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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2017-11-20
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 1414: Acute Toxicity and Ecological Risk Assessment of Benzophenone-3 (BP-3) and Benzophenone-4 (BP-4) in Ultraviolet (UV)-Filters International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph14111414 Authors: Yang Du Wen-Qian Wang Zhou-Tao Pei Fahmi Ahmad Rou-Rou Xu Yi-Min Zhang Li-Wei Sun Ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing chemicals (UV filters) are used in personal care products for the protection of human skin and hair from damage by UV radiation. Although these substances are released into the environment in the production and consumption processes, little is known about their ecotoxicology effects. The acute toxicity and potential ecological risk of UV filters benzophenone-3 (BP-3) and benzophenone-4 (BP-4) on Chlorella vulgaris, Daphnia magna, and Brachydanio rerio were analyzed in the present study. The EC50 values (96 h) of BP-3 and BP-4 on C. vulgaris were 2.98 and 201.00 mg/L, respectively. The 48 h-LC50 of BP-3 and BP-4 on D. magna were 1.09 and 47.47 mg/L, respectively. The 96 h-LC50 of BP-3 and BP-4 on B. rerio were 3.89 and 633.00 mg/L, respectively. The toxicity of a mixture of BP-3 and BP-4 on C. vulgaris, D. magna, and B. rerio all showed antagonistic effects. The induced predicted no-effect concentrations of BP-3 and BP-4 by the assessment factor method were 1.80 × 10−3 and 0.47 mg/L, respectively, by assessment factor (AF) method, which were both lower than the concentrations detected in the environment at present, verifying that BP-3 and BP-4 remain low-risk chemicals to the aquatic ecosystem.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-09-03
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 1907: Evaluation by the Ames Assay of the Mutagenicity of UV Filters Using Benzophenone and Benzophenone-1 International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15091907 Authors: Wen-Qian Wang Hai-Xin Duan Zhou-Tao Pei Rou-Rou Xu Ze-Tian Qin Guang-Can Zhu Li-Wei Sun Ultraviolet absorbing chemicals (UV filters) are widely used in personal care products for protecting human skin and hair from damage by UV radiation. Although these substances are released into the environment during production and consumption processes, little is known about their genotoxicity effects. Our previous studies have shown that benzophenone-type UV filters exhibited acute toxicity on three species of aquatic organisms. Mutagenesis by benzophenone (BP) and benzophenone-1(BP-1) was tested in the present study by the Salmonella typhimurium/reverse mutation assay (Ames assay). All the positive reverse mutations occurred in the absence of the S9 liver extract system for both chemicals. From BP, positive mutation effects on the TA102 strain at doses of 0.05 μg/plate and 0.5 μg/plate were detected. From BP-1, positive mutation effects on the TA97 strain at doses of 0.05 μg/plate and 0.5 μg/plate, and on the TA100 strain at a dose of 0.5 μg/plate, were detected. A mixture of BP and BP-1 exhibited mutagenicity on the TA97 and TA100 strains. For the TA97 strain, the positive mutation results were detected at 10% and 50% of the mixture. For the TA100 strain, the results were detected when the mixture was at 5% and 10%. In the mixture at 5%, the concentrations of BP and BP-1 were 3.5 μg/plate and 14 μg/plate, respectively. In the 10% mixture, the doses of BP and BP-1 were 7 μg/plate and 28 μg/plate, respectively. In the 50% mixture, the doses of BP and BP-1 were 35 μg/plate and 140 μg/plate, respectively. The mixture test results suggested that there was antagonism in mutagenicity between BP and BP-1.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-09-02
    Description: Ultraviolet absorbing chemicals (UV filters) are widely used in personal care products for protecting human skin and hair from damage by UV radiation. Although these substances are released into the environment during production and consumption processes, little is known about their genotoxicity effects. Our previous studies have shown that benzophenone-type UV filters exhibited acute toxicity on three species of aquatic organisms. Mutagenesis by benzophenone (BP) and benzophenone-1(BP-1) was tested in the present study by the Salmonella typhimurium/reverse mutation assay (Ames assay). All the positive reverse mutations occurred in the absence of the S9 liver extract system for both chemicals. From BP, positive mutation effects on the TA102 strain at doses of 0.05 μg/plate and 0.5 μg/plate were detected. From BP-1, positive mutation effects on the TA97 strain at doses of 0.05 μg/plate and 0.5 μg/plate, and on the TA100 strain at a dose of 0.5 μg/plate, were detected. A mixture of BP and BP-1 exhibited mutagenicity on the TA97 and TA100 strains. For the TA97 strain, the positive mutation results were detected at 10% and 50% of the mixture. For the TA100 strain, the results were detected when the mixture was at 5% and 10%. In the mixture at 5%, the concentrations of BP and BP-1 were 3.5 μg/plate and 14 μg/plate, respectively. In the 10% mixture, the doses of BP and BP-1 were 7 μg/plate and 28 μg/plate, respectively. In the 50% mixture, the doses of BP and BP-1 were 35 μg/plate and 140 μg/plate, respectively. The mixture test results suggested that there was antagonism in mutagenicity between BP and BP-1.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-11-19
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-11-30
    Description: Analytical Chemistry DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.6b03190
    Print ISSN: 0003-2700
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-6882
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-02-09
    Description: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering DOI: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.7b01874
    Electronic ISSN: 2168-0485
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Contrary to popular belief, the brightest light or the most colourful light makes good lighting design. However, what makes a good lighting design in interior space is an impeccable composite of art and science. With the application of good lighting design, it can produce an impressive result from enhancing the aesthetic of architectural elements to conveying the right type of ambiance of the interiors. This research intends to address the crucial issues regarding the ways in which lighting designers can communicate the benefits of good lighting and to create a better awareness to users. The objectives of this paper are to outline and explore the features of good and poor lighting design in M Mall O2O based on the lighting design language and profession. The results of this research are mainly qualitative in nature, supported by the professional lighting designers on the definitions of good lighting, personal observation and visual data which were taken in George Town, Penang Is...
    Print ISSN: 1757-8981
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-899X
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-10-30
    Description: This study uses three periods of airborne laser scanning (ALS) digital elevation model (DEM) data to analyze the short-term erosional features of the Tsaoling landslide triggered by the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan. Two methods for calculating the bedrock incision rate, the equal-interval cross section selection method and the continuous swath profiles selection method, were used in the study after nearly ten years of gully incision following the earthquake-triggered dip-slope landslide. Multi-temporal gully incision rates were obtained using the continuous swath profiles selection method, which is considered a practical and convenient approach in terrain change studies. After error estimation and comparison of the multi-period ALS DEMs, the terrain change in different periods can be directly calculated, reducing time-consuming fieldwork such as installation of erosion pins and measurement of topographic cross sections on site. The gully bedrock incision rate calculated by the three periods of ALS DEMs on the surface of the Tsaoling landslide ranged from 0.23 m/year to 3.98 m/year. The local gully incision rate in the lower part of the landslide surface was found to be remarkably faster than that of the other regions, suggesting that the fast incision of the toe area possibly contributes to the occurrence of repeated landslides in the Tsaoling area.
    Electronic ISSN: 2072-4292
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-06-04
    Description: ABSTRCT Arsenic is associated with cancers of kidney and liver. Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) has been identified as a member of a novel class of molecules that suppress the metastatic spread of tumors. In order to investigate the effect of arsenic to RKIP of liver and kidney, the expression of RKIP of liver and kidney with As (III) was explored in this study. Thirty male mice were chronically fed with 42.5 ppm, 85 ppm NaAsO 2 and water for 180 days. The kidney and liver accumulation levels of As (III) in mice were determined by electro-thermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The method of RT-PCR, Western blotting analysis and immunohistochemistry were used to determine gene expression and protein expression of RKIP. The results showed that arsenic level was significantly increased in kidney and liver of As (III)-exposed mice as compared with control group. The gene expression and protein expression of RKIP was significantly decreased in kidney and liver of As (III)-exposed mice in comparison with these of control mice. These data suggested that RKIP decrease of liver and kidney with As (III) may be dangerous index in formation of cancer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2016.
    Print ISSN: 1520-4081
    Electronic ISSN: 1522-7278
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by Wiley
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-06-18
    Description: A highly ordered, mesoporous (pore size 2~50 nm) bioactive glass (MBG) structure has a greater surface area and pore volume and excellent bone-forming bioactivity compared with traditional bioactive glasses (BGs). Hence, MBGs have been used in drug delivery and bone tissue engineering. MBGs can be developed as either a dense or porous block. Compared with a block, microbeads provide greater flexibility for filling different-shaped cavities and are suitable for culturing cells in vitro. In contrast, the fibrous structure of a scaffold has been shown to increase cell attachment and differentiation due to its ability to mimic the three-dimensional structure of natural extracellular matrices. Hence, the aim of this study is to fabricate MBG microbeads with a fibrous structure. First, a sol-gel/electrospinning technique was utilized to fabricate the MBG nanofiber (MBGNF) structure. Subsequently, the MBGNF microbeads (MFBs) were produced by an electrospraying technology. The results show that the diameter of the MFBs decreases when the applied voltage increases. The drug loading and release profiles and mechanisms of the MFBs were also evaluated. MFBs had a better drug entrapment efficiency, could reduce the burst release of tetracycline, and sustain the release over 10 days. Hence, the MFBs may be suitable drug carriers. In addition, the cellular attachment of MG63 osteoblast-like cells is significantly higher for MFBs than for glass microbeads after culturing for 4 h. The nanofibrous structure of MFBs could provide an appropriate environment for cellular spreading. Therefore, MFBs have great potential for use as a bone graft material in bone tissue engineering applications.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1944
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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