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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A characterization is given of the preflare magnetic field, using theoretical models of force free fields together with observed field structure to determine the general morphology. Direct observational evidence for sheared magnetic fields is presented. The role of this magnetic shear in the flare process is considered within the context of a MHD model that describes the buildup of magnetic energy, and the concept of a critical value of shear is explored. The related subject of electric currents in the preflare state is discussed next, with emphasis on new insights provided by direct calculations of the vertical electric current density from vector magnetograph data and on the role of these currents in producing preflare brightenings. Results from investigations concerning velocity fields in flaring active regions, describing observations and analyses of preflare ejecta, sheared velocities, and vortical motions near flaring sites are given. This is followed by a critical review of prevalent concepts concerning the association of flux emergence with flares
    Keywords: SOLAR PHYSICS
    Type: Energetic Phenomena on the Sun: The Solar Maximum Mission Flare Workshop. Proceedings; 33 p
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Helium resonance line intensities are calculated for a set of six flare models corresponding to two rates of heating and three widely varying incident fluxes of soft X-rays. The differing ionization and excitation equilibria produced by these models, the processes which dominate the various cases, and the predicted helium line spectra are examined. The line intensities and their ratios are compared with values derived from Skylab NRL spectroheliograms for a class M flare, thus determining which of these models most nearly represents the density vs temperature structure and soft X-ray flux in the flaring solar transition region, and the temperature and dominant mechanaism of formation of the helium line spectrum during a flare.
    Keywords: SOLAR PHYSICS
    Format: text
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1572-9672
    Keywords: coronal heating ; magnetic field ; magnetic shear ; magnetic explosion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract From magnetic fields and coronal heating observed in flares, active regions, quiet regions, and coronal holes, we propose that exploding sheared core magnetic fields are the drivers of most of the dynamics and heating of the solar atmosphere, ranging from the largest and most powerful coronal mass ejections and flares, to the vigorous microflaring and coronal heating in active regions, to a multitude of fine-scale explosive events in the magnetic network, driving microflares, spicules, global coronal heating, and, consequently, the solar wind.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1572-9672
    Keywords: coronal heating ; magnetic network ; coronal bright points
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract By combining quiet-region Fe XII coronal images from SOHO/EIT with magnetograms from NSO/Kitt Peak and from SOHO/MDI, we show that the population of network coronal bright points and the magnetic flux content of the network are both markedly greater under the bright half of the large-scale quiet corona than under the dim half. These results (1) support the view that the heating of the entire corona in quiet regions and coronal holes is driven by fine-scale magnetic activity (microflares, explosive events, spicules) seated low in the magnetic network, and (2) suggest that this large-scale modulation of the magnetic flux and coronal heating is a signature of giant convection cells.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-23
    Description: We report further results on the magnetic origins of coronal heating found from registering coronal images with photospheric vector magnetograms. For two complementary active regions, we use computed potential field lines to examine the global non-potentiality of bright extended coronal loops and the three-dimensional structure of the magnetic field at their feet, and assess the role of these magnetic conditions in the strong coronal heating in these loops. The two active regions are complementary, in that one is globally potential and the other is globally nonpotential, while each is predominantly bipolar, and each has an island of included polarity in its trailing polarity domain. We find the following: (1) The brightest main-arch loops of the globally potential active region are brighter than the brightest main- arch loops of the globally strongly nonpotential active region. (2) In each active region, only a few of the mainarch magnetic loops are strongly heated, and these are all rooted near the island. (3) The end of each main-arch bright loop apparently bifurcates above the island, so that it embraces the island and the magnetic null above the island. (4) At any one time, there are other main-arch magnetic loops that embrace the island in the same manner as do the bright loops but that are not selected for strong coronal heating. (5) There is continual microflaring in sheared core fields around the island, but the main-arch bright loops show little response to these microflares. From these observational and modeling results we draw the following conclusions: (1) The heating of the main-arch bright loops arises mainly from conditions at the island end of these loops and not from their global non-potentiality. (2) There is, at most, only a loose coupling between the coronal heating in the bright loops of the main arch and the coronal heating in the sheared core fields at their feet, although in both the heating is driven by conditions/events in and around the island. (3) The main-arch bright loops are likely to be heated via reconnection driven at the magnetic null over the island. The details of how and where (along the null line) the reconnection is driven determine which of the split-end loops are selected for strong heating. (4) The null does not appear to be directly involved in the heating of the sheared core fields or in the heating of an extended loop rooted in the island. Rather, these all appear to be heated by microflares in the sheared core field.
    Keywords: Solar Physics
    Type: Astrophysical Journal; Volume 528; 1004-1014
    Format: text
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-23
    Description: We examine the magnetic origins of coronal heating in quiet regions by combining SOHO/EIT Fe xii coronal images and Kitt Peak magnetograms. Spatial filtering of the coronal images shows a network of enhanced structures on the scale of the magnetic network in quiet regions. Superposition of the filtered coronal images on maps of the magnetic network extracted from the magnetograms shows that the coronal network does indeed trace and stem from the magnetic network. Network coronal bright points, the brightest features in the network lanes, are found to have a highly significant coincidence with polarity dividing lines (neutral lines) in the network and are often at the feet of enhanced coronal structures that stem from the network and reach out over the cell interiors. These results indicate that, similar to the close linkage of neutral-line core fields with coronal heating in active regions (shown in previous work), low-lying core fields encasing neutral lines in the magnetic network often drive noticeable coronal heating both within themselves (the network coronal bright points) and on more extended field lines rooted around them. This behavior favors the possibility that active core fields in the network are the main drivers of the heating of the bulk of the quiet corona, on scales much larger than the network lanes and cells.
    Keywords: Solar Physics
    Type: Astrophysical Journal; Volume 501; 386-396
    Format: text
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Compact short-lived explosive events have been observed in solar transition region lines with the High-Resolution Telescope and Spectrograph (HRTS) flown by the Naval Research Laboratory on a series of rockets and on Spacelab 2. Data from Spacelab 2 are coaligned with a simultaneous magnetogram and near-simultaneous He I 10,380 -A spectroheliogram obtained at the National Solar Observatory at Kitt Peak. The comparison shows that the explosive events occur in the solar magnetic network lanes at the boundaries of supergranular convective cells. However, the events occur away from the larger concentrations of magnetic flux in the network, in contradiction to the observed tendency of the more energetic solar phenomena to be associated with the stronger magnetic fields.
    Keywords: SOLAR PHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 370; 775-778
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Observations of the temporal behavior of ultraviolet emission from bright points within an active region of the sun are reported. Frequent and rapid brightenings in Si IV and O IV line emission are seen. The observations suggest that intermittent heating events of modest amplitude are occurring at many sites within an active region. By selecting the brightest site at any given time within an active region and then sampling its behavior in detail within a 120 s interval, it is found that about two-thirds of the samples show variations of the Si IV line intensity. The brightenings typically last about 40-60 s; intensity increases of about 20-100 percent are frequently observed. The results suggest that heating due to magnetic field reconnection within an active region is proceeding almost stochastically. Events involving only a modest release of energy occur the most frequently.
    Keywords: SOLAR PHYSICS
    Type: AFGL-TR-85-0329 , AD-A162870 , Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 283; 879-886
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Localized brightenings are found throughout the magnetic network in quiet sun image sequences obtained in the C IV 1548 A line by the SMM satellite's UV spectrometer and polarimeter. Some bright sites are short-lived, while others persist. Plots of the intensity fluctuations show that the enhancements at both short- and long-lived sites are the result of localized impulsive heating events that occur intermittently at the short-lived sites and in more rapid succession at the long-lived ones. The number of these events and their visibility in the wings of the C IV line are consistent with their identification as the explosive events seen in UV spectra.
    Keywords: SOLAR PHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 323; 380-390
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Observations of cool DA and DB white dwarfs have not yet been successful in detecting coronal X-ray emission, but observations of late-type dwarfs and giants show that coronae are common for these stars. To produce coronal X-rays, a star must have dynamo-generated surface magnetic fields and a well-developed convection zone. There is some observational evidence that the DA star LHS 1038 and the DB star GD 358 have weak and variable surface magnetic fields. It has been suggested that such fields can be generated by dynamo action, and since both stars have well-developed convection zones, theory predicts detectable levels of coronal X-rays from these white dwarfs. However, we present analysis of Chandra observations of both stars showing no detectable X-ray emission. The derived upper limits for the X-ray fluxes provide strong constraints on theories of formation of coronae around magnetic white dwarfs. Another important implication of our negative Chandra observations is the possibility that the magnetic fields of LHS 1038 and GD 358 are fossil fields.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: The Astrophysical Journal; 593; 481-485
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