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  • 1
    ISSN: 1439-0426
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The population structure of the Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) was investigated using PCR amplification of the mtDNA D-loop region. Seven composite haplotypes were detected and average nucleotide and haplotype diversity over all samples were found to be 0.05 ± 0.00 and 0.75 ± 0.00 (mean ± SE) respectively. Restriction digest of the mtDNA D-loop region detected two genotypes A and B with a relative high frequencies of 0.5 and 0.36 respectively. These two genotypes (A and B) can be considered as potential genetic markers for different biological groups, stocks or seasonal races of Russian sturgeon. A maximum of 10.8% nucleotide diversity was found between haplotypes AAAAB and BBBBF. 100% heteroplasmy was found in Russian sturgeon and restriction digest of the mtDNA D-loop region also exhibited site heteroplasmy.
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-11-28
    Description: Triploidy in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella Valenciennes, 1844, was induced on fertilized eggs to compare cold and heat shocks. Two simplified methods explained for verification of triploidy in grass carp. The cold shock (7 ˚C) was given in three treatments for 30 min starting 2.0, 2.5 and 4.0 min after fertilization. In cold shock, the start point (2.0 min after fertilization) showed the highest rate of triploidy (60.9%). Heat shocks were given at 38 ˚C, 40 ˚C and 42 ˚C, at 4.0 min after fertilization and lasted for 1.0 min. Produced larvae using heat shock 38 ˚C showed 10.8% triploidy, but no signs of triploidy were seen in other heat shock treatments. Verification of triploidy in grass carp was carried out using karyotyping and measurment of erythrocytes surface area and volume in fingerlings. Ratio of erythrocytes dimention and the size of their nuclei in triploids to diploids was 2.35 and 1.80, respectively. Comparison of results obtained from the application of cold and heat shocks indicated that cold shocks are more effective than heat shocks in the induction of triploidy in grass carp.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-11-28
    Description: This study was conducted in order to investigate genetic diversity and population structure of pike perch in the Northern part of Iran. For this purpose, 207 adult pike-perches from four regions of the Caspian Sea watershed (Talesh Coasts, Anzali Wetland, Chaboksar Coasts and Aras Dam) were collected. DNA was extracted and by using 15 pairs of microsatellite primers, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was conducted. DNA bands were analyzed using Biocapt and GenAlex 6 software package. Out of 15 microsatellite primers, 11 loci were produced, of those, 6 loci were polymorphic and 5 were monomorphic. Analysis revealed that the average number of alleles per locus and observed heterozygosities were not statistically significant (P〉0.05) for all four populations. Data indicated an appreciable genetic differentiation, in spite of a low genetic variation, and agreed with the low level of genetic polymorphism already observed for this species in Iran. Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was obvious in most cases, mostly due to the deficiency of heterozygosities. The highest genetic distance was between Anzali Wetland and Aras Dam populations. This investigation represents the first approach to the knowledge of the genetic variability of Iranian populations using microsatellite markers, and reported results could be of interest for future management and conservation programs of this species in Iran.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-11-28
    Description: The optimum dose of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation to produce gynogenetic Caspian salmon, Salmo trutta caspius, with emphasis on the "Hertwig effect" and photoreactivation (PR) were investigated. The sperm of Caspian salmon was irradiated with UV at 2010 ± 200 µw.cm-2 in different times including 0, 1, 3, 5, 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 35 and 45 min and was allowed to fertilize normal ova; the fertilization, eyed and hatching rates were calculated to assess the performance. Using the irradiated sperm decreased the fertilization, eyed as well as hatching rates and the so-called "Hertwig effect" was observed, with the time-dependent decrease in the hatching rates at 0+ to 3 min irradiation, but better hatching rates were observed at more prolonged irradiation times. The best hatching rate was achieved at 25 min of UV irradiation; after that the survival rates rapidly declined to near zero. For PR studies, the semen was irradiated with UV (5, 30 and 120s) and untreated semen (0s) was used as control. Irradiated semen and/or fertilized eggs by treated semen were exposed to visible light (60 W) at a distance of 30 cm for 10 min; the eyed and hatching rates were measured. UV irradiation as low dose as 5s, significantly decreased the hatching rate (P 〈0.05). Semen and/or eggs illumination with visible light could not improve the survival rates (P 〉0.05). So, based on the results of this study, it was impossible to detect any PR mechanism in Caspian salmon.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: The optimum dose of UV irradiation to produce gynogenesis rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss with emphasis of Hertwig effect and photoreactivation (PR) was investigated. For this purpose, the sperm of rainbow trout were irradiated with UV at 2010±200 µw.cm-2intensity in different alternatives of 0, 1, 3, 5, 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 35 and 45 minutes and allowed to fertilize normal ova; the fertilization, eyed and hatching rate were calculated to assess the performance. Using the irradiated sperm decreased the fertilization, eyed as well as hatching rates and the so-called "Hertwig effect" was observed, with the time-dependent decrease in hatching rate at 0+to 10 min of irradiation, but a better hatching rate at greater time of irradiation was observed. The highest hatching rate was observed in 20 min of UV irradiation; after that the survival rate decreased rapidly. Interestingly, irradiation even up to 45 min could not eradicate sperm fertility and a hatching rate above zero was observed at this treatment. For PR studies the semen was irradiated with UV for 5, 30 and 120 seconds and untreated semen (Os) was used as control. Irradiated semen and/or fertilized eggs by treated semen were exposed to visible light (60 W) at a distance of 30 cm for 10 min; the eyed and hatching rates were measured. The results showed that UV irradiation in as low as 5s could cause deleterious effect on semen chromatin and decrease the eyed and hatching rates (p〈0.05). Illumination of semen and\or eggs with visible light resulted in PR in rainbow trout when sperm was irradiated by UV at 120s. We could conclude that the best UV irradiation time for production of gynogenesis rainbow trout was 20 min and UV irradiation, fertilization and egg hardening must be done far from visible light to eliminate the PR mechanism.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Description: Population genetic structure of stellate sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus) in 197 adult specimens from four fishery regions along the Iranian coastline of the southern Caspian Sea was investigated using microsatellite markers. Out of 15 microsatellite primers, 11 loci were produced, in which 10 of them were polymorphic and 1 was monomorph. Totally, 184 alleles were identified and on average 13.1 alleles per locus were found (ranged 8 to 18 alleles). All sampled regions contained unique alleles. Average observed and expected heterozygosity was 0.667 and 0.854, respectively and significant genetic differences between 4 regions were observed (p≤0.01). Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were found in most cases. Population differentiation test was modest and significant (p≤0.01). Based on FST estimate (p≤0.01), more than one population of stellate sturgeon is identified in the south Caspian Sea. Therefore, fishery management for restocking and conservation of gene pool is highly recommended.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-03-26
    Description: Mahisefid, Rutilus frisii kutum , is a cyprinid fish which is distributed from Turkmenistan to Azerbaijan along the Caspian Sea. It is one of the economically important fish in the region. As part of the Iranian Fisheries Company’s policy to improve the stocks of this species, every year, fingerling of Mahisefid are released into the southern basin of the Caspian Sea. The main objective of this study was to determine populations in different of rivers. In total, 387 fish were collected from four rivers, including Lemir, Sefidrood, Shirrood and Tajan, where this fish migrates for spawning, in spring 2005. Thirteen conventional morphometric factors, 13 ratio and 12 Truss morphometrics were measured and calculated in this study. Conventional and Truss morphometric data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA Principal Component Analysis and discriminant. Average of coefficient of variation (CV%) of morphometric in males was 14.95, 10.28, 17.47 and 16.56 and in females was 21.35, 19.74, 18.25, and 19.74 in Lemir, Sefidrood, Shirrood and Tajan River, respectively, showing that all morphometric characters were significantly different (P〈0.05) among four sampling sites (populations). The first component of morphometrics 44.32% in males and 68.94% in females were positive, indicating that the conventional morphometric was good descriptor of the body shape variation among the populations, especially in females. The total cumulative variances were 76.6% and 87.8% in males and females, respectively, suggesting that this can be considered as a useful discriminator. The total cumulative variances were 64.27% and 64.21% in males and females, respectively. The first component of truss was 87.7% and 81.3% of the total variance, in males and females, respectively. The results of the present study suggest that each sampling site represents independent population in each river.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-04-10
    Description: The objective of this study was to analyse the population genetic structure of the Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) in Sefidrud and Gorganrud rivers watershed based on the characterization of microsatellite markers during 2006 - 2008. 100 samples of Persian sturgeon were collected from two regions. Four microsatellite loci (Ls68, Spl168, Spl173 and Afu68) were analyzed for the molecular characterization of this species which resulted in polymorphic patterns. DNA bands were analysed using Biocapt and GenAlex software package. A total of 109 alleles were observed of which the maximum number of alleles (17) were found in Spl168 locus which belonged to sturgeons from Sefidrud river's watershed and the minimum number of alleles (10) in Ls68 locus belonging to the sturgeons from Gorganrud river's watershed. Results of microsatellite analysis revealed that the differences between samples of two regions were not statistically significant (p〉0.05), neither for the average number of alleles per locus nor for observed heterozygosities. The calculated Fst and Rst between two regions was 0.07 and 0.17 showing that the genetic difference was significant (p〈 0.01). Samples from Sefidrud river's watershed in Spl173, Afu68 and Spl168 loci and samples of other regions in Afu68 and Spl168 loci were at Hardy-Weinberg equation. The genetic distance was calculated as 0.4 which represents a significant genetic difference between samples of two studied areas. In conclusion, this study suggests that the Persian sturgeons in two regions of the southern part of the Caspian Sea are genetically differentiated, therefore fisheries management of these unique stocks for restocking and conservation of gene pools is highly recommended.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-04-09
    Description: Genetic relationships among 96 specimens of ship sturgeon, Acipenser nudiventris, collected from six locations along the Iranian coastline as well as 8 specimens from northern population (Ural River) were analysed by the restricted maximum likelihood method, as well as two distance analysis method (Nei's and Cavalli-Sforza's distance) of gene frequencies. We have used four SSR markers that produced three polymorphic and two monomorphic loci. Overall results showed that Iranian coastline samples form a monophyletic group (clade) which was different from the northern (Ural) samples. Iranian coastline samples are divided into two groups (clades): Anzali-Kiashahr clade and Sefidrud-Babolsar-Noushahr-Gorgan clade. Bootstrapping test showed monophyleticity of Sefidrud, Babolsar, Noushahr, Gorgan with high (Bootstrap support=93) and Anzali-Kiashahr with middle (Bootstrap support=65) confirmation. Topology of reconstructed trees was in correspondence with geographical distributions of samples.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-04-23
    Description: In order to have a sustainable management on Persian sturgeon as a highly commercial species in the South Caspian Sea, we need to identify its population structure and the level as well as its conservation status in their natural habitat. To develop a conservation program for this all Caspian Sea' sturgeon species it requires knowledge of its genetic diversity using reliable molecular marker to study population genetic structure. For these purposes, an enriched library was prepared based on a modified biotin-capture method. Approximately 1800 positive clones were screened for microsatellites in an Acipenser persicus genomic library. Of these 350 positively hybridizing clones were sequenced, and 81 clones were identified as having microsatellites with adequate flanking regions. We developed and tested 68 microsatellite primer pairs for Persian sturgeon. Out of 68 primer pairs developed, 11 pairs resulted in poor or no amplification, 13 were ambiguous, 6 were monomorphic, 20 were tetrasomic and 18 were octosomic in Persian sturgeon. While none of the markers showed disomic inheritance in Persian sturgeon and Russian sturgeon (A. gueldenstaedtii). Several of the markers appeared useful for studies stellate sturgeon (A. stellatus), ship sturgeon (A. nudiventris) and beluga (Huso huso). Nearly all the polymorphic pattern for ship, stellate and beluga displayed the simple banding patterns characteristic of disomic loci, while those for Russian sturgeon displayed banding patterns characteristic of tetraploid or higher polyploid levels. These markers may prove useful in a variety of future sturgeon population genetic studies in the Caspian Sea.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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