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  • 1
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Rivers are generally supersaturated with respect to carbon dioxide, resulting in large gas evasion fluxes that can be a significant component of regional net carbon budgets. Amazonian rivers were recently shown to outgas more than ten times the amount of carbon exported to the ocean in the form ...
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  • 2
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    Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography
    In:  Limnology and Oceanography, 46 . pp. 964-970.
    Publication Date: 2014-01-30
    Description: Redfield ratios of remineralization are calculated based on chemical data analysis on isopycnal surfaces. The concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon used in this study were corrected for the anthropogenic CO2 content as estimated with a back-calculation technique. The corrections increased the apparent carbon remineralization by 25-30%, thus proving important for the reliable estimation of Redfield carbon ratios in the presence of anthropogenic CO2. Best estimates from this study largely confirm the more recently published Redfield ratios of remineralization. The following results were obtained for the latitude range 3-41°N along 20-29°W in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean: Corg: P ratio = 123 ± 10; Corg : N ratio = 7.2 ± 0.8; -O2 :Corg ratio = 1.34 ± 0.06; -O2 : P ratio = 165 ± 15; N: P ratio = 17.5 ± 2.0. These ratios are in close agreement with the average composition of phytoplankton and represent respiration of organic matter consisting on average of 52% protein, 36% polysaccharide, and 12% lipid.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Solar physics 74 (1981), S. 479-481 
    ISSN: 1573-093X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Tree-ring 14C measurements indicate the long-term solar variations, as modulations of the cosmic ray flux, shown in Figure 1.
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
    Description: Temporal trends in oceanic dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and δ13C-DIC were reconstructed along five isopycnals in the upper 1000 m of the North Atlantic Ocean using a back-calculation approach. The mean anthropogenic DIC increase was 1.21 ± 0.07 μmol kg−1 yr−1 and the mean 13C decrease was −0.026 ± 0.002‰ yr−1, both in good agreement with the results from previous studies. The observed δ13C-DIC perturbation ratio is −0.024 ± 0.003‰ (μmol kg−1)−1. Our results indicate that the North Atlantic is able to maintain equilibrium with the anthropogenic perturbation for DIC and follows it with decadal time lag for δ13C. A CFC-calibrated one-dimensional isopycnal advection-diffusion model is used to evaluate temporal DIC and δ13C trends and perturbation ratios of the reconstructions. We investigate the time history of the air-sea CO2 and 13C disequilibria in the North Atlantic and discuss the importance of physical and biological processes in maintaining them. We find evidence that the North Atlantic Ocean is characterized by enhanced uptake of anthropogenic CO2. Also, we use the model to examine how the time rate of change of δ13C depends on changes in the temporal evolution of δ13C in the atmosphere. The model evolution explains the curious result that the time rate of change of surface water δ13C in the North Atlantic Ocean can exceed that observed concurrently in the atmosphere. Finally we introduce a powerful way of estimating the global air-sea pCO2 disequilibrium based on the oceanic δ13C-DIC perturbation ratio.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2012. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research 117 (2012): C05012, doi:10.1029/2010JC006856.
    Description: The triple oxygen isotopic composition of dissolved oxygen (17Δ) is a promising tracer of gross oxygen productivity (P) in the ocean. Recent studies have inferred a high and variable ratio of P to 14C net primary productivity (12–24 h incubations) (e.g., P:NPP(14C) of 5–10) using the 17Δ tracer method, which implies a very low efficiency of phytoplankton growth rates relative to gross photosynthetic rates. We added oxygen isotopes to a one-dimensional mixed layer model to assess the role of physical dynamics in potentially biasing estimates of P using the 17Δ tracer method at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) and Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT). Model results were compared to multiyear observations at each site. Entrainment of high 17Δ thermocline water into the mixed layer was the largest source of error in estimating P from mixed layer 17Δ. At both BATS and HOT, entrainment bias was significant throughout the year and resulted in an annually averaged overestimate of mixed layer P of 60 to 80%. When the entrainment bias is corrected for, P calculated from observed 17Δ and 14C productivity incubations results in a gross:net productivity ratio of 2.6 (+0.9 −0.8) at BATS. At HOT a gross:net ratio decreasing linearly from 3.0 (+1.0 −0.8) at the surface to 1.4 (+0.6 −0.6) at depth best reproduced observations. In the seasonal thermocline at BATS, however, a significantly higher gross:net ratio or large lateral fluxes of 17Δ must be invoked to explain 17Δ field observations.
    Description: We acknowledge support from Center for Microbial Oceanography Research and Education (CMORE) (NSF EF-0424599) and NOAA Global Carbon Program (NA 100AR4310093). BL thanks the USA-Israel Binational Science Foundation for supporting his project at BATS.
    Description: 2012-11-08
    Keywords: Bermuda Atlantic Time-series ; Hawaii Ocean Time-series ; Primary production ; Triple oxygen isotopes
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
    Format: text/plain
    Format: application/postscript
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-08-09
    Description: © The Author(s), 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Chemical Geology 493 (2018): 210-223, doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2018.05.040.
    Description: The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product 2017 (IDP2017) is the second publicly available data product of the international GEOTRACES programme, and contains data measured and quality controlled before the end of 2016. The IDP2017 includes data from the Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic, Southern and Indian oceans, with about twice the data volume of the previous IDP2014. For the first time, the IDP2017 contains data for a large suite of biogeochemical parameters as well as aerosol and rain data characterising atmospheric trace element and isotope (TEI) sources. The TEI data in the IDP2017 are quality controlled by careful assessment of intercalibration results and multi-laboratory data comparisons at crossover stations. The IDP2017 consists of two parts: (1) a compilation of digital data for more than 450 TEIs as well as standard hydrographic parameters, and (2) the eGEOTRACES Electronic Atlas providing an on-line atlas that includes more than 590 section plots and 130 animated 3D scenes. The digital data are provided in several formats, including ASCII, Excel spreadsheet, netCDF, and Ocean Data View collection. Users can download the full data packages or make their own custom selections with a new on-line data extraction service. In addition to the actual data values, the IDP2017 also contains data quality flags and 1-σ data error values where available. Quality flags and error values are useful for data filtering and for statistical analysis. Metadata about data originators, analytical methods and original publications related to the data are linked in an easily accessible way. The eGEOTRACES Electronic Atlas is the visual representation of the IDP2017 as section plots and rotating 3D scenes. The basin-wide 3D scenes combine data from many cruises and provide quick overviews of large-scale tracer distributions. These 3D scenes provide geographical and bathymetric context that is crucial for the interpretation and assessment of tracer plumes near ocean margins or along ridges. The IDP2017 is the result of a truly international effort involving 326 researchers from 25 countries. This publication provides the critical reference for unpublished data, as well as for studies that make use of a large cross-section of data from the IDP2017. This article is part of a special issue entitled: Conway GEOTRACES - edited by Tim M. Conway, Tristan Horner, Yves Plancherel, and Aridane G. González.
    Description: We gratefully acknowledge financial support by the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) through grants from the U.S. National Science Foundation, including grants OCE-0608600, OCE-0938349, OCE-1243377, and OCE-1546580. Financial support was also provided by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), the Ministry of Earth Science of India, the Centre National de Recherche Scientifique, l'Université Paul Sabatier de Toulouse, the Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées Toulouse, the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, the Kiel Excellence Cluster The Future Ocean, the Swedish Museum of Natural History, The University of Tokyo, The University of British Columbia, The Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, the GEOMAR-Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, and the Alfred Wegener Institute.
    Keywords: GEOTRACES ; Trace elements ; Isotopes ; Electronic atlas ; IDP2017
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-08-27
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2016. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Global Biogeochemical Cycles 30 (2016): 361–380, doi:10.1002/2015GB005318.
    Description: We measured triple oxygen isotopes and oxygen/argon dissolved gas ratios as nonincubation-based geochemical tracers of gross oxygen production (GOP) and net community production (NCP) on 16 container ship transects across the North Pacific from 2008 to 2012. We estimate rates and efficiency of biological carbon export throughout the full annual cycle across the North Pacific basin (35°N–50°N, 142°E–125°W) by constructing mixed layer budgets that account for physical and biological influences on these tracers. During the productive season from spring to fall, GOP and NCP are highest in the Kuroshio region west of 170°E and decrease eastward across the basin. However, deep winter mixed layers (〉200 m) west of 160°W ventilate ~40–90% of this seasonally exported carbon, while only ~10% of seasonally exported carbon east of 160°W is ventilated in winter where mixed layers are 〈120 m. As a result, despite higher annual GOP in the west than the east, the annual carbon export (sequestration) rate and efficiency decrease westward across the basin from export of 2.3 ± 0.3 mol C m−2 yr−1 east of 160°W to 0.5 ± 0.7 mol C m−2 yr−1 west of 170°E. Existing productivity rate estimates from time series stations are consistent with our regional productivity rate estimates in the eastern but not western North Pacific. These results highlight the need to estimate productivity rates over broad spatial areas and throughout the full annual cycle including during winter ventilation in order to accurately estimate the rate and efficiency of carbon sequestration via the ocean's biological pump.
    Description: This work was funded by a NDSEG Fellowship from the Office of Naval Research, a NSF Graduate Research Fellowship, and an ARCS Foundation Fellowship to H.I.P. and by NSF Ocean Sciences (0628663 and 1259055 to P.D.Q.).
    Description: 2016-08-27
    Keywords: North Pacific ; Carbon cycle ; Productivity ; Biological pump ; Gross oxygen production ; Net community production
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-02-28
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2016. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Research Letters 43 (2016): 8645–8653, doi:10.1002/2016GL070226.
    Description: Estimates of primary and export production (PP and EP) based on satellite remote sensing algorithms and global biogeochemical models are widely used to provide year-round global coverage not available from direct observations. However, observational data to validate these approaches are limited. We find that no single satellite algorithm or model can reproduce seasonal and annual geochemically determined PP, export efficiency (EP/PP), and EP rates throughout the North Pacific basin, based on comparisons throughout the full annual cycle at time series stations in the subarctic and subtropical gyres and basin-wide regions sampled by container ship transects. The high-latitude regions show large PP discrepancies in winter and spring and strong effects of deep winter mixed layers on annual EP that cannot be accounted for in current satellite-based approaches. These results underscore the need to evaluate satellite- and model-based estimates using multiple productivity parameters measured over broad ocean regions throughout the annual cycle.
    Description: NDSEG Fellowship from the Office of Naval Research; NSF Graduate Research Fellowship; ARCS Foundation Fellowship
    Description: 2017-02-28
    Keywords: North Pacific ; Productivity ; Biological pump ; Carbon cycle
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-08-09
    Description: © The Author(s), 2015. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Marine Chemistry 177 (2015): 1-8, doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2015.04.005.
    Description: The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product 2014 (IDP2014) is the first publicly available data product of the international GEOTRACES programme, and contains data measured and quality controlled before the end of 2013. It consists of two parts: (1) a compilation of digital data for more than 200 trace elements and isotopes (TEIs) as well as classical hydrographic parameters, and (2) the eGEOTRACES Electronic Atlas providing a strongly inter-linked on-line atlas including more than 300 section plots and 90 animated 3D scenes. The IDP2014 covers the Atlantic, Arctic, and Indian oceans, exhibiting highest data density in the Atlantic. The TEI data in the IDP2014 are quality controlled by careful assessment of intercalibration results and multi-laboratory data comparisons at cross-over stations. The digital data are provided in several formats, including ASCII spreadsheet, Excel spreadsheet, netCDF, and Ocean Data View collection. In addition to the actual data values the IDP2014 also contains data quality flags and 1-σ data error values where available. Quality flags and error values are useful for data filtering. Metadata about data originators, analytical methods and original publications related to the data are linked to the data in an easily accessible way. The eGEOTRACES Electronic Atlas is the visual representation of the IDP2014 data providing section plots and a new kind of animated 3D scenes. The basin-wide 3D scenes allow for viewing of data from many cruises at the same time, thereby providing quick overviews of large-scale tracer distributions. In addition, the 3D scenes provide geographical and bathymetric context that is crucial for the interpretation and assessment of observed tracer plumes, as well as for making inferences about controlling processes.
    Description: We gratefully acknowledge financial support by the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) through grants from the U.S. National Science Foundation, including grants OCE-0608600, OCE-0938349, and OCE-1243377. Financial support was also provided by the UK Natural Environment Research Council, the Ministry of Earth Science of India, the Centre National de Recherche Scientifique, l'Université Paul Sabatier de Toulouse, the Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées Toulouse, the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, the Kiel Excellence Cluster The Future Ocean, the Swedish Museum of Natural History, The University of Tokyo, The University of British Columbia, The Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, the GEOMAR-Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, and the Alfred Wegener Institute.
    Keywords: GEOTRACES ; Trace elements ; Isotopes ; Electronic atlas
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-07-21
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2017. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Global Biogeochemical Cycles 31 (2017): 81–95, doi:10.1002/2016GB005527.
    Description: We evaluate the influences of biological carbon export, physical circulation, and temperature-driven solubility changes on air-sea CO2 flux across the North Pacific basin (35°N–50°N, 142°E–125°W) throughout the full annual cycle by constructing mixed layer budgets for dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and pCO2, determined on 15 container ship transects between Hong Kong and Long Beach, CA, from 2008 to 2012. Annual air-sea CO2 flux is greatest in the western North Pacific and decreases eastward across the basin (2.7 ± 0.9 mol C m−2 yr−1 west of 170°E, as compared to 2.1 ± 0.3 mol C m−2 yr−1 east of 160°W). East of 160°W, DIC removal by annual net community production (NCP) more than fully offsets the DIC increase due to air-sea CO2 flux. However, in the region west of 170°E influenced by deep winter mixing, annual NCP only offsets ~20% of the DIC increase due to air-sea CO2 flux, requiring significant DIC removal by geostrophic advection. Temperature-driven solubility changes have no net influence on pCO2 and account for 〈25% of annual CO2 uptake. The seasonal timing of NCP strongly affects its influence on air-sea CO2 flux. Biological carbon export from the mixed layer has a stronger influence on pCO2 in summer when mixed layers are shallow, but changes in pCO2 have a stronger influence on air-sea CO2 flux in winter when high wind speeds drive more vigorous gas exchange. Thus, it is necessary to determine the seasonal timing as well as the annual magnitude of NCP to determine its influence on ocean carbon uptake.
    Description: NDSEG Fellowship from the Office of Naval Research; NSF Graduate Research Fellowship; NSF Ocean Sciences Grant Numbers: 0628663, 1259055; NOAA Climate Program Office Grant Number: A10OAR4310088
    Description: 2017-07-21
    Keywords: Carbon cycle ; North Pacific ; Biological pump
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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