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  • 1
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The sulphate ion is the oxidative endmember of the atmos-pheric sulphur cycle and it is one of the principal species in aerosols and precipitation over large areas of the Earth. Globally, anthropogenic emissions of SO2 are the largest source of atmospheric sulphur4 whereas the second largest source ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 317 (1985), S. 516-518 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Chester et al.8 were able to distinguish between and characterize dust source types in the Mediterranean region by plotting aluminium concentration against the magnetic susceptibility/aluminium concentration quotient. Soil-derived dusts of North African origin fell at one extreme, with high ...
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: The deposition of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) species is believed to have a significant impact on the oligotrophic North Atlantic, but the magnitude of ecological effects remains uncertain because the deposition of water soluble organic N (WSON) is poorly quantified. Here we present measurements of water soluble inorganic N (WSIN) and WSON in aerosol and rain at two subtropical North Atlantic time series sites: Barbados and Miami. WSON total deposition rates ranged from 17.9 mmol m−2 yr−1 to 49.6 mmol m−2 yr−1, contributing on average only 6–14% of total N deposition, less than half the poorly constrained global average which is typically cited as 30%. On an event basis, biomass burning and dust events yielded the largest concentrations of WSON. However, biomass burning was relatively infrequent and highly variable in composition, and much of the organic N associated with dust appeared to be externally adsorbed from pollution sources. Conversely, in Miami pollution made relatively small contributions of WSON on an event basis, but impacts were relatively frequent, making pollution one of the largest sources of WSON during the year. The largest contributor to WSON was volatile basic organic N (VBON) species, which were present at concentrations 1–2 times higher than particulate WSON. Despite VBON inputs, samples associated with pollution-source trajectories yielded much more inorganic N than WSON. Consequently, we would expect that in the future as anthropogenic N emissions increase, inorganic nitrogen will remain the dominant form of N that is deposited to the western North Atlantic.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-09-05
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 380 (1996), S. 416-419 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Climate models incorporating aerosols suggest that anthropogenic non-seasalt sulphate (n.s.s. SO2") aerosols in the Northern Hemisphere scatter as much as 1-2 Wm2 of incoming solar radiation back to space24, yielding a cooling rate comparable to the heating rates attributed to greenhouse ...
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 289 (1981), S. 570-572 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] A seasonal meteorological control on African dust transport can be inferred from a 15-yr mineral aerosol study10 carried out on Barbados, West Indies (1310'N, 5930'W). There is a pronounced annual cycle in dust concentration with the maximum occurring during the summer; monthly mean winter ...
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 250 (1974), S. 563-565 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Two other ways have been suggested in which reversals of the Earth's magnetic field could influence evolution. One way is by the direct biological effect of a magnetic field on organisms; there is a short discussion of this by Grain11. The second mechanism proposes that a reversal of the Earth's ...
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Analytical chemistry 31 (1959), S. 884-886 
    ISSN: 1520-6882
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: Antarctica ; Palmer ; Marsh ; Mawson ; aerosol particles ; biogeochemical cycles ; sulfate ; nitrate ; methanesulfonate ; lead-210 ; beryllium-7 ; sea-salt ; ammonium
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract High volume bulk aerosol samples were collected continuously at three Antarctic sites: Mawson (67.60° S, 62.50° E) from 20 February 1987 to 6 January 1992; Palmer Station (64.77° S, 64.06° W) from 3 April 1990 to 15 June 1991; and Marsh (62.18° S, 58.30° W) from 28 March 1990, to 1 May 1991. All samples were analyzed for Na+, SO 4 2− , NO 3 − , methanesulfonate (MSA), NH 4 + ,210Pb, and7Be. At Mawson for which we have a multiple year data set, the annual mean concentration of each species sometimes vary significantly from one year to the next: Na+, 68–151 ng m−3; NO 3 − , 25–30 ng m−3; nss SO 4 2− , 81–97 ng m−3; MSA, 19–28 ng m−3; NH 4 + , 16–21 ng m−3;210Pb, 0.75–0.86 fCi m−3. Results from multiple variable regression of non-sea-salt (nss) SO 4 2− with MSA and NO 3 − as the independent variables indicates that, at Mawson, the nss SO 4 2− /MSA ratio resulting from the oxidation of dimethylsulfide (DMS) is 2.80±0.13, about 13% lower than our earlier estimate (3.22) that was based on 2.5 years of data. A similar analysis indicates that the ratio at Palmer is about 40% lower, 1.71±0.10, and more comparable to previous results over the southern oceans. These results when combined with previously published data suggest that the differences in the ratio may reflect a more rapid loss of MSA relative to nss SO 4 2− during transport over Antarctica from the oceanic source region. The mean210Pb concentrations at Palmer and Marsh and the mean NO 3 − concentration at Palmer are about a factor of two lower than those at Mawson. The210Pb distributions are consistent with a210Pb minimum in the marine boundary layer in the region of 40°–60° S. These features and the similar seasonalities of NO 3 − and210Pb at Mawson support the conclusion that the primary source regions for NO 3 − are continental. In contrast, the mean concentrations of MSA, nss SO 4 2− , and NH 4 + at Palmer are all higher than those at Mawson: MSA by a factor of 2; nss SO 4 2− by 10%; and NH 4 + by more than 50%. However, the factor differences exhibit substantial seasonal variability; the largest differences generally occur during the austral summer when the concentrations of most of the species are highest. NH 4 + /(nss SO 4 2− +MSA) equivalent ratios indicate that NH3 neutralizes about 60% of the sulfur acids during December at both Mawson and Palmer, but only about 30% at Mawson during February and March.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: Antarctica ; aerosol particles ; ice ; biogeochemical cycles ; sulfate ; nitrate ; methanesulfonate ; lcad-210 ; boryllium-7 ; sea-salt
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract High volume aerosol samples were collected continuously at Mawson, Antarctica (67°36'S, 62°30'E), from February 1987 through October 1989. All samples were analyzed for Na+, Cl-, SO4 =, NO3 -, methanesulfonate (MSA), NH4 +,7Be, and210Pb. The annual mean concentrations of many of the species are very low, substantially lower than even those over the relatively pristine regions of the tropical and subtropical South Pacific. The concentrations at Mawson are comparable both in magnitude and in seasonality to those which have been measured in long term studies at the South Pole and at the coastal German Antarctic research station, Georg von Neumayer (GvN). This comparability suggests that the aerosol composition may be relatively uniform over a broad sector of the Antarctic. The concentrations of most of the species exhibit very strong and sharply-defined seasonal cycles. MSA, non-sea-salt (nss) SO4 = and NH4 + all exhibit similar cycles, with maxima during the austral summer (December through February) being more than an order of magnitude higher than the winter minima. The limited7Be data appears to exhibit a similar cycle. Although nitrate and210Pb also exhibit relatively high concentrations during the austral summer, their cycles are far more complex than those of the previous species with indications of multiple peaks. As expected, the concentration of sea-salt (as indicated by Na+ and Cl-) peaks during the winter. The results from multiple variable regression analyses indicate that the dominant source of nss SO4 = is the oxidation of dimethylsulfide (DMS) which produces MSA and nss SO4 = in a ratio of about 0.31 (about five times higher than that over the tropical and subtropical oceans). However, a very significant fraction (about 25%) of the nss SO4 = is associated with NO3 -, The seasonal cycle of NO3 - is similar to that of210Pb and distinctly different from that of7Be and MSA. These results indicate that the major source of NO3 - over Antarctica is probably continental as opposed to stratospheric or marine biogenic.
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