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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: Pearl millet is a non-model grain and fodder crop adapted to extremely hot and dry environments globally. In India, a great deal of public and private sectors’ investment has focused on developing pearl millet single cross hybrids based on the cytoplasmic-genetic male sterility (CMS) system, while in Africa most pearl millet production relies on open pollinated varieties. Pearl millet lines were phenotyped for both the inbred parents and hybrids stage. Many breeding efforts focus on phenotypic selection of inbred parents to generate improved parental lines and hybrids. This study evaluated two genotyping techniques and four genomic selection schemes in pearl millet. Despite the fact that 6 x more sequencing data were generated per sample for RAD-seq than for tGBS, tGBS yielded more than 2 x as many informative SNPs (defined as those having MAF 〉 0.05) than RAD-seq. A genomic prediction scheme utilizing only data from hybrids generated prediction accuracies (median) ranging from 0.73-0.74 (1000-grain weight), 0.87-0.89 (days to flowering time), 0.48-0.51 (grain yield) and 0.72-0.73 (plant height). For traits with little to no heterosis, hybrid only and hybrid/inbred prediction schemes performed almost equivalently. For traits with significant mid-parent heterosis, the direct inclusion of phenotypic data from inbred lines significantly ( P 〈 0.05) reduced prediction accuracy when all lines were analyzed together. However, when inbreds and hybrid trait values were both scored relative to the mean trait values for the respective populations, the inclusion of inbred phenotypic datasets moderately improved genomic predictions of the hybrid genomic estimated breeding values. Here we show that modern approaches to genotyping by sequencing can enable genomic selection in pearl millet. While historical pearl millet breeding records include a wealth of phenotypic data from inbred lines, we demonstrate that the naive incorporation of this data into a hybrid breeding program can reduce prediction accuracy, while controlling for the effects of heterosis per se allowed inbred genotype and trait data to improve the accuracy of genomic estimated breeding values for pearl millet hybrids.
    Electronic ISSN: 2160-1836
    Topics: Biology
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2005-07-16
    Description: Gross inequities in disease burden between developed and developing countries are now the subject of intense global attention. Public and private donors have marshaled resources and created organizational structures to accelerate the development of new health products and to procure and distribute drugs and vaccines for the poor. Despite these encouraging efforts directed primarily from and funded by industrialized countries, sufficiency and sustainability remain enormous challenges because of the sheer magnitude of the problem. Here we highlight a complementary and increasingly important means to improve health equity: the growing ability of some developing countries to undertake health innovation.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Morel, Carlos M -- Acharya, Tara -- Broun, Denis -- Dangi, Ajit -- Elias, Christopher -- Ganguly, N K -- Gardner, Charles A -- Gupta, R K -- Haycock, Jane -- Heher, Anthony D -- Hotez, Peter J -- Kettler, Hannah E -- Keusch, Gerald T -- Krattiger, Anatole F -- Kreutz, Fernando T -- Lall, Sanjaya -- Lee, Keun -- Mahoney, Richard -- Martinez-Palomo, Adolfo -- Mashelkar, R A -- Matlin, Stephen A -- Mzimba, Mandi -- Oehler, Joachim -- Ridley, Robert G -- Senanayake, Pramilla -- Singer, Peter -- Yun, Mikyung -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2005 Jul 15;309(5733):401-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Technological Development in Health, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ), Avenida Brasil 4365, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21040-900, Brazil. morel@fiocruz.br〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16020723" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Biomedical Research/economics ; Biotechnology ; *Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration ; Developed Countries ; *Developing Countries ; *Diffusion of Innovation ; Drug Industry ; Health Policy ; Humans ; International Cooperation ; Patents as Topic ; Private Sector ; Public Sector ; Publishing ; Technology Transfer
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-09-21
    Description: The surface roughness is an important parameter that affects the mechanical properties of machined parts. In present work empirical relationship between the surface roughness and machining conditions during the end milling of Al/Al 2 O 3 /Gr metal matrix composites using response surface methodology based on face centered design. The effect of machining conditions on surface roughness is also investigated. The feed, cutting speed and % wt Al 2 O 3 /Gr seems to have significant effect on the surface roughness
    Print ISSN: 1757-8981
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-899X
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-10-25
    Description: An investigation of Lie point symmetries for systems of time fractional partial differential equations including Ito system, coupled Burgers equations, coupled Korteweg de Vries equations, Hirota-Satsuma coupled KdV equations, and coupled nonlinear Hirota equations has been done. Using the obtained symmetries, each one of the systems is reduced to the nonlinear system of fractional ordinary differential equations involving Erdélyi-Kober fractional differential operator depending on a parameter α .
    Print ISSN: 0022-2488
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7658
    Topics: Mathematics , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2010-03-05
    Description: The worldwide epidemic of obesity has increased the urgency to develop a deeper understanding of physiological systems related to energy balance and energy storage, including the mechanisms controlling the development of fat cells (adipocytes). The differentiation of committed preadipocytes to adipocytes is controlled by PPARgamma and several other transcription factors, but the molecular basis for preadipocyte determination is not understood. Using a new method for the quantitative analysis of transcriptional components, we identified the zinc-finger protein Zfp423 as a factor enriched in preadipose versus non-preadipose fibroblasts. Ectopic expression of Zfp423 in non-adipogenic NIH 3T3 fibroblasts robustly activates expression of Pparg in undifferentiated cells and permits cells to undergo adipocyte differentiation under permissive conditions. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated reduction of Zfp423 expression in 3T3-L1 cells blunts preadipocyte Pparg expression and diminishes the ability of these cells to differentiate. Furthermore, both brown and white adipocyte differentiation is markedly impaired in Zfp423-deficient mouse embryos. Zfp423 regulates Pparg expression, in part, through amplification of the BMP signalling pathway, an effect dependent on the SMAD-binding capacity of Zfp423. This study identifies Zfp423 as a transcriptional regulator of preadipocyte determination.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2845731/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2845731/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gupta, Rana K -- Arany, Zoltan -- Seale, Patrick -- Mepani, Rina J -- Ye, Li -- Conroe, Heather M -- Roby, Yang A -- Kulaga, Heather -- Reed, Randall R -- Spiegelman, Bruce M -- DK081605/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK31405/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- F32 DK079507/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- F32 DK079507-01/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- F32 DK079507-02/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- K08 HL79172-01/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- K99 DK081605/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK040561/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK040561-14/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DC008295/DC/NIDCD NIH HHS/ -- R01 DC008295-04/DC/NIDCD NIH HHS/ -- R01DC008295/DC/NIDCD NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2010 Mar 25;464(7288):619-23. doi: 10.1038/nature08816. Epub 2010 Mar 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cancer Biology and Division of Metabolism and Chronic Disease, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20200519" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adipose Tissue/*cytology ; Animals ; *Cell Differentiation ; DNA-Binding Proteins/*metabolism ; Female ; *Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Knockout ; NIH 3T3 Cells ; PPAR gamma/metabolism ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Smad Proteins/metabolism ; Transcription Factors/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2012-05-02
    Description: Cell migration plays a major role in many fundamental biological processes, such as morphogenesis, tumor metastasis, and wound healing. As they anchor and pull on their surroundings, adhering cells actively probe the stiffness of their environment. Current understanding is that traction forces exerted by cells arise mainly at mechanotransduction sites, called focal adhesions, whose size seems to be correlated to the force exerted by cells on their underlying substrate, at least during their initial stages. In fact, our data show by direct measurements that the buildup of traction forces is faster for larger substrate stiffness, and that the stress measured at adhesion sites depends on substrate rigidity. Our results, backed by a phenomenological model based on active gel theory, suggest that rigidity-sensing is mediated by a large-scale mechanism originating in the cytoskeleton instead of a local one. We show that large-scale mechanosensing leads to an adaptative response of cell migration to stiffness gradients. In response to a step boundary in rigidity, we observe not only that cells migrate preferentially toward stiffer substrates, but also that this response is optimal in a narrow range of rigidities. Taken together, these findings lead to unique insights into the regulation of cell response to external mechanical cues and provide evidence for a cytoskeleton-based rigidity-sensing mechanism.
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-10-25
    Description: Improvement of ductility at room temperature has been a major concern on processing and application of Ti aluminides over the years. Modifications in alloy chemistry of binary alloy (Ti48 Al) and processing conditions were suggested through experimental studies with limited success. Using the reported data, the present paper aims to optimize the experimental conditions through computational modeling using artificial neural network (ANN). Ductility database were prepared, and three parameters, namely, alloy type, grain size, and heat treatment cycle were selected for modeling. Additionally, ductility data were generated from the literature for training and validation of models on the basis of linearity and considering the primary effect of these three parameters. Model was trained and tested for three different datasets drawn from the generated data. Possibility of improving ductility by more than 5% is observed for multicomponent alloy with grain size of 10–50 μm following a multistep heat treatment cycle.
    Print ISSN: 1687-5966
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-5974
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Published by Hindawi
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-01-18
    Description: Langmuir DOI: 10.1021/la503514p
    Print ISSN: 0743-7463
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-5827
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-01-22
    Description: Improvement of ductility at room temperature has been a major concern on processing and application of Ti aluminides over the years. Modifications in alloy chemistry of binary alloy (Ti48 Al) and processing conditions were suggested through experimental studies with limited success. Using the reported data, the present paper aims to optimize the experimental conditions through computational modeling using artificial neural network (ANN). Ductility database were prepared, and three parameters, namely, alloy type, grain size, and heat treatment cycle were selected for modeling. Additionally, ductility data were generated from the literature for training and validation of models on the basis of linearity and considering the primary effect of these three parameters. Model was trained and tested for three different datasets drawn from the generated data. Possibility of improving ductility by more than 5% is observed for multicomponent alloy with grain size of 10–50 μm following a multistep heat treatment cycle.
    Print ISSN: 1687-5966
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-5974
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Published by Hindawi
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2012-03-20
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Springer Nature
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