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  • 1
    Publication Date: 1978-03-31
    Description: Mouse spinal neurons grown in tissue culture were used to study the electrophysiological pharmacology of the opiate peptide leucine-enkephalin. Enkephalin depressed glutamate-evoked responses in a noncompetitive manner independent of any other effects on membrane properties. The results demonstrate a neuromodulatory action of opiate peptide functionally distinct from the conventional neurotransmitter class of operation.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Barker, J L -- Neale, J H -- Smith, T G Jr -- Macdonald, R L -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1978 Mar 31;199(4336):1451-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/204016" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cells, Cultured ; Endorphins/*pharmacology ; Enkephalins/antagonists & inhibitors/*pharmacology ; Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists ; Glutamates/*pharmacology ; Iontophoresis ; Naloxone/pharmacology ; Neurons/*drug effects ; Spinal Cord ; Synapses/*drug effects ; Synaptic Transmission/*drug effects
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 1987-01-16
    Description: Second messenger systems may modulate neuronal activity through protein phosphorylation. However, interactions between two major second messenger pathways, the cyclic AMP and phosphatidylinositol systems, are not well understood. The effects of activators of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C on resting membrane properties, action potentials, and currents recorded from mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons and cerebral hemisphere neurons grown in primary dissociated cell culture were investigated. Neither forskolin (FOR) nor phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) altered resting membrane properties but both increased the duration of calcium-dependent action potentials in both central and peripheral neurons. By means of the single-electrode voltage clamp technique, FOR and PDBu were shown to decrease the same voltage-dependent potassium conductance. This suggests that two independent second messenger systems may affect the same potassium conductance.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Grega, D S -- Werz, M A -- Macdonald, R L -- NS 07231/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS 19613/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS 19692/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1987 Jan 16;235(4786):345-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2432663" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Action Potentials/*drug effects ; Animals ; Brain/cytology ; Calcium/physiology ; Cells, Cultured ; Colforsin/*pharmacology ; Electric Conductivity ; Ganglia, Spinal/cytology ; Ion Channels/physiology ; Membrane Potentials ; Mice ; Neurons/drug effects/*physiology ; Phorbol Esters/*pharmacology ; Potassium/*physiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-10-12
    Description: Author(s): R. L. Macdonald, A. Munafò, C. O. Johnston, and M. Panesi Vehicles descending onto a planet’s atmosphere create shocks and radiative heat transfer. A theoretical study on the behavior of the excited electronic states of CO molecules sheds light on the determination of the radiative heat loads generated while attempting to land on Mars. [Phys. Rev. Fluids 1, 043401] Published Mon Aug 01, 2016
    Keywords: Compressible, reacting, and non-equilibrium flows
    Electronic ISSN: 2469-990X
    Topics: Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 1978-05-19
    Description: Barbiturate anesthetics, but not anticonvulsants, abolish the spontaneous activity of cultured spinal cord neurons; directly increase membrane conductance, an effect which is suppressed by the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) antagonists picrotoxin and penicillin; and are more potent than anticonvulsants in augmenting GABA and depressing glutamate responses. Barbiturate anticonvulsants abolish picrotoxin-induced convulsive activity. These results indicate qualitative and quantitative differences between anesthetic and anticonvulsant barbiturates, which may explain their different clinical effects.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Macdonald, R L -- Barker, J L -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1978 May 19;200(4343):775-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/205953" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Action Potentials/drug effects ; Cells, Cultured ; Electric Conductivity ; Glutamates/pharmacology ; Membrane Potentials/drug effects ; Neurons/*drug effects ; Pentobarbital/*pharmacology ; Phenobarbital/*pharmacology ; Picrotoxin/pharmacology ; Receptors, Neurotransmitter/drug effects ; gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/pharmacology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 1978-03-31
    Description: The opiate etorphine depresses monosynaptic excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSP's) elicited in spinal cord cells by activation of dorsal root ganglion cells in murine neuronal cell culture. The depression is reversed by naloxone. Statistical analysis of the synaptic responses reveals that the opiate reduces EPSP quantal content at this synapse without altering quantal size. Therefore, the opiate action is presynaptic and affects transmitter release rather than postsynaptic responsiveness.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Macdonald, R L -- Nelson, P G -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1978 Mar 31;199(4336):1449-51.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/204015" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cells, Cultured ; Depression, Chemical ; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug ; Etorphine/*pharmacology ; Ganglia, Spinal/*drug effects ; Membrane Potentials/drug effects ; Morphinans/*pharmacology ; Naloxone/pharmacology ; Nerve Endings/drug effects ; Spinal Cord/drug effects ; Synapses/drug effects ; Synaptic Transmission/*drug effects
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Weed research 34 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3180
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The dose-response, foliar uptake, translocation and metabolism of the methylheptyl ester (MHE) of fluroxypyr were examined in lambs-quarters (Chenopodium album L.), wild buckwheat (Polygonum convolvulus L.), Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense L. Scop.) and field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.). Under controlled environment growth room conditions, E50 values, determined from shoot dry weights of the susceptible species, wild buckwheat (16 g ha−1) and field bindweed (40 g ha−1), were markedly different than those of the tolerant species, lambsquarters (331 g ha−1) and Canada thistle (〈inlineGraphic alt="geqslant R: gt-or-equal, slanted" extraInfo="nonStandardEntity" href="urn:x-wiley:00431737:WRE333:ges" location="ges.gif"/〉800 g ha−1). Regardless of species, more than 80% of applied [14C]fluroxypyr-MHE was absorbed by foliar surfaces 120 h after treatment. Translocation of radioactivity out of the treated leaves of susceptible species was significantly greater than that of tolerant species. For example, 120 h after treatment with [14C]-fluroxypyr-MHE, the proportion of applied radioactivity translocated in tolerant Canada thistle and lambsquarters was 15 and 10%, respectively, whereas in susceptible wild buckwheat and field bindweed it was 41 and 40% of applied radioactivity, respectively. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of plant extracts indicated four distinct chroma-tographic peaks common to all four species. More fluroxypyr was recovered in the susceptible species (70%) than in the tolerant species (30%), 120 h after application. Selectivity differences between the tolerant and susceptible species may be the result of enhanced metabolic transformation of the herbicide to more polar, non-phytotoxic compounds with limited mobility within the tolerant species. Les bases de la sélectivité du fluroxypyr La courbe dose effet, la pénétration foliaire, la migration et le métabolisme de Tester méthyle-heptyle (MHE) du fluroxypyr ont étéétudiés chez le chénopode blanc (Chenopodium album L.), la renouée faux-liseron (Polygonum con-vulvulus L.), le chardon des champs (Cirsium arvense L. Scop.) et le liseron des champs (Convolvulus arvensis L.). En conditions de crois-sance contrôlées, les valeurs ED50, déterminées à partir du poids de matière sèche des parties aériennes étaient nettement différentes chez les plantes sensibles et chez les plantes résistan-tes:renouée faux-liseron, 16 g ha−1; liseron des champs, 40 g ha−1; chénopode blanc, 331 g ha−1; chardon des champs, 〈inlineGraphic alt="geqslant R: gt-or-equal, slanted" extraInfo="nonStandardEntity" href="urn:x-wiley:00431737:WRE333:ges" location="ges.gif"/〉800 g ha−1. Quelle que soit 1'espèce, plus de 80% du [14C]fluroxypyr-MHE pénétrait dans les feuilles en 120 h. La migration de la radioactivité hors des feuilles traitérs était significativement plus importante chez les plantes sensibles que chez les plantes tolérantes. Par exemple, 120 h après le traite-ment avec du [14C]fluroxypyr-MHE, la proportion de radioactivité appliquée qui avait migré dans le chardon des champs et le chénopode, tolérants, était respectivement 15 et 10%, alors que chez la renouée faux-liseron et le liseron des champs, sensibles, elle était respectivement 41 et 40%. Des analyses par HPLC des extraits de plantes montraient quatre pics chro-matographiques distincts dans chacune des quatre espèces. Davantage de fluroxypyr était retrouvé 120 h après 1'application chez les plantes sensibles que chez les plantes résistantes (70% contre 30%). Les différences de sensibilité entre espèces pourraient être dues chez les plantes tolérantes à un métabolisme plus important de l'herbicide en composés plus polaires, non phytotoxiques et peu mobiles. Grundlagen für die selektive Wirkung von Fluroxypyr Die Dosis/Wirkungs-Beziehung, Blattaufnahme, Translokation und Metabolismus des Methylheptyl-Esters (MHE) von Fluroxypyr wurden bei Weißem Gänsefuß (Chenopodium album L.), Gemeinem Windenknöterich (Polygonum convolvulus L.), Acker-Kratzdistel (Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.) und Gemeiner Ackerwinde (Convolvulus arvensis L.) untersucht. Unter den kontrollierten Umweltbedingungen eines Phytotrons wurden anhand des Trockengewichts die ED50-Werte bestimmt, die bei den empfindlichen Arten Polygonum convolvulus mit 16 g ha−1 und Convolvulus arvensis mit 40 g ha−1 sich deutlich von denen der toleranten Arten Chenopodium album mit 331 g ha−1 und Cirsium arvense mit 〈inlineGraphic alt="geqslant R: gt-or-equal, slanted" extraInfo="nonStandardEntity" href="urn:x-wiley:00431737:WRE333:ges" location="ges.gif"/〉800 g ha−1 unterschieden. Unabhängig von der Art waren mehr als 80 % der Aufwandmenge von [14C]-Fluroxypyr-MHE durch die Blattoberflächen 120 h nach der Behandlung aufgenommen. Die Translokation der Radioaktivität aus den behandelten Blättern war bei den empfindlichen Arten signifikant größer als bei den toleranten. Z. B. waren 120 h nach der Behandlung bei den toleranten Arten Cirsium arvense und Chenopodium album 15 bzw. 10 % der Radioaktivität transloziert, während es bei den empfindlichen Arten Polygonum convolvulus und Convolvulus arvensis 41 bzw. 40 % waren. Bei allen 4 Arten ergab eine HPLC-Untersuchung der Pflanzenextrakte 4 distinkte Peaks. Bei den empfindlichen Arten wurde 120 h nach der Anwendung mit 70 % mehr Fluroxypyr wiedergefunden als bei den toleranten (30 %). Die Selektivitätsunterschiede zwischen den toleranten und empfindlichen Arten könnten auf einen beschleunigten Metabolismus des Herbizids zu stärker polaren, nichphytotoxischen Stoffen mit eingeschränkter Mobilität bei den toleranten Arten zurückgeführt werden.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0360-6376
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The first confirmed synthesis of methylene malonamide (MeMal) is reported. This monomer was prepared by the thermal elimination or fluoride-ion-initiated elimination of trimethylsilyl chloride from α-chloro-α(trimethylsilyl-2-methyl) malonamide. Spectral data for the monomer are given. MeMal has been shown to be unstable in a variety of protic organic solvents, including water and alcohols, thus giving the appropriate (α-methyl) substituted malonamides. MeMal is stable in most aprotic solvents.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Neuroscience 17 (1994), S. 569-602 
    ISSN: 0147-006X
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Pharmacology 35 (1995), S. 463-482 
    ISSN: 0362-1642
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The stable operation of a mode-locked dye laser synchronously pumped by the second harmonic of an Nd:YAG laser produced in an Nd codoped germanosilicate optical fiber is reported. The optical fiber preparation technique, which results in a second harmonic conversion efficiency of 2 percent, is described. This optical fiber SHG conversion efficiency is the highest reported to date using a continuous-wave mode-locked laser.
    Keywords: LASERS AND MASERS
    Type: Electronics Letters (ISSN 0013-5194); 27; 1264
    Format: text
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