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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0703
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Aerial application of the insecticide Nuvacron 40® (monocrotophos) had no significant effect on the cholinesterase level of plasma and erythrocytes of cattle, chicken, buffaloes, and human volunteers exposed to the spray. Contamination of canal water with the pesticide was completely eliminated within 24 hr, whereas that in the soil was reduced by 80% in 72 hr. The degradation of insecticide residue in grass was about 90% in seven days and in cotton leaves about 85% for the same period.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The elimination of (14C)-DMN after i.p. injection intoXenopus was measured, as was the metabolism in vitro of (14C)-DMN by liver fromXenopus and 9 other amphibian species. In view of its rapid elimination from the body and low rate of metabolism byXenopus liver in vitro, DMN is unlikely to be toxic or carcinogenic inXenopus.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The homogeneity of four reference materials was evaluated for Se by cyclic instrumental neutron activation analysis (CINAA). The relative standard deviation for Se measurements at ppb levels by CINAA was 〈12% for NIST Wheat Flour (SRM 1567) in 5–10 mg samples, while it was 〈11% for Chinese Hair (HH−CH-1), 〈13% for IAEA Animal Muscle (H-4) and 25% for IAEA Animal Blood (A-13) in 50 mg samples. The highest relative subsampling uncertainties were observed in the mass range of samples ≤50 mg for Chinese Hair, ≤100 mg for Wheat Flour and Animal Muscle and ≤300 mg for Animal Blood. The results of a one-way analysis of variance indicate that all reference materials above these mass ranges are adequately homogeneous with respect to Se distribution. Our data suggest that these materials, except Animal Blood, can be used as reference standards for Se in Quality assurance programs well below the sample masses re commended by the issuing agencies.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract A simple preconcentration method is described for the simultaneous coprecipitation of Cd(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Mo(VI), U(VI), V(V) and Zn(II) from surface water samples followed by quantitation using neutron activation analysis. Ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbanate (APDC), anthranilic acid and 8-hydroxyquinoline have been investigated as possible coprecipitating agents. The suitability of Bi3+, Fe3+, Ni2+ and Pb2+ ions as metal carriers has also been studied. It has been found that the above elements can be quantitatively coprecipitated with APDC in the presence of Bi3+ carrier at pH 4. The precision and accuracy of the method for all elements are found to be between ±2 and 10%. The enrichment factors are of the order of 103. The detection limits are in the ppb range varying between 0.04 ng · ml−1 for Co and V and 5 ng · ml−1 for Zn. The method has been applied to tap and well waters, and river and lake water samples collected from Halifax County, Nova Scotia.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The extraction behavior of Sm(III), Eu(III) and Dy(III) with 1-nitroso-2-naphthol (HA) and trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) from aqueous NaClO4 solutions in the pH range 4–9 at 0.1M ionic strength has been studied. The equilibrium concentrations of Sm and Dy were measured using their short-lived neutron activation products,155Sm and165mDy, respectively. In the case of Eu, the concentrations were assayed through the152,154Eu radiotracer. The distribution ratios of these elements were determined as a function of pH, 1-nitroso-2-naphthol and TOPO concentrations. The extractions of Sm, Eu and Dy were found to be quantitative with MIBK solutions in the pH range 5.9–7.5, 5.6–7.5 and 5.8–7.5, respectively. Quantitative extraction of Eu was also obtained between pH 5.8 and 8.8 with chloroform solutions. The results show that these lanthanides (Ln) are extracted as LnA3 chelates with 1-nitroso-2-naphthol alone, and in the presence of TOPO as LnA3(TOPO) and LnA3(TOPO)2 adducts. The extraction constants and the adduct formation constants of these complexes have been calculated.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The equilibrium extraction behavior of Sm(III), Eu(III) and Dy(III) from aqueous NaClO4 solutions in the pH range of 4–9 at 0.1 M ionic strength into organic solutions of 1-nitroso-2-naphthol (HA) and 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) has been studied. The equilibrium concentrations of Eu were assayed through the 344 keV photopeak of the152Eu radiotracer used. The concentrations of Sm and Dy were measured by irradiating one mL portions of the organic extract and analyzing the 104 and 108 keV photopeaks of the short-lived neutron activation products,155Sm and165mDy, respectively. Quantitative extraction of Eu with 5×10−2 M HA alone was obtained in the pH range of 6.7–7.8 with n-butanol, 7.4–8.5 with chloroform, 8.0–8.7 with ethyl acetate, 7.7–8.5 with isoamyl alcohol and 6.1–8.0 with methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). But, Eu was extracted only to a maximum of 78% and 83% in the pH range of 8.3–8.9 and 7.4–8.1 with carbon tetrachloride and xylene, respectively. The extraction of Sm and Dy were found quantitative in the pH range of 6.3–7.0 and 6.6–7.1, respectively, with 5×10−2 M HA alone in MIBK solutions. The synergistic extraction of Eu was quantitative in the pH range of 6.6–9.8 with chloroform, 7.8–8.9 with ethyl acetate, 7.7–8.5 with isoamyl alcohol and 6.0–9.6 with MIBK when 1×10−2 M each of HA and Phen were employed. Sm and Dy were quantitatively extracted into MIBK solutions containing 5×10−2 M each of HA and Phen in the pH range 6.0–7.5 and 6.1–7.5, respectively. The distribution ratios of these lanthanides (Ln) were determined as a function of pH, and HA and Phen concentrations. The analysis of the data suggests that these Ln are extracted as LnA3 chelates when HA alone is used. In the presence of HA and Phen, both LnA3(Phen) and LnA3(Phen)2 adducts are formed only in the MIBK system while LnA3(Phen) complexes are the predominant ones in all other solvent systems studied. The extraction constants and the adduct formation constants of these complexes have been calculated.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract A systematic study of separating the actinides from each other in 1 M hydrochloric acid media has been carried out using selective oxidation/reduction processes followed by coprecipitation with neodymium fluoride. We have optimized two such procedures, one with bromate and another with permanganate, for the sequential separation of Am, Pu, Np, and U isotopes. The first procedure involves oxidation of Pu, Np, and U to +6 state in 1 M HCl media at 85° C with 30% NaBrO3 and separation from trivalent Am by collecting the latter on the first NdF3 coprecipitated source. Plutonium is then reduced and converted to +4 oxidation state with 40% NaNO2 at 85°C, while Np and U are kept oxidized with additional bromate in 50–70°C hot solution, thus separating Pu by collection on a second NdF3 source. At this stage, Np present in the filtrate is reduced with hydroxylamine hydrochloride and separated from U by collecting on a third source. Subsequently, U is reduced with 30% TiCl3 and co-precipitated on a final source. The second procedure, which employs KMnO4 in 1 M HCl media at 60–85°C for oxidizing Pu, Np, and U, and separating from Am, produced MnO2 which is collected along with Am on the coprecipitated NdF3. This MnO2 is dissolved on the filter itself with 1 mL of acidified 1.5% H2O2 without any degradation of the α-spectra. After evaporating the filtrate to destroy H2O2, Pu, Np, and U are separated by following steps similar to those in the bromate procedure. The recoveries of the actinides with both procedurés are 〉99%. The decontamination factors are between 103 and 104. The precision and accuracy of measurements, as expressed by the relative standard deviation of replicate analyses, are within 5%. Absolute detection limits for a one-day count on a 600 mm2 detector at 32% counting efficiency and 450 mm2 detector at 27% counting efficiency are about 2.7×10−4 and 3.2×10−4 Bq, respectively. These procedures have been applied to the analysis of actinides in environmental samples.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract A method has been developed for the simultaneous preconcentration of Cd(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Hg(II), Mn(II), Th(IV), U(VI), V(IV) and Zn(II) from 500–1000 ml of water samples by coprecipitation using a combination of 1-(2-thiazolylazo)-2-naphthol, ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate and ammonium salt of N-nitroso-phenylhydroxylamine. The elemental contents have been measured by neutron activation analysis using different schemes of irradiation, decay and counting periods. Quantitative recoveries of all the above elements have been achieved between pH 6.0 and 7.2. For most of the elements, the enrichment factors are of the order of 104. The precision, expressed in terms of relative standard deviation, and accuracy of measurements are within ±5–10%. The detection limits are in the ppb range. The method has been applied to sea and drinking water samples and biological materials.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract A preconcentration neutron activation analysis (PNAA) method involving reversed-phase extraction chromatography on 8-hydroxyquinoline-loaded Amberlite XAD-2 resin has been developed for the simultaneous determination of selected trace elements in acid rain and natural water samples. Quantitative retention has been achieved for Co, Cu, Hg, V and Zn at pH 6.0 and for Cd at pH 7.0. Various factors that can influence the preconcentration procedure have been studied in detail. Concentrations of the elements have been determined by the direct irradiation of the resin without eluting them from the column. Both precision and accuracy of the PNAA method are very good. The detection limits vary between 0.01 and 3 ppb.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The complex formation of Eu(III) by bicarbonate/carbonate ions has been studied at 0.1 M ionic strength and 25°C using synergistic solvent extraction system of 1-nitroso-2-naphthol and 1,10-phenanthroline in chloroform. Concentrations of bicarbonate (5·10−3 to 1·10−1 M) and carbonate (5·10−4 to 1·10−2 M) ions in the aqueous phase have been varied in the pH range of 8.0 to 9.1 to simulate ground and natural water compositions. Under these conditions, the following species have been identified: Eu(HCO3)2+, Eu(HCO3)2 +, Eu(CO3)+ and Eu(CO3)2 −. Their conditional formation constants (log β) have been calculated as 4.77, 6.74, 6.92 and 10.42, respectively. These values suggest that the carbonate complexes of Eu(III) are highly stable.
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