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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-05-01
    Description: The basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) domain is an essential highly conserved DNA-binding domain found in many transcription factors in all eukaryotic organisms. The bHLH domain has been well studied in the Animal and Plant Kingdoms but has yet to be characterized within Fungi. Herein, we obtained and evaluated the phylogenetic relationship of 490 fungal-specific bHLH containing proteins from 55 whole genome projects composed of 49 Ascomycota and 6 Basidiomycota organisms. We identified 12 major groupings within Fungi (F1–F12); identifying conserved motifs and functions specific to each group. Several classification models were built to distinguish the 12 groups and elucidate the most discerning sites in the domain. Performance testing on these models, for correct group classification, resulted in a maximum sensitivity and specificity of 98.5% and 99.8%, respectively. We identified 12 highly discerning sites and incorporated those into a set of rules (simplified model) to classify sequences into the correct group. Conservation of amino acid sites and phylogenetic analyses established that like plant bHLH proteins, fungal bHLH–containing proteins are most closely related to animal Group B. The models used in these analyses were incorporated into a software package, the source code for which is available at www.fungalgenomics.ncsu.edu .
    Print ISSN: 0737-4038
    Electronic ISSN: 1537-1719
    Topics: Biology
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Water, air & soil pollution 11 (1979), S. 71-75 
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Muscular tissue specimens of adult grouse, quail and woodcock from the rural counties of upper East Tennessee have been analyzed by gas chromatography for the organochlorine pesticides lindane, heptachlor, endrin, aldrin, dieldrin, DDT (total) and methoxychlor. Procedures for the analyses are described. The pesticidal levels in the muscle of all gamebirds exceeded the acceptable levels shown in governmental sources and professional journals. The observed concentrations constitute a serious threat to the wildlife of the region and permit accumulation and magnification even in man, who eats gamebirds as a part of his diet.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Heavy metal residues (i.e., As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, and Zn) were determined in striated muscle of 268 fish specimens harvested during a 5-yr period (1980–1984) from several aquatic systems in east Tennessee (U.S.A.). Elevated concentrations of Hg, Mn, and Cd were found in the muscle of fish from several of the aquatic systems studied; concentrations of Hg exceeded the U.S. Food and Drug Administration action level of 1.0 ppm for food intended for human consumption. In general, the concentrations of the other metals in fish muscle were low. Moreover, muscle metal content did not vary among the three fish groups (i.e., game fish, catfish, and rough fish) investigated at any one of the nine sampling stations established. The results of this study are in agreement with the 1978–1979 pilot survey of Young and Blevins (1981) conducted at the same sampling stations. It appears that, in this region of Tennessee, heavy metal contamination of fish tissues has neither improved nor deteriorated during the last 5 yr.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of regulatory economics 16 (1999), S. 297-306 
    ISSN: 1573-0468
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Abstract Strategic positioning and potential cost savings are popular explanations for growing consolidation in the wireless telephone industry. This research estimates economies of scale for a large panel of GTE Wireless cellular market areas. Contrary to previous findings, our results indicate scale economies exist throughout the system and provide a rationale for the industry trend of consolidation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1572-9540
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Our search for the Mössbauer Effect in109Ag using the self-absorption method is summarized. Measurements have been made using two different109Cd-doped single-crystal silver samples. In our method the silver Kα and Kδ x rays, as well as, the 88-keV γ rays are considered. The results are analyzed using the ratio of the number of x-ray to γ-ray counts. A positive effect is observed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1572-9540
    Keywords: high-pressure ; Mössbauer spectroscopy ; Mott insulators ; magnetism ; spin crossover
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Combining the methods of Mössbauer spectroscopy, synchrotron XRD, and resistivity and using diamond-anvil cells enables the discovery and studies of new phenomena in magnetism and electronic correlation at high density. It is shown that Hund's rule concerning the high-spin state in TM-compounds does not hold in this regime resulting in spin-crossover and collapse of the magnetic state for even-valence TM ions and for the decline of magnetic exchange in the odd-valence species. This mechanism competes with the breakdown of the d–d electron correlation (Mott transition) in transforming the Mott insulators into normal metals. The experimental issues are described and examples of magnetic studies at very high-pressures are portrayed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Hyperfine interactions 53 (1990), S. 385-390 
    ISSN: 1572-9540
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The Mössbauer effect in129I in conjunction with Diamond-Anvil-Cell high pressure techniques was applied to investigate the high pressure phase(s) of the molecular crystal GeI4. The129IQuadrupole Interaction was the main probe for characterizing theintermolecular structural transformation with pressure. With increasing pressure, at about 15 GPa, the onset of a partial molecular-association phase (HP1) is first observed. In HP1 two out of the four iodines strongly overlap to form linear chains of GeI4. The HP1 phase coexists with the low pressure (LP) molecular phase, but its population increases with increasing pressure. AtP=20 GPa a second high pressure phase (HP2) is identified where all four iodines strongly overlap to form a three dimensional, fully molecular-associated structure. With increasing pressure and atP〉20 GPa, HP2 is the only phase up toP=34 GPa, the highest pressure used. A significant hysteresis of the relative abundances with pressure is observed. The isomer shift of the HP2 and HP1 structures is considerably larger than that of the LP one.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1572-9540
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract After perfecting a technique to manufacture extremely pure, homogeneous, smallconcentration Sn in Pb samples, we have measured the Debye-Waller factor over the temperature range of 4 to 300 K. Our data show some evidence of a line broadening between 4 and 50 K which may be accounted for by the spin-density wave model of lead proposed by A. Overhauser. [1]. Between 77 K and room temperature, we find a temperature dependence to the recoilless fraction consistent with a Debye model (Debye temperature = 107(2) K). Moreover, we find no evidence of a sudden precipitous falloff of the recoilless fraction, as was reported by Schechter et al. in 1989. The origin of this difference is discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Hyperfine interactions 58 (1990), S. 2513-2518 
    ISSN: 1572-9540
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The 40-sec, 88-keV, first-excited state of109Ag provides a difficult case for the observation of the Mössbauer effect. The major difficulty is associated with the long lifetime which corresponds to a natural linewidth of only 10−17 eV. Our results indicate a 0.2% Mössbauer effect.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: mechanism ; signal-to-noise ratio ; theoretical models ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Interactions between physical fields and biological systems present difficult conceptual problems. Complete biological systems, even isolated cells, are exceedingly complex. This argues against the pursuit of theoretical models, with the possible consequence that only experimental studies should be considered. In contrast, electromagnetic fields are well understood. Further, some subsystems of cells (viz. cell membranes) can be reasonably represented by physical models. This argues for the pursuit of theoretical models which quantitatively describe interactions of electromagnetic fields with that subsystem. Here we consider the hypothesis that electric fields, not magnetic fields, are the source of interactions, From this it follows that the cell membrane is a relevant subsystem, as the membrane is much more resistive than the intra- or extracellular regions. A general class of interactions is considered: electroconformational changes associated with the membrane. Expected results of such as approach include the dependence of the interaction on key parameters (e.g., cell size, field magnitude, frequency, and exposure time), constraints on threshold exposure conditions, and insight into how experiments might be designed. Further, because it is well established that strong and moderate electric fields interact significantly with cells, estimates of the extrapolated interaction for weaker fields can be sought. By employing signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio criteria, theoretical models can also be used to estimate threshold magnitudes. These estimates are particularly relevant to in vitro conditions, for which most biologically generated background fields are absent. Finally, we argue that if theoretical model predictions are unavailable to guide the selection of experimental conditions, an overwhelmingly large number of different conditions will be needed to find, establish, and characterize bioelectromagnetic effects in an empirical search. This is contrasted with well-established chemical dosimetry, which is much simpler. Because of the large number of possible electromagnetic field conditions, we also conclude that in vitro studies, rather than in vivo studies, should be emphasized in studies aimed at discovering and characterizing mechanisms for bioelectromagnetic effects. 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 4 Tab.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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