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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2001-01-01
    Print ISSN: 0260-3055
    Electronic ISSN: 1727-5644
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2001-01-01
    Description: The primary goal of this paper is to demonstrate the dependence of Arctic Ocean sea-ice transport pathways on climate variations. We build our analysis on the results of Proshutinsky and Johnson (1997), Johnson and others (1999), Polyakov and others (1999) and Proshutinsky and others (1999), where we have shown that wind-driven ice motion and upper ocean circulation alternate between anticyclonic and cyclonic states. Shifts between regimes occur at 5−7 year intervals, resulting in a 10−15 year period. The anticyclonic circulation regime has been observed in our model results for 1946−52,1958−62,1972−79,1984−88 and 1998−present. The cyclonic circulation regime prevailed during 1953−57,1963−71,1980−83 and 1989−97. The regime shifts are fundamentally important to understanding the Arctic’s general circulation and particularly useful for estimating pollution transport by sea ice and surface waters. It is important to pollution studies to understand which circulation regime prevails. Initially, we simulate trajectories of a non-reactive, conservative soluble tracer. Results from this research demonstrate realistic potential flow pathlines and we describe how those pathlines change in response to climate forcing. These results can be used to aid current and future scenario risk assessments and may provide management agencies with the tools to determine where risks from contaminants might exist.
    Print ISSN: 0260-3055
    Electronic ISSN: 1727-5644
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-11-23
    Description: Pacific Water (PW) enters the Arctic Ocean through Bering Strait and brings heat, fresh water and nutrients from the northern Bering Sea. The circulation of PW in the central Arctic Ocean is only partially understood due to the lack of observations. In this paper pathways of PW are investigated using simulations with six state-of-the art regional and global Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCMs). In the simulations PW is tracked by a passive tracer, released in Bering Strait. Simulated PW water spreads from the Bering Strait region in three major branches. One of them starts in the Barrow Canyon, bringing PW along continental slope of Alaska into the Canadian Straits and then into Baffin Bay. The other initiates in the vicinity of the Herald Canyon and transports PW along the continental slope of the East-Siberian Sea into the transpolar drift, and then through Fram Strait and the Greenland Sea. The third branch begins near the Herald Shoal and the central Chukchi shelf and brings PW waters into the Beaufort Gyre. Models suggest that the spread of PW through the Arctic Ocean depends on the atmospheric circulation. In the models the wind, acting via Ekman pumping, drives the seasonal and interannual variability of PW in the Canadian Basin of the Arctic Ocean. The wind effects the simulated PW pathways by changing vertical shear of the relative vorticity of the ocean flow in the Canada Basin. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-01-18
    Description: Introduction: In the last two decades, significant changes have occurred in the Arctic Ocean as well as in the entire Arctic region. The ice cover of Arctic seas, which was gradually (linearly) decreasing from the beginning of the 20th century to the end of it [1], began to shrink rapidly in the 1990s and in the 21st century [2]. Salinity variations in the upper layer changed sign in different regions [3]. The temperature of Atlantic waters in the Arctic basin started to increase. At the end of the 1990s, stabilization of Atlantic water transport to the Arctic Basin was observed [4], but starting from 2004, the temperature of Atlantic waters in the Eurasian sub-basin increased even more and reached values that had not been observed here previously [5]. In 2007, extreme summer processes in the Arctic that followed this increase and anomalous state of the ice cover and upper layer of the ocean that were formed by the beginning of autumn put forward a pressing problem to evaluate the variation in the thermohaline structure of the Arctic Ocean as a whole.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1751-8369
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Notes: Recently observed changes in the Arctic have highlighted the need for a better understanding of Arctic dynamics. This research addresses that need and is also motivated by the recent finding of two regimes of Arctic ice - ocean wind-driven circulation. In this paper, we demonstrate that during 1946-1997 the Arctic environmental parameters have oscillated with a period of 10-15 years. Our results reveal significant differences among atmosphere, ice, and ocean processes during the anticyclonic and cyclonic regimes in the Arctic Ocean and its marginal seas. The oscillating behaviour of the Arctic Ocean we call the Arctic Ocean Oscillation (AOO). Based on existing data and results of numerical experiments, we conclude that during the anticyclonic circulation regime the prevailing processes lead to increases in atmospheric pressure, in ice concentration and ice thickness, river runoff, and surface water salinity - as well as to decreases in air temperature, wind speed, number of storms, precipitation, permafrost temperatures, coastal sea level, and surface water temperature. During the cyclonic circulation regime the prevailing processes lead to increased air and water temperatures, wind speed, number of storms,open water periods, and to decreases in ice thickness and ice concentration, river runoff, atmospheric pressure, and water salinity. The two-climate regime theory may help answer questions related to observed decadal variability of the Arctic Ocean and to reconcile the different conclusions among scientists who have analysed Arctic data obtained during different climate states.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Polar research 9 (1991), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1751-8369
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Notes: This study is part of the Soviet-Norwegian Oceanographic Programme (SNOP) on ice and water dynamics in the region between Svalbard and Frans Josef Land. The effects of the movements of water and ice on the ice regime are discussed. Due to the scarcity of data, numerical hydrodynamica] simulations are used. The tidal ice drift is visualized on satellite images as elliptically shaped traces in the ice fields formed by grounded icebergs. These traces are a result of the joint action of tides, wind and permanent currents.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: Arctic Ocean model simulations have revealed that the Arctic Ocean has a basin wide oscillation with cyclonic and anticyclonic circulation anomalies (Arctic Ocean Oscillation; AOO) which has a prominent decadal variability. This study explores how the simulated AOO affects the Arctic Ocean stratification and its relationship to the sea ice cover variations. The simulation uses the Princeton Ocean Model coupled to sea ice. The surface forcing is based on NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis and its climatology, of which the latter is used to force the model spin-up phase. Our focus is to investigate the competition between ocean dynamics and ice formation/melt on the Arctic basin-wide fresh water balance. We find that changes in the Atlantic water inflow can explain almost all of the simulated fresh water anomalies in the main Arctic basin. The Atlantic water inflow anomalies are an essential part of AOO, which is the wind driven barotropic response to the Arctic Oscillation (AO). The baroclinic response to AO, such as Ekman pumping in the Beaufort Gyre, and ice meldfreeze anomalies in response to AO are less significant considering the whole Arctic fresh water balance.
    Keywords: Oceanography
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of geodesy 71 (1997), S. 344-350 
    ISSN: 1432-1394
    Keywords: Key words. Tides ; Arctic Ocean tides ; Earth rotation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying
    Notes: Abstract. Oceanic tidal angular momentum (OTAM) is calculated for the four major tides of the Arctic Ocean, based on the tidal elevations and current velocities from a recent two-dimensional numerical hydrodynamic model. The presented OTAM tables are meant to be complementary to other modeling studies that use satellite altimetry (which cannot observe Arctic Ocean tides because of ice cover and limited satellite inclinations). Although the Arctic Ocean's influence on earth rotation is, as may be expected, relatively small, the rapid advancement of the subject now calls for such small contributions to be explicitly accounted for.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-02-06
    Description: The paper presents the current status of the Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN), which has been developed as a component of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). MAN deploys Microtops handheld Sun photometers and utilizes the calibration procedure and data processing (Version 2) traceable to AERONET. A web site dedicated to the MAN activity is described. A brief historical perspective is given to aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements over the oceans. A short summary of the existing data, collected on board ships of opportunity during the NASA Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) Project is presented. Globally averaged oceanic aerosol optical depth (derived from island-based AERONET measurements) at 500 nm is similar to 0.11 and Angstrom parameter (computed within spectral range 440-870 nm) is calculated to be similar to 0.6. First results from the cruises contributing to the Maritime Aerosol Network are shown. MAN ship-based aerosol optical depth compares well to simultaneous island and near-coastal AERONET site AOD.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-05-13
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Miscellaneous , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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