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  • 1
    ISSN: 1433-7479
    Keywords: Key words Autonomous walking, Cognitive agents, Adaptive neural control
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract An integration of concepts from neurobiology, applied psychology, insect physiology and behaviour based robotics has led us to propose a novel generic systems architecture for the intelligent control of mobile robots and in particular, autonomous walking machines. (We define what we mean by “autonomy”.) The control architecture is hierarchical and will be described from a top-down perspective. Level one consists of interpreting a motivation and translating this into high-level commands. Once a high-level command is generated, a range of internal representations or “cognitive maps” may be employed at level two to help provide body-centred motion. At level three of the hierarchy kinematic planning is performed. The fourth level – dynamic compensation – requires feedback from the actuators and compensates for errors in the target vectors provided by the kinematic level and caused by systematic dynamic uncertainties or environmental disturbances. This is implemented using adaptive neural controllers. The interfaces will be described and results from simulation and implementation of levels 2–4 on a hexapod robot will be presented. The hierarchy employs the following soft computing techniques: evolution strategies, cognitive maps, adaptive heuristic critics, temporal difference learning and adaptive neural control using linear-equivalent neural networks.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 200 (1963), S. 744-745 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] DETAILS of the variation of seismic velocity near the boundary of the inner core have always been uncertain, and so, correspondingly, has the theoretical travel-time curve of PKP in the distance range immediately beyond 143. On the model of Jeffreys and Bullen1, a short branch extends beneath the ...
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 1986-10-01
    Description: An earthquake detection and recording system has been developed for small telemetered seismograph networks of up to 16 seismic components. It is known as the SNARE system (an acronym formed from Seismic Network Automatic Recording Equipment), and it routinely provides information on earthquakes as they occur, as well as storing data for future analysis. Although several authors have described recording systems for telemetered seismograph networks, the SNARE system has several unique features: 1. It uses a frequency domain earthquake detector 2. It uses data buffering which is independent of the controlling microprocessor memory, thus removing the restrictions imposed by the microprocessor memory size. 3. It has been designed as a direct replacement for 16 mm recorders.
    Print ISSN: 0037-1106
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-3573
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 1964-10-01
    Description: "The recent suggestion that sudden phase transitions may provide a mechanism for earthquakes is examined mathematically for the simple case of sudden change of volume. Such a transition, even for a small density change, offers a much more concentrated source of seismic energy than does sudden faulting."
    Print ISSN: 0037-1106
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-3573
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 1964-10-01
    Description: A new velocity solution for the earth's core is derived that differs from earlier models in having three discontinuous increases in velocity between the outer and inner core.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1943-3573
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 6
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    Seismological Society of America (SSA)
    Publication Date: 1973-06-01
    Description: The far-field results of Brune's spectral theory are shown to be largely independent of his source model; this implies that the theory has even greater power than it seemed, but that its success in explaining the observed spectra does not in itself justify a dislocation model. Expressions are derived for seismic energy and characteristic stress which are independent of assumptions as to source model. For several models, the characteristic stress is found to be a good approximation to the stress-drop. A theoretical relationship between earthquake magnitude ML, stress-drop, and fault size is derived. This provides a means of estimating the stress-drop for earthquakes associated with aftershock sequences, using estimates of ML and fault size, and is consistent with empirical relationships between magnitude and fault size, and between seismic energy and magnitude.
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 1976-08-01
    Description: So long as there is some finite specific fracture energy involved in earthquake rupture, the rupture velocity cannot exceed the Rayleigh-wave velocity in the direction of mode II extension, or the S-wave velocity in the direction of mode III extension. The radiation efficiency, which is the fraction of available energy that goes into seismic waves, depends upon the rupture velocity. It is zero if the crack grows quasi- statically, increases with rupture velocity, and tends to unity as the velocity approaches the limiting value appropriate to the mode of extension. A model involving a semi-infinite crack in antiplane shear (mode III) which accelerates rapidly to a velocity and runs at this velocity until it is arrested by a barrier of higher fracture energy, yields a formula for estimating the specific fracture energy. This formula provides a reasonable estimate of the specific fracture energy involved in an earthquake that is insensitive to the mode of arrest of the rupture.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1943-3573
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  • 8
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    Seismological Society of America (SSA)
    Publication Date: 1964-10-01
    Description: An earthquake may be regarded as resulting from a sudden change in the condition of elastic equilibrium in the Earth. A new form of the general solution of the elastic wave equation relates seismic radiation to displacement from equilibrium. Calculation of the radiation pattern for a proposed mechanism is thus reduced to an elastostatic problem.
    Print ISSN: 0037-1106
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  • 9
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    Seismological Society of America (SSA)
    Publication Date: 1967-12-01
    Description: Knopoff's matrix method for the solution of P-SV problems has been somewhat simplified and modified to take account of oceanic structures. Advantage has been taken of a method of separating the frequency-dependent operations from the matrix multiplications to obtain very fast computer programs for calculating Rayleigh dispersion, crustal reflection functions, and crustal transfer functions. Applications include Rayleigh dispersion inversion, QR inversion, crustal investigations using pP, crustal transfer corrections to amplitude observations, and the construction of synthetic seismograms for investigation of the source time-function.
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  • 10
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    Seismological Society of America (SSA)
    Publication Date: 1971-10-01
    Description: Relationships between dynamic and static elastic multipoles derived from a general solution of the elastic-wave equation allow the direct application of results from elastostatic theory to problems in earthquake mechanism. For any theoretical model, the impulse of wave displacement (which can easily be found from long-period seismograms) can be simply derived from the far-field static dilatation. Application to a generalized dislocation model shows that seismic moment is properly a tensor.
    Print ISSN: 0037-1106
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-3573
    Topics: Geosciences
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