmol L−1 coincided with an O2 increase from 30 to 50 µmol kg−1 and with a concomitant decrease in turbidity. The changes in Fe (Co and Mn) were likely driven by variations in their release from sediment pore water, facilitated by lower O2 concentrations and longer residence time of the water mass on the shelf. Variations in organic matter remineralization and lithogenic inputs (atmospheric deposition or sediment resuspension; assessed using Al as indicator for lithogenic inputs) only played a minor role in redox-sensitive TM variability. Vertical dFe fluxes from O2-depleted subsurface-to-surface waters (0.08–13.5 µmol m−2 d−1) driven by turbulent mixing and vertical advection were an order of magnitude larger than atmospheric deposition fluxes (0.63–1.43 µmol m−2 d−1; estimated using dAl inventories in the surface mixed layer) in the continental slope and shelf region. Benthic fluxes are therefore the dominant dFe supply to surface waters on the continental margins of the Mauritanian upwelling region. Overall, our results indicated that the projected future decrease in O2 concentrations in OMZs may result in increases in Fe, Mn, and Co concentrations.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Description: Iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), and vitamin B12 addition experiments were performed in the eastern Equatorial Pacific/Peruvian upwelling zone during the 2015 El Niño event. Near the Peruvian coastline, apparent photosystem II photochemical efficiencies (Fv/Fm) were unchanged by nutrient addition and chlorophyll‐a tripled in untreated controls over two days, indicating nutrient replete conditions. Conversely, Fe amendment further away from the coastline in the high nitrate, low Fe zone significantly increased Fv/Fm and chlorophyll‐a concentrations. Mean chlorophyll‐a was further enhanced following supply of Fe+Co and Fe+B12 relative to Fe alone, but this was not statistically significant; further offshore, reported Co depletion relative to Fe could enhance responses. The persistence of Fe limitation in this system under a developing El Niño, as previously demonstrated under non‐El Niño conditions, suggests that diminished upwelled Fe is likely an important factor driving reductions in offshore phytoplankton productivity during these events.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
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    In:  (PhD/ Doctoral thesis), Christian-Albrechts-Universität, Kiel, XIII, 195 pp
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Description: This thesis discusses sources and cycling of trace metals in tropical oxygen minimum zones. This thesis presents a new developed method for the analysis of a range of trace metals (iron, cadmium, nickel, zinc, copper, lead, cobalt and manganese) at trace levels in seawater. In the following chapters trace metal data from two distinct oxygen minimum zones are presented, one in the Eastern Tropical North Atlantic off the coast of Mauritania and one in the Eastern Tropical South Pacific off the coast of Peru. The work has a particular focus on the redox-sensitive trace metals, iron, cobalt and manganese and the influence of seawater oxygen concentrations on the sources and distribution of these trace metals. Finally differences in trace metal distributions between the two study regions are discussed.
    Type: Thesis , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Description: Nutrient limitation of oceanic primary production exerts a fundamental control on marine food webs and the flux of carbon into the deep ocean1. The extensive boundaries of the oligotrophic sub-tropical gyres collectively define the most extreme transition in ocean productivity, but little is known about nutrient limitation in these zones1, 2, 3, 4. Here we present the results of full-factorial nutrient amendment experiments conducted at the eastern boundary of the South Atlantic gyre. We find extensive regions in which the addition of nitrogen or iron individually resulted in no significant phytoplankton growth over 48 hours. However, the addition of both nitrogen and iron increased concentrations of chlorophyll a by up to approximately 40-fold, led to diatom proliferation, and reduced community diversity. Once nitrogen–iron co-limitation had been alleviated, the addition of cobalt or cobalt-containing vitamin B12 could further enhance chlorophyll a yields by up to threefold. Our results suggest that nitrogen–iron co-limitation is pervasive in the ocean, with other micronutrients also approaching co-deficiency. Such multi-nutrient limitations potentially increase phytoplankton community diversity.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 7
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    AGU (American Geophysical Union) | Wiley
    In:  (In Press / Accepted) Geophysical Research Letters .
    Publication Date: 2020-01-16
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Description: Highlights • A rapid automated analytical method for simultaneous analysis of multiple trace metals in small volumes of seawater. • Isotope dilution is utilized for concentration quantification, eliminating sensitivity to variation in recovery. • Minimal variability in automated sample loading and elution volumes allows precise quantification via standard addition for monoisotopic elements. • High accuracy was confirmed by analysis of reference seawaters SAFe S, D1 and D2. • The utilized resin (WAKO) demonstrated improved recoveries for most tested trace metals in comparison to a NOBIAS Chelate-PA1 resin. A rapid, automated, high-throughput analytical method capable of simultaneous analysis of multiple elements at trace and ultratrace levels is required to investigate the biogeochemical cycle of trace metals in the ocean. Here we present an analytical approach which uses a commercially available automated preconcentration device (SeaFAST) with accurate volume loading and in-line pH buffering of the sample prior to loading onto a chelating resin (WAKO) and subsequent simultaneous analysis of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), cobalt (Co) and manganese (Mn) by high-resolution inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS). Quantification of sample concentration was undertaken using isotope dilution for Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb, and standard addition for Co and Mn. The chelating resin is shown to have a high affinity for all analyzed elements, with recoveries between 83 and 100% for all elements, except Mn (60%) and Ni (48%), and showed higher recoveries for Ni, Cd, Pb, Co and Mn in direct comparison to an alternative resin (NOBIAS Chelate-PA1). The reduced recoveries for Ni and Mn using the WAKO resin did not affect the quantification accuracy. A relatively constant retention efficiency on the resin over a broad pH range (pH 5–8) was observed for the trace metals, except for Mn. Mn quantification using standard addition required accurate sample pH adjustment with optimal recoveries at pH 7.5 ± 0.3. UV digestion was necessary to increase recovery of Co and Cu in seawater by 15.6% and 11.4%, respectively, and achieved full break-down of spiked Co-containing vitamin B12 complexes. Low blank levels and detection limits could be achieved (e.g., 0.029 nmol L⁻¹ for Fe and 0.028 nmol L⁻¹ for Zn) with the use of high purity reagents. Precision and accuracy were assessed using SAFe S, D1, and D2 reference seawaters, and results were in good agreement with available consensus values. The presented method is ideal for high throughput simultaneous analysis of trace elements in coastal and oceanic seawaters. We present a successful application of the analytical method to samples collected in June 2014 in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Description: Nitrogen (N) is the major limiting nutrient for phytoplankton growth and productivity in large parts of the world's oceans. Differential preferences for specific N substrates may be important in controlling phytoplankton community composition. To date, there is limited information on how specific N substrates influence the composition of naturally occurring microbial communities. We investigated the effect of nitrate ( math formula), ammonium ( math formula), and urea on microbial and phytoplankton community composition (cell abundances and 16S rRNA gene profiling) and functioning (photosynthetic activity, carbon fixation rates) in the oligotrophic waters of the North Pacific Ocean. All N substrates tested significantly stimulated phytoplankton growth and productivity. Urea resulted in the greatest (〉300%) increases in chlorophyll a (〈0.06 μg L−1 and ∼0.19 μg L−1 in the control and urea addition, respectively) and productivity (〈0.4 μmol C L−1 d−1 and ∼1.4 μmol C L−1 d−1 in the control and urea addition, respectively) at two experimental stations, largely due to increased abundances of Prochlorococcus (Cyanobacteria). Two abundant clades of Prochlorococcus, High Light I and II, demonstrated similar responses to urea, suggesting this substrate is likely an important N source for natural Prochlorococcus populations. In contrast, the heterotrophic community composition changed most in response to math formula. Finally, the time and magnitude of response to N amendments varied with geographic location, likely due to differences in microbial community composition and their nutrient status. Our results provide support for the hypothesis that changes in N supply would likely favor specific populations of phytoplankton in different oceanic regions and thus, affect both biogeochemical cycles and ecological processes.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-11-16
    Description: The availability of the micronutrient iron (Fe) in surface waters determines primary production, N2 fixation and microbial community structure in large parts of the world's ocean, and thus plays an important role in ocean carbon and nitrogen cycles. Eastern boundary upwelling systems and the connected oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are typically associated with elevated concentrations of redox-sensitive trace metals (e.g. Fe, manganese (Mn) and cobalt (Co)), with shelf sediments typically forming a key source. Over the last five decades, an expansion and intensification of OMZs has been observed and this trend is likely to proceed. However, it is unclear how trace metal (TM) distributions and transport are influenced by decreasing oxygen (O2) concentrations. Here we present dissolved (d;  0.2 μm) TM data collected at 7 stations along a 50 km transect in the Mauritanian shelf region. We observed enhanced concentrations of Fe, Co and Mn corresponding with low O2 concentrations (
    Print ISSN: 1810-6277
    Electronic ISSN: 1810-6285
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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