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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-04-30
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 1368 data points
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  • 2
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Ramesh, Kirti; Melzner, Frank; Griffith, Andrew W; Gobler, Christopher J; Rouger, Caroline; Tasdemir, Deniz; Nehrke, Gernot (2018): In vivo characterization of bivalve larval shells: a confocal Raman microscopy study. Journal of The Royal Society Interface, 15(141), 20170723, https://doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2017.0723
    Publication Date: 2019-04-30
    Description: In vivo confocal Raman microscopy (CRM), polarized light microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to determine if a significant amount of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) exists within larval shells of Baltic mytilid mussels (Mytilus edulis-like) and whether the amount of ACC varies during larval development. No evidence for ACC was found from the onset of shell deposition at 21 h post-fertilization (hpf) until 48 hpf. Larval Mytilus shells were crystalline from 21 hpf onwards and exhibited CRM and FTIR peaks characteristic of aragonite. Prior to shell deposition at 21 hpf, no evidence for carbonates was observed through in vivo CRM. We further analysed the composition of larval shells in three other bivalve species, Mercenaria mercenaria, Crassostrea gigas and Crassostrea virginica and observed no evidence for ACC, which is in contrast to previous work on the same species. Our findings indicate that larval bivalve shells are composed of crystalline aragonite and we demonstrate that conflicting results are related to sub-optimal measurements and misinterpretation of CRM spectra. Our results demonstrate that the common perception that ACC generally occurs as a stable and abundant precursor during larval bivalve calcification needs to be critically reviewed.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 143020 data points
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-04-30
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 96 data points
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Shell growth of oysters requires calcium uptake from the environment and transport to the area of shell formation. A shell regeneration assay in combination with radiolabelled calcium was used to investigate uptake and distribution of calcium to different tissues and hemolymph fractions in Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas (Bivalvia, Ostreoida). Oysters were notched at the shell margin and subsequently sampled for hemolymph and grading of shell regeneration during a two week experimental period. Half of the oysters were additionally exposed to (45)Ca and sampled for hemolymph and tissues. Total plasma calcium concentrations increased in notched oysters compared to controls on 1, 2 and 7days after notching. A decrease in plasma calcium levels was apparent on day 4, for both total and ionic calcium. The shell regeneration assay in the notched oysters resulted in a visible deposition of CaCO3 onto the regenerate from day 7 onwards. This was coinciding with an increased uptake of total calcium on days 11 and 14 as well as free, i.e. ionic and ligand-bound calcium, on day 14. At day 1, notching also increased calcium uptake into the mantle tissues, in areas above the notch and near the hinge. During the experiment, both the total hemocyte count and the number of granulocytes increased in notched compared to control oysters. The present study suggests that induced shell damage results in a dynamic regulation of the calcium uptake from the environment and the distribution of calcium within the body, starting directly after notching. Increases in both total calcium concentrations and uptake rates coincided with the visible depositions of CaCO3 on the regenerate shell. C. gigas was found to transport calcium mainly in the ionic form in the hemolymph, with only minor parts being bound to proteins or smaller ligands. Hemolymph measurement also revealed that C. gigas is able to regulate the extracellular concentrations of calcium and potassium. The changes in plasma calcium concentrations and speciation, concomitant with increases in granulocytes indicate that multiple calcium transport processes are activated after induced shell damage.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-04-30
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 200 data points
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: In vivo confocal Raman microscopy (CRM), polarized light microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to determine if a significant amount of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) exists within larval shells of Baltic mytilid mussels (Mytilus edulis-like) and whether the amount of ACC varies during larval development. No evidence for ACC was found from the onset of shell deposition at 21 h post-fertilization (hpf) until 48 hpf. Larval Mytilus shells were crystalline from 21 hpf onwards and exhibited CRM and FTIR peaks characteristic of aragonite. Prior to shell deposition at 21 hpf, no evidence for carbonates was observed through in vivo CRM.We further analysed the composition of larval shells in three other bivalve species, Mercenaria mercenaria, Crassostrea gigas and Crassostrea virginica and observed no evidence for ACC, which is in contrast to previous work on the same species. Our findings indicate that larval bivalve shells are composed of crystalline aragonite and we demonstrate that conflicting results are related to sub-optimal measurements and misinterpretation of CRM spectra. Our results demonstrate that the common perception that ACC generally occurs as a stable and abundant precursor during larval bivalve calcification needs to be critically reviewed.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: text
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  • 7
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    Unknown
    In:  (Doctoral thesis/PhD), Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel, Kiel, Germany, n.n. pp
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: The mollusc shell is a composite biomineral consisting of calcium carbonate and an associated organic matrix. Biomineralisation in molluscs begins during early ontogenetic development, where larval calcification is characterized by rapid rates of mineral deposition. Despite these rapid rates of early calcification, no information exists on the mechanistic basis of larval shell formation. In this thesis, I use polarized light microscopy, in vivo confocal Raman microscopy as well as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to investigate the composition of the first larval shell (Prodissoconch I, PD I) in Mytilus edulis larvae
    Type: Thesis , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-04-12
    Description: Metals constitute an important group of abiotic stressors that elicit stress responses in marine algae that include the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Silver (Ag) is a highly toxic metal to organisms but despite this there are relatively few studies on how it affects marine macroalgae (seaweeds). In a landmark study published in 1977 the first information was provided on the accumulation of Ag in Fucus spp. (Phaeophyceae) from the Looe estuary, located in south-west England, an area with a long history of mining activity. In the present study, the estuary has been re-visited and the patterns of Ag accumulation in two Fucus spp. and sediment re-examined after 35 years. We conclude that Ag concentrations in sediment and macroalgae from specific sites within the catchment remain high, but more generally sediment concentrations have declined by approximately 65 % and the dissolved, bioavailable fraction by 24 % over this period. In addition, from laboratory studies we provide data on the speciation and toxic effects of Ag under different salinity regimes in the euryhaline brown seaweed, Fucus ceranoides. From these exposure experiments, it was found that with increasing Ag concentrations growth was inhibited and lipid peroxidation associated with ROS production increased. The magnitude of the toxic effects was greater at a salinity of 10 than 28 psu which reflects the greater bioavailability of the toxic species of Ag (Ag+ and AgCl0) at reduced salinities. These findings emphasise the importance of investigating the effects of metal pollution in conjunction with other, natural, environmental stressors such as salinity.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-01-06
    Description: Biomineralization processes in bivalve molluscs are still poorly understood. Here we provide an analysis of specifically expressed sequences from a mantle transcriptome of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. We then developed a novel, integrative shell injury assay to test, whether biomineralization candidate genes highly expressed in marginal and pallial mantle could be induced in central mantle tissue underlying the damaged shell areas. This experimental approach makes it possible to identify gene products that control the chemical micro-environment during calcification as well as organic matrix components. This is unlike existing methodological approaches that work retroactively to characterize calcification relevant molecules and are just able to examine organic matrix components that are present in completed shells. In our assay an orthogonal array of nine 1 mm holes was drilled into the left valve, and mussels were suspended in net cages for 20, 29 and 36 days to regenerate. Structural observations using stereo-microscopy, SEM and Raman spectroscopy revealed organic sheet synthesis (day 20) as the first step of shell-repair followed by the deposition of calcite crystals (days 20 and 29) and aragonite tablets (day 36). The regeneration period was characterized by time-dependent shifts in gene expression in left central mantle tissue underlying the injured shell, (i) increased expression of two tyrosinase isoforms (TYR3: 29-fold and TYR6: 5-fold) at day 20 with a decline thereafter, (ii) an increase in expression of a gene encoding a nacrein-like protein (max. 100-fold) on day 29. The expression of an acidic Asp-Ser-rich protein was enhanced during the entire regeneration process. This proof-of-principle study demonstrates that genes that are specifically expressed in pallial and marginal mantle tissue can be induced (4 out of 10 genes) in central mantle following experimental injury of the overlying shell. Our findings suggest that regeneration assays can be used systematically to better characterize gene products that are essential for distinct phases of the shell formation process, particularly those that are not incorporated into the organic shell matrix.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-04-13
    Description: In vivo confocal Raman microscopy (CRM), polarized light microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to determine if a significant amount of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) exists within larval shells of Baltic mytilid mussels (Mytilus edulis-like) and whether the amount of ACC varies during larval development. No evidence for ACC was found from the onset of shell deposition at 21 h post-fertilization (hpf) until 48 hpf. Larval Mytilus shells were crystalline from 21 hpf onwards and exhibited CRM and FTIR peaks characteristic of aragonite. Prior to shell deposition at 21 hpf, no evidence for carbonates was observed through in vivo CRM.We further analysed the composition of larval shells in three other bivalve species, Mercenaria mercenaria, Crassostrea gigas and Crassostrea virginica and observed no evidence for ACC, which is in contrast to previous work on the same species. Our findings indicate that larval bivalve shells are composed of crystalline aragonite and we demonstrate that conflicting results are related to sub-optimal measurements and misinterpretation of CRM spectra. Our results demonstrate that the common perception that ACC generally occurs as a stable and abundant precursor during larval bivalve calcification needs to be critically reviewed.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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