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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2004-07-13
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Belshe, Robert -- Franchini, Genoveffa -- Girard, Marc P -- Gotch, Frances -- Kaleebu, Pontiano -- Marthas, Marta L -- McChesney, Michael B -- McCullough, Rose -- Mhalu, Fred -- Salmon-Ceron, Dominique -- Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre -- van Rompay, Koen -- Verrier, Bernard -- Wahren, Britta -- Weissenbacher, Mercedes -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2004 Jul 9;305(5681):177-80; author reply 177-80.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15247455" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *AIDS Vaccines/administration & dosage/immunology ; *Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic ; HIV Antibodies/immunology ; HIV Infections/*immunology/prevention & control/therapy ; HIV-1/*immunology ; Humans ; Immunity, Cellular ; Immunization Schedule ; Immunization, Secondary ; Thailand ; United States
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-04-21
    Description: Our current understanding of immunology was largely defined in laboratory mice, partly because they are inbred and genetically homogeneous, can be genetically manipulated, allow kinetic tissue analyses to be carried out from the onset of disease, and permit the use of tractable disease models. Comparably reductionist experiments are neither technically nor ethically possible in humans. However, there is growing concern that laboratory mice do not reflect relevant aspects of the human immune system, which may account for failures to translate disease treatments from bench to bedside. Laboratory mice live in abnormally hygienic specific pathogen free (SPF) barrier facilities. Here we show that standard laboratory mouse husbandry has profound effects on the immune system and that environmental changes produce mice with immune systems closer to those of adult humans. Laboratory mice--like newborn, but not adult, humans--lack effector-differentiated and mucosally distributed memory T cells. These cell populations were present in free-living barn populations of feral mice and pet store mice with diverse microbial experience, and were induced in laboratory mice after co-housing with pet store mice, suggesting that the environment is involved in the induction of these cells. Altering the living conditions of mice profoundly affected the cellular composition of the innate and adaptive immune systems, resulted in global changes in blood cell gene expression to patterns that more closely reflected the immune signatures of adult humans rather than neonates, altered resistance to infection, and influenced T-cell differentiation in response to a de novo viral infection. These data highlight the effects of environment on the basal immune state and response to infection and suggest that restoring physiological microbial exposure in laboratory mice could provide a relevant tool for modelling immunological events in free-living organisms, including humans.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4871315/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4871315/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Beura, Lalit K -- Hamilton, Sara E -- Bi, Kevin -- Schenkel, Jason M -- Odumade, Oludare A -- Casey, Kerry A -- Thompson, Emily A -- Fraser, Kathryn A -- Rosato, Pamela C -- Filali-Mouhim, Ali -- Sekaly, Rafick P -- Jenkins, Marc K -- Vezys, Vaiva -- Haining, W Nicholas -- Jameson, Stephen C -- Masopust, David -- 1R01AI111671/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI075168/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI084913/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI111671/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI116678/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01AI075168/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01AI084913/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01AI116678/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 28;532(7600):512-6. doi: 10.1038/nature17655. Epub 2016 Apr 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Immunology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55414, USA. ; Center for Immunology, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55414, USA. ; Department of Pediatric Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, and Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27096360" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Animal Husbandry/*methods ; Animals ; Animals, Laboratory/*immunology ; Animals, Wild/*immunology ; Cell Differentiation ; *Environment ; Environmental Exposure ; Female ; Humans ; Immune System/*immunology ; Immunity/*immunology ; Immunity, Innate/immunology ; Immunologic Memory ; Infant, Newborn ; Male ; Mice ; *Models, Animal ; Phenotype ; Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms ; T-Lymphocytes/cytology/immunology ; Virus Diseases/immunology/virology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 1989-08-18
    Description: CD4 is a cell surface glycoprotein that is thought to interact with nonpolymorphic determinants of class II major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules. CD4 is also the receptor for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), binding with high affinity to the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, gp120. Homolog-scanning mutagenesis was used to identify CD4 regions that are important in class II MHC binding and to determine whether the gp120 and class II MHC binding sites of CD4 are related. Class II MHC binding was abolished by mutations in each of the first three immunoglobulin-like domains of CD4. The gp120 binding could be abolished without affecting class II MHC binding and vice versa, although at least one mutation examined reduced both functions significantly. These findings indicate that, while there may be overlap between the gp120 and class II MHC binding sites of CD4, these sites are distinct and can be separated. Thus it should be possible to design CD4 analogs that can block HIV infectivity but intrinsically lack the ability to affect the normal immune response by binding to class II MHC molecules.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lamarre, D -- Ashkenazi, A -- Fleury, S -- Smith, D H -- Sekaly, R P -- Capon, D J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1989 Aug 18;245(4919):743-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratoire d'Immunologie, Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal, Quebec, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2549633" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Antigens, Surface ; Binding Sites ; DNA, Recombinant ; HIV/*metabolism ; HIV Envelope Protein gp120 ; HLA-DP Antigens/immunology ; Histocompatibility Antigens Class II/*immunology ; Humans ; Hybridomas ; Mice ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutation ; Receptors, HIV ; Receptors, Virus/genetics/immunology/*metabolism ; Retroviridae Proteins/immunology/*metabolism ; Rosette Formation ; Structure-Activity Relationship ; T-Lymphocytes/immunology/metabolism ; Transfection
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 1994-12-16
    Description: Superantigens bind to major histocompatibility complex class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells and stimulate T cells. Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (SEB) and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) bind to the same region of human lymphocyte antigen (HLA)-DR1 but do not compete with each other, which indicates that they bind to different subsets of DR1 molecules. Here, a mutation in the peptide-binding groove disrupted the SEB and TSST-1 binding sites, which suggests that peptides can influence the interaction with bacterial toxins. In support of this, the expression of the DR1 molecule in various cell types differentially affected the binding of these toxins.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Thibodeau, J -- Cloutier, I -- Lavoie, P M -- Labrecque, N -- Mourad, W -- Jardetzky, T -- Sekaly, R P -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1994 Dec 16;266(5192):1874-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratoire d'Immunologie, Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal, Quebec, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7997881" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antigen Presentation ; *Bacterial Toxins ; Binding Sites ; Binding, Competitive ; Cell Line ; Enterotoxins/chemistry/*metabolism ; HLA-DR1 Antigen/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; HeLa Cells ; Humans ; Hybridomas ; Mice ; Mutation ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; *Staphylococcus aureus ; Superantigens/chemistry/*metabolism ; T-Lymphocytes/*immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 1994-07-08
    Description: A switch from a T helper 1 (TH1) cytokine phenotype to a TH2 phenotype has been proposed as a critical element in the progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. Here, constitutive cytokine expression was analyzed in unfractionated and sorted cell populations isolated from peripheral blood and lymph nodes of HIV-infected individuals at different stages of disease. Expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-4 was barely detectable (or undetectable) regardless of the stage of disease. CD8+ cells expressed large amounts of interferon gamma and IL-10, and the levels of these cytokines remained stably high throughout the course of infection. Furthermore, similar patterns of cytokine expression were observed after stimulation in vitro of purified CD4+ T cell populations obtained from HIV-infected individuals at different stages of disease. These results indicate that a switch from the TH1 to the TH2 cytokine phenotype does not occur during the progression of HIV disease.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Graziosi, C -- Pantaleo, G -- Gantt, K R -- Fortin, J P -- Demarest, J F -- Cohen, O J -- Sekaly, R P -- Fauci, A S -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1994 Jul 8;265(5169):248-52.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8023143" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Antigens, CD8/analysis ; Apoptosis ; Cell Separation ; Cross-Sectional Studies ; HIV Infections/*immunology ; Humans ; Interferon-gamma/*biosynthesis ; Interleukin-10/biosynthesis ; Interleukin-2/biosynthesis ; Interleukin-4/biosynthesis ; Interleukins/*biosynthesis ; Longitudinal Studies ; Lymph Nodes/immunology ; Lymphocyte Activation ; Phenotype ; T-Lymphocyte Subsets/cytology/*immunology ; T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/*immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Key words. Apoptosis; glucocorticoids; Nur77; SAPK; ceramide; Fas; substrates.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Apoptosis is responsible for the removal of potentially autoreactive or useless T cells during thymic selection and activated T cells in the periphery. Specific families of receptors, kinases, transcription factors, and cysteine proteases, termed caspases, are involved in the apoptotic cascade leading to proteolysis of specific substrates and to morphological changes associated with programmed cell death. Although common members of the apoptotic cascade are shared between different cell types, it appears that cell-specific factors can influence the response to a given apoptotic stimuli. Characterization and understanding of the basic mechanisms involved in the different pathways protecting or leading to cell death may provide novel ways to control inappropriate apoptosis involved in several diseases.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-04-06
    Description: CD8 T cells play a key role in mediating protective immunity against selected pathogens after vaccination. Understanding the mechanism of this protection is dependent upon definition of the heterogeneity and complexity of cellular immune responses generated by different vaccines. Here, we identify previously unrecognized subsets of CD8 T cells based upon analysis of gene-expression patterns within single cells and show that they are differentially induced by different vaccines. Three prime-boost vector combinations encoding HIV Env stimulated antigen-specific CD8 T-cell populations of similar magnitude, phenotype, and functionality. Remarkably, however, analysis of single-cell gene-expression profiles enabled discrimination of a majority of central memory (CM) and effector memory (EM) CD8 T cells elicited by the three vaccines. Subsets of T cells could be defined based on their expression of Eomes, Cxcr3, and Ccr7, or Klrk1, Klrg1, and Ccr5 in CM and EM cells, respectively. Of CM cells elicited by DNA prime-recombinant adenoviral (rAd) boost vectors, 67% were Eomes− Ccr7+ Cxcr3−, in contrast to only 7% and 2% stimulated by rAd5-rAd5 or rAd-LCMV, respectively. Of EM cells elicited by DNA-rAd, 74% were Klrk1− Klrg1−Ccr5− compared with only 26% and 20% for rAd5-rAd5 or rAd5-LCMV. Definition by single-cell gene profiling of specific CM and EM CD8 T-cell subsets that are differentially induced by different gene-based vaccines will facilitate the design and evaluation of vaccines, as well as enable our understanding of mechanisms of protective immunity.
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-09-02
    Description: HIV-1–specific broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) can protect rhesus monkeys against simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenge. However, the site of antibody interception of virus and the mechanism of antibody-mediated protection remain unclear. We administered a fully protective dose of the bNAb PGT121 to rhesus monkeys and challenged them intravaginally with SHIV-SF162P3. In PGT121-treated animals, we detected low levels of viral RNA and viral DNA in distal tissues for seven days following challenge. Viral RNA–positive tissues showed transcriptomic changes indicative of innate immune activation, and cells from these tissues initiated infection after adoptive transfer into naïve hosts. These data demonstrate that bNAb-mediated protection against a mucosal virus challenge can involve clearance of infectious virus in distal tissues.
    Keywords: Immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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