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  • 1
    ISSN: 0378-1119
    Keywords: BifA ; Recombinant DNAnif genes ; nifH promoter ; repetitive sequences
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Gene 74 (1988), S. 197-201 
    ISSN: 0378-1119
    Keywords: DNA-binding carbohydrates ; buoyant density ; desiccation tolerance ; methyladenine ; methylcytosine
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of microbiology 149 (1988), S. 225-231 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: mRNA ; Cyanobacteria ; In vitro translation ; Water-stress ; Desiccationtolerance ; Nostoc commune
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract RNA pools were extracted from cells of Nostoc commune UTEX 584 in exponential growth (liquid cultures) and from cells which had been immobilized and dried rapidly at -99.5 MPa. Levels of incorporation of 35S-methionine, five- to sixfold higher than the endogenous level, were obtained after in vitro translation of the RNA preparations in a heterologous S30 cell-free system purified from Escherichia coli Q13. The levels of incorporation, obtained with a homologous N. commune UTEX 584 S30 system, were much lower. The requirement for magnesium in the heterologous system was 15–21 mM, translation of N. commune UTEX 584 RNA was inhibited when the RNA concentration was greater than 0.3 mg ml−1, and translation was stimulated significantly by the presence of ammonium chloride. Few qualitative differences were observed between the pattern of proteins (SDS-PAGE) obtained after translation of the RNA pools from cells in exponential growth, and from those cells subjected to immobilization and rapid drying. The data suggest that short-term desiccation of N. commune UTEX 584 does not have a marked selective effect on the composition of the mRNA pool. In contrast, preparations of RNA from field materials of Nostoc commune HUN (desiccated for 5 years) were unable to drive high rates of translation in any of the systems tested and optimized for use in this study.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Grass and forage science 37 (1982), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2494
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Five trials were carried out in 1979 to assess the influence of cultivar, seed rate, fertilizer application and the inclusion of oats as a companion crop on the dry matter (DM) yield of forage peas grown in the west of Scotland. Despite the season being abnormally cold the crop consistently produced between 6 and 8 t DM ha-1. There was little difference between cultivars in the yield of forage produced but there were considerable differences in the time taken to reach maturity. All cultivars lodged. There was no yield response to seed rate of between 80 and 280 kg ha-1 nor to fertilizer N and K applications. The inclusion of oats in the seeds mixture greatly reduced lodging and had no marked effect on DM yield but the organic matter digestibility and crude protein concentration were lower than recorded for peas grown alone in previous years.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Cyanobacteria ; Ultrastructure ; Nitrogen fixation ; Water stress ; Taxonomy ; DNA ; Plasmids
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Two strains of desiccation-tolerant coccoid cyanobacteria, Chroococcus S24, a marine form, and Chroococcus N41, a cryptoendolith isolated from a hot-desert rock, have been characterized. The mol % DNA base compositions of the strains are 47.1 and 48.9% respectively. Plasmid DNA was not detected in either strain. The pigment contents and nutritional characteristics of the strains are identical. Both lack phycoerythrinoid pigments and, in culture, behave as slow-growing halotolerant marine forms with elevated requirements for Na+, Cl−, Mg2+ and Ca2+. Sucrose was the only carbon source of those tested that supported photoheterotrophic growth. Each strain synthesizes nitrogenase under anaerobic conditions but not in air. Morphologically the two strains are indistinguishable. They are considered to be independent isolates of the same cyanobacterial species. Chroococcus N41 was studied in detail with the electron microscope. When brought to equilibrium at matric water potentials of-168 MPa and lower (to-673 MPa=c0.12a w) the protoplast shrinks, but the cells maintain the same size and diameter as those at-2,156 kPa (MN medium; control); the sheath expands and remains attached to the cell wall outer membrane by fibrils. The cell wall, cell membrane, thylakoid membranes, cyanophycin granules and carboxysomes appeared intact in desiccated cells.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: UV-absorbing pigments ; Protein secretion ; Capsule ; Glycoproteins ; Trehalose
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Filaments of the desiccation-tolerant cyanobacteriumNostoc commune are embedded within, and distributed throughout, a dense glycan sheath. Analysis of the glycan of field materials and of pure cultures ofN. commune DRH 1 through light and electron microscopy, immunogold labelling and staining with dyes, revealed changes in the pattern of differentiation in glycan micro-structure, as well as localized shifts in pH, upon rehydration of desiccated field material. A Ca/Si rich external (pellicular) layer of the glycan acts as a physical barrier to epiphytic bacteria on the surface ofN. commune colonies. A purified fraction (〉12 kDa) of an aqueous extract of the glycan from desiccated field material contained glucose, N-acetylglucosamine, glucosamine, mannose, and galactosamine with ratios of 3.1∶1.4∶1∶0.1∶0.06, respectively. Lipid soluble extracts ofN. commune contained trehalose and sucrose and the levels of both became undetectable following cell rehydration. Intracellular cyanobacterial trehalase was identified using immunoblotting and its synthesis was detected upon rehydration of desiccated field cultures. Elemental analysis of glycan extracts showed a flux in the concentrations of salts in the glycan matrix following rehydration of desiccated colonies. Water-stress proteins (Wsp; most abundant proteins in glycan), a water soluble UV-A/B-absorbing pigment, the lipid-soluble UV-protective pigment scytonemin (in both its oxidized and reduced forms), as well as two unidentified cyanobacterial glycoproteins (75 kDa and 110 kDa), were found within the glycan matrix. An unidentified 68 kDa protein, the second most abundant protein in aqueous extracts of the glycan, was isolated and its N-terminal sequence was determined as AFIFGTISPNNLSGTSGNSGIVGSA. Gene bank searches with this sequence identified significant homologies (35–45%) with various carbohydrate-modifying enzymes. The role of the glycan in the desiccation tolerance ofN. commune is discussed with respect to structure/function relationships.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Heterocysts ; Nitrogenase ; Fe protein ; nif gene expression ; Oxygen sensitivity ; Sheath material
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Vegetative cells and heterocysts of the filamentous desiccation-tolerant cyanobacteriumNostoc commune HUN retain their ultrastructural organisation and the integrity of their intra- and extracellular membranes after two years of desiccation and subsequent rehydration. Immunogold-labelling of thin sections demonstrated the presence of NifH (Fe protein of nitrogenase) in vegetative cells and heterocysts within five minutes of the rehydration of dried colonies. Immunogold label accumulated in discrete areas vegetative cells within 5 minutes of the rewetting of cells, and after 30 minutes a conspicuous association of NifH protein with heterocyst ribosomes was detected. After longer periods of rehydration, the deposition of gold particles became more random within both cell types but occurred with a greater frequency in heterocysts. Up to 24 hours after the rewetting of cells, two morphologically-distinct forms of heterocyst could be discerned. NifH protein was detected through Western blotting (subunit Mr=33,800) in protein extracts from samples ofNostoc commune, collected in different parts of the world and including some which had been desiccated for periods of up to 10 years. The results are discussed in relation to the sequential recovery of metabolic functions, particularly nitrogen fixation, which occurs upon the rehydration of cells after their prolonged storage in the air-dry state.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The problem of coherent flux tunnelling across a Josephson weak link enclosed by a thick superconducting (‘SQUID‘) ring in terms of quantum electrodynamics is considered. We show that for a low effective noise temperature (≃few K) in the SQUID ring and with the weak link ...
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0022-2011
    Keywords: Ahasversus advena ; Cryptolestes pusillus ; Fungi ; mycotoxins ; stored product beetles
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1365-2486
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography
    Notes: We investigated how light and CO2 levels interact to influence growth, phenology, and the physiological processes involved in leaf senescence in red oak (Quercus rubra) seedlings. We grew plants in high and low light and in elevated and ambient CO2. At the end of three years of growth, shade plants showed greater biomass enhancement under elevated CO2 than sun plants. We attribute this difference to an increase in leaf area ratio (LAR) in shade plants relative to sun plants, as well as to an ontogenetic effect: as plants increased in size, the LAR declined concomitant with a decline in biomass enhancement under elevated CO2Elevated CO2 prolonged the carbon gain capacity of shade-grown plants during autumnal senescence, thus increasing their functional leaf lifespan. The prolongation of carbon assimilation, however, did not account for the increased growth enhancement in shade plants under elevated CO2. Elevated CO2 did not significantly alter leaf phenology. Nitrogen concentrations in both green and senesced leaves were lower under elevated CO2 and declined more rapidly in sun leaves than in shade leaves. Similar to nitrogen concentration, the initial slope of A/Ci curves indicated that Rubisco activity declined more rapidly in sun plants than in shade plants, particularly under elevated CO2. Absolute levels of chlorophyll were affected by the interaction of CO2 and light, and chlorophyll content declined to a minimal level in sun plants sooner than in shade plants. These declines in N concentration, in the initial slope of A/Ci curves, and in chlorophyll content were consistent with declining photosynthesis, such that elevated CO2 accelerated senescence in sun plants and prolonged leaf function in shade plants. These results have implications for the carbon economy of seedlings and the regeneration of red oak under global change conditions.
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